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1.
Pharm Pat Anal ; 2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100060

ABSTRACT

This research plans to explore the risks of the investment claims involved in the ongoing technology transfers to COVID-19 vaccine manufacturers based on the recently approved 'Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights' (TRIPS) waiver. These investment claims are based on the various intellectual property rights protected under international investment laws. The recently approved TRIPS waiver only deals with the patent rights involved in producing the COVID-19 vaccine but does not deal with the other related intellectual property rights such as trade secrets. This work sounds the alarmed of investment dispute for the mass-producing of vaccines based on the TRIPS waiver. The research suggests a plan by which the Indian government can address the global issue of COVID-19 technology transfer in India.

2.
New Solut ; 32(3): 171-181, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089089

ABSTRACT

This article follows two entertainment industry COVID-19 worker safety programs from inception through implementation. The first plan was developed by the four major film industry unions in concert with their expert consultants. The second plan for live theater was initiated by the Broadway League, a national trade association for the theater owners, operators, producers, presenters, and general managers in North American cities and their suppliers of goods and services. The efficacy of the plans to provide cast and crew with proper industrial hygiene measures such as ventilation and protective masks is compared by the author.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Health , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Industry
3.
Revista Espanola De Sociologia ; JOUR(4), 31.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2082414

ABSTRACT

In Greece, as in other countries, the cultural sector is among the most affected by the coronavirus crisis, bringing to the surface structural problems that these sectors have been facing. As the first Greek state's first support measures were ill-adapted to cultural sectors' forms of employment, artists' unions mobilised and new solidarity groups and campaigns such as Support Art Workers (SAW) emerged. Based on findings deriving from qualitative research, the article examines the impact of the coronavirus crisis on the employment conditions and livelihood opportunities of actors/actresses in Greece;their mobilisations during the same period. Findings show that despite the constraints imposed through containment and social-distancing measures, the enforced inactivity and the exposure of vulnerability incited collective discussions and triggered collective processes, due to fewer time constraints, but mainly because of the actors' own awareness of the precariousness of their working conditions.

4.
Development and Administration of Border Areas of the Czech Republic and Poland: Support for Sustainable Development (Raspo 2021) ; JOUR: 189-196,
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2081708

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus pandemic has affected many segments and supplier relationships are no exception. Typical dangers in the delivery of goods are, above all, the risk of loss and the risk of damage, which is associated with the subsequent delay of the debtor in fulfilling the obligation to the creditor. However, at the time of the pandemic, the risk of delays or non-compliance increased due to the unexpected fact that the business relationship was affected by restrictions on cross-border transport. The advantage is that the parties use the Incoterms delivery conditions, which define the obligations of the seller and the buyer, are internationally recognized rules, and thus reduce the legal risks of the parties. The question arises, as is the case with the relationship between pandemic, delivery terms and liability in international trade when using Incoterms delivery terms. The authors assess the effects of the pandemic on mutual trade in general and subsequently on the example of traders between the Czech Republic and Poland. They also assess the situation in which, in the event of a pandemic, force majeure clauses can be invoked, as the pandemic or restrictions associated with the pandemic can be considered. While at the beginning of the pandemic in February and March 2020 it was possible to apply the impossibility of performance due to force majeure, at a later stage this cannot be done, but it is always necessary to examine the detailed conditions of the business relationship.

5.
R Soc Open Sci ; 9(10): 211927, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2078022

ABSTRACT

Traditional contact tracing tests the direct contacts of those who test positive. But, by the time an infected individual is tested, the infection starting from the person may have infected a chain of individuals. Hence, why should the testing stop at direct contacts, and not test secondary, tertiary contacts or even contacts further down? One deterrent in testing long chains of individuals right away may be that it substantially increases the testing load, or does it? We investigate the costs and benefits of such multi-hop contact tracing for different number of hops. Considering diverse contact networks, we show that the cost-benefit trade-off can be characterized in terms of a single measurable attribute, the initial epidemic growth rate. Once this growth rate crosses a threshold, multi-hop contact tracing substantially reduces the outbreak size compared with traditional tracing. Multi-hop even incurs a lower cost compared with the traditional tracing for a large range of values of the growth rate. The cost-benefit trade-offs can be classified into three phases depending on the value of the growth rate. The need for choosing a larger number of hops becomes greater as the growth rate increases or the environment becomes less conducive toward containing the disease.

6.
Ekonomista ; - (3):326-348, 2022.
Article in Polish | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2072551

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and the ensuing crisis have shown in a clearer light than before the growing global economic, social, and environmental challenges of recent decades. And today no one doubts that the Russian invasion on Ukraine will exacerbate the existing problems. It is increasingly often stated that the implementation of sustainable development goals (SDGs) defined by the UN and the fight against the effects of the crisis caused by the pandemic and war in Ukraine is not possible without greater involvement and active attitude of society, that leaving it only to market forces and top-down regulations will not bring the expected results. There arises the question if and eventually how such socio-economic initiatives as Fair Trade can contribute to the systemic transformation towards a sustainable market economy and building a new post-covid reality in the third decade of the 21st century. Using the method of critical analysis of the literature, the author comes to the conclusion that this initiative fits both into the streams of economics which emphasize the social aspects of markets, as well as into the neoclassical perception of economic processes. Looking at Fair Trade from both perspectives allows to explain the reasons for its emergence and dynamic growth as well as to understand its role in contemporary socio-economic life. It also leads to the conclusion that Fair Trade is not an accidental episode, but can constitute an important development trend in the global economy, playing an important role in counteracting global challenges, including the effects of the pandemic crisis and war in Ukraine. Fair Trade contributes to the society taking responsibility for social problems, incorporating such values as solidarity and altruism into market decisions, and increasing the role of the society as the third institution, next to the market and the state, shaping the economic reality.

7.
International Journal of Noncommunicable Diseases ; 6(5):41-46, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2071980

ABSTRACT

We present some recent activity in Ontario on the mathematical modeling of COVID-19 and the development of optimal strategies for vaccine distribution that take into account equity issues.

8.
Frontiers in Environmental Science ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2071079

ABSTRACT

This study investigates the motives behind the degrees of molecular pollution during the COVID-19 pandemic, which persisted from first walk 1 January 2020 to 31 December 2020. A spatial Durbin file model is used linked to an edge backslide model in this article to find the widely inclusive and nearby consequences of present-day plan and urbanization on nonrenewable energy source by things. The outcomes are discussed next: both were available in modern-day plan and urbanization from a generally inclusive standpoint. The geological consequences of CO2 emissions were concentrated on utilizing information from 22 European countries somewhere in the range of 1990-2020, and all through the examination cycle, the Durbin spatial model was discovered. Although factors such as gross domestic product per capita, urbanization, and energy power impact CO2 emissions, exchange receptivity stays unaltered. The findings will fill in as critical repercussions for state-run administrations, wellbeing experts, and regulators in the war against the return of COVID-19 in Europe. The great number of suggestions were worthless since the concept integrated six money-connected creation assessments into a coordinated arrangement. There is information to indicate that CO2 emissions are associated with money-related events in neighboring nations.

9.
Tourism Economics ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2070682

ABSTRACT

In the post epidemic period, it is important to clarify the relationship between economic growth and tourism growth. The aim of this study is to characterize the co-movement between expected macroeconomic conditions and inbound tourism, focussing on the nonlinear relationship between these variables. Dynamic copula-based GJR-GARCH models are employed to measure nonlinear dependence. Total inbound tourism to Thailand and its disaggregation for its 10 main origin countries, are considered in the empirical study. The results show that there exists significant co-movement between expected economic growth and inbound tourism, and prove the importance of considering nonlinearities and extreme events. Also, copula nonlinear Granger causality is used to conclude that inbound tourism and expected economic growth have nonlinear bi-directional and unidirectional Granger causality relationship. Finally, this paper puts forward some policy suggestions to restore tourism and boost economic growth in the post epidemic period.

10.
Review of International Economics ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2070532

ABSTRACT

This article employs gravity modeling to examine the effect of COVID-19 on global and intra-commonwealth trade. It uses bilateral monthly exports, number of COVID-19 cases and deaths and the stringency of measures. The main novelty is the use of price indices as proxies for multilateral resistance terms, which allow us to identify, supply, and demand effects of Covid-19 on bilateral trade. The incidence of COVID-19 impacts commonwealth trade flows, the effect varies with the development level. High numbers of COVID-19 cases, including deaths, in low-income importers reduced commonwealth exports unlike high-income importers that show higher exports. The incidence of COVID in an exporters' neighbouring countries impacted trade and restrictions in high-income countries increased commonwealth trade. Short-term trends project a negative change in both exports and imports of commonwealth countries.

11.
Conservation Science and Practice ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2070506

ABSTRACT

Unsustainable wildlife trade is a major driver of biodiversity loss and an important public health threat. Yet, effective wildlife trade regulation is currently at odds with food security and economic incentives provided by this global, multibillion-dollar industry. Given such limitations, public health and conservation resources can be aligned to target species for which trade both increases risk of extinction and threatens public health. Here, we developed a simple conservation and health trade risk (CHT) index (range: 2-50) using a case study of traded mammals based on species' extinction and zoonotic risks, weighed by the extent of their trade. We applied this index to 1161 International Union for the Conservation of Nature-listed terrestrial mammals involved in the wildlife trade to identify 284 high-priority species that scored high in the CHT index (CHT >= 18). Species ranking high for conservation, public health, and trade risks include those belonging to the orders Primates, Cetartiodactyla (even-toed ungulates), Rodentia (rodents), Chiroptera (bats), and Carnivora (carnivores). Of the high-priority species, 33% (n = 95) are country-endemics and may be good candidates for trade regulations and enforcement at national scales. Our study provides a preliminary step in prioritizing species, taxonomic groups, and countries for focused wildlife trade regulation to meet both conservation and public health goals.

12.
Studies in Economics and Finance ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2070255

ABSTRACT

Purpose This paper aims to examine whether Indonesian cross-border trade responds asymmetrically to exchange rate volatility (ERV). Design/methodology/approach An exponential generalized autorgressive conditional heteroscedasticity model is applied to estimate the ERV of Indonesia and ten main trade partners using quarterly data from 2006 to 2020. A nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag estimation is applied to estimate the impact of ERV on cross-border trade. Impacts from the global financial crisis (GFC) of 2008 and the COVID-19 pandemic are covered. Dynamic panel data is used for the robustness test. Findings In the short-run, ERV significantly affects exports to most of the top partners (positively, negatively or both). In the long run, asymmetric effects occur in Indonesia's exports to five top destinations. The weakening of the Indonesian Rupiah mainly supports exports in the short term. Imports from top partners are also affected by ERV in both the short run and, to a lesser extent, in the long run. Both the GFC and the COVID-19 pandemic reduced trade: for most cases, in the short run. The dynamic panel model suggests that ERV has asymmetric impact on cross-border trade in the long run. Practical implications Exchange rate strategies need to avoid a single-side policy approach and, instead, account for exporter and importer differences in risk behaviour and an asymmetric response to ERV in trade. Policymakers need to consider policies that stabilise the currency. Originality/value This study provides evidence that cross-border trade can react asymmetrically to the exchange rate uncertainty and that the impacts of real ERV are asymmetric as well. The authors also apply a dynamic panel that signals that ERV matters in the long run for Indonesian trade with top partners.

13.
International Studies Perspectives ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2070122

ABSTRACT

Why do some international agreements fail to achieve their goals? Rather than states' engaging in cheap talk, evasion, or shallow commitments, the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Health Regulations (IHR)-the agreement governing states' and WHO's response to global health emergencies-point to the unintended consequences of information provision. The IHR have a dual goal of providing public health protection from health threats while minimizing unnecessary interference in international traffic. As such, during major outbreaks WHO provides information about spread and severity, as well as guidance about how states should respond, primarily regarding border policies. During COVID-19, border restrictions such as entry restrictions, flight suspensions, and border closures have been commonplace even though WHO recommended against such policies when it declared the outbreak a public health emergency in January 2020. Building on findings from the 2014 Ebola outbreak, we argue that without raising the cost of disregarding (or the benefits of following) recommendations against border restrictions, information from WHO about outbreak spread and severity leads states to impose border restrictions inconsistent with WHO's guidance. Using new data from COVID-19, we show that WHO's public health emergency declaration and pandemic announcement are associated with increases in the number of states imposing border restrictions.

14.
Journal of Business Venturing Insights ; : e00347, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2069264

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19-induced disruptions have hardest hit social economy enterprises. While impact investing is considered a promising vehicle to stimulate and grow social economy enterprises, little is known about how impact investors are actually responding to sustain and grow social economy enterprises amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. We find that impact investors sacrifice additional financial returns in pandemic-focused impact investments where they see the potential for attaining significantly higher than usual social impact by protecting hundreds of vulnerable social economy enterprises and beneficiaries amidst the pandemic. We also find that guarantees are introduced as an innovative impact investment instrument to tackle the pandemic, although they have remained heavily underutilized. Furthermore, debt instruments tend to dominate in pandemic-focused impact investments. Finally, in response to the pandemic, impact investors emphasize developing and strengthening a supportive social impact ecosystem to protect both portfolio and non-portfolio social economy enterprises and their beneficiaries. We also explain how the impact investing market has evolved during pandemic times and how it might evolve post-pandemic to support social economy enterprises.

15.
CORONAVIRUS POLITICS: The Comparative Politics and Policy of COVID-19 ; : 34-50, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2068108
16.
Portes-Revista Mexicana De Estudios Sobre La Cuenca Del Pacifico ; 16(32):51-83, 2022.
Article in Spanish | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2067968

ABSTRACT

In this article, the existing commercial relations between Mexico and the People's Republic of China (PRC or China) are analyzed from a comparative perspective, emphasizing the perspective that the situation of SARS-COV 2 or COVID-19 opens for a re-launch of relations between both countries, after in recent years there was a distancing explained by various factors of both a political and economic nature. The characteristics of trade relations since the establishment of diplomatic and economic relations are probably reviewed, emphasizing the fact that these have not favored Mexico, but that, however, unexpectedly both the United States trade war against China as well as the pandemic of COVID-19, they are creating the possibility of confirming the reduction in the balance of the trade balance, so it must redefine its trade policy. The hypothesis is that Mexico should take advantage of the recent bilateral relationship situation with China, to reduce the trade deficit with that country from the increase in agricultural trade and China ' s new infrastructure investment in Mexico.

17.
Sustainability ; 14(19):12864, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066471

ABSTRACT

The agricultural futures market plays an extremely important role in price discovery, hedging risks, integrating agricultural markets and promoting agricultural economic growth. China is the largest apple producer and consumer in the world. In 2017, Chinese apple futures were listed on the Zhengzhou Commodity Exchange (CZCE) as the first fruit futures contract globally. This paper aims to study the efficiency of the apple futures market by using the Wild Bootstrapping Variance Ratio model to estimate the price discovery function, the ARIMA-GARCH model to estimate the risk-hedging function, and the ARDL-ECM model to estimate the cointegration relationship of the futures and spot market. Experimental results firstly demonstrate that the apple futures market conforms to the weak-form efficiency, which indicates that it is efficient in price discovery. Secondly, the apple futures market is not of semi-strong efficiency because it generated abnormal profit margins amid China–US trade friction, climate disaster, and COVID-19;in terms of the degree of impact, the COVID-19 pandemic had the greatest impact, followed by the rainstorm disaster and trade friction. Thirdly, the results of this study indicate that the cointegration relationships exist between the futures market and the spot markets of the main producing areas. This paper is not only conducive to sustainable development of the global fresh or fruit futures market, but also has potential and practical importance for China in developing the agricultural futures market, strengthening market risk management and promoting market circulation.

18.
Sustainability ; 14(19):12358, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066404

ABSTRACT

This paper evaluates and compares the export competitiveness of rare-earth products from China, the US, Russia, and India between 2006 and 2020 using the CMS model and the WRCA index. The results show that (1) the competitiveness of the four countries’ rare-earth products has changed differently. The overall competitiveness of rare-earth products of China, the US, and India has decreased, whereas the competitiveness of Russia’s rare-earth products has increased. (2) The factors inhibiting the development of the competitiveness of rare-earth products in the four countries are different. In China and India they are market factors and product factors, in the US it is the overall market share factor, and in Russia it is the market factor. (3) The competitiveness of rare-earth products varies greatly among the four countries. China has the highest rare-earth export competitiveness, whereas the US has significantly lower export competitiveness of rare-earth products than China. Russia and India do not have comparative advantages. (4) The four countries have different trends in the evolution of the competitiveness of rare-earth products. The export competitiveness of rare-earth products of China and India tends to decline, whereas that of the United States and Russia tends to rise. Based on the above findings, the paper puts forward corresponding policy recommendations.

19.
Foods ; 11(19)2022 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065791

ABSTRACT

The Russian-Ukrainian conflict has been proven to cause significant losses of life and goods on both sides. This may have potentially impacted the agricultural sector. This study examines the impact of the conflict between Russia and Ukraine on the global food situation. We performed a descriptive analysis and literature review to answer this objective. Russia and Ukraine play essential roles in world food production and trade. However, the war has disrupted food production in Ukraine. Estimated Ukrainian wheat, soybean, and maize production in 2022-2023 fell precipitously. On the other hand, Russian production of these three food products shows positive growth during the same period. Furthermore, the global supply chain and food trade are hampered, causing an increase in the world's food prices. From March to May 2022, the average global price of wheat, soybeans, and maize increased dramatically compared to during and before the COVID-19 pandemic. Finally, this poses a danger to global food security, particularly for low-income countries that depend heavily on food imports from both countries. Therefore, all countries must be prepared for the possibility that the Sustainable Development Goals cannot be achieved.

20.
Conserv Biol ; 36(5): e13938, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2063651

ABSTRACT

Global wildlife trade spreads emerging infectious diseases that threaten biodiversity. The amphibian chytrid pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has caused population declines and species extinctions worldwide except in Asia. Fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis), exported in large numbers from Asia, are tolerant of Bd and carry hypervirulent ancestral chytrid BdAsia-1 variants. We assayed the virulence of a new isolate of BdAsia-1 on the model Australasian frog host Litoria caerulea. Infected individuals (n = 15) all showed rapid disease progression culminating in death, whereas sham-inoculated individuals (n = 10) presented no clinical signs of disease and all survived (log rank test, χ2 = 15.6, df = 1, p < 0.0001). The virulence of the new isolate of BdAsia-1 is comparable to the one we assayed previously (χ2 = 0.0, df = 1, p = 0.91). Internationally traded wildlife, even when they appear healthy, can carry hypervirulent variants of pathogens. Once new pathogen variants escape into the environment, native species that have had no opportunity to evolve resistance to them may perish. Our study suggests that hypervirulent pathogens are being spread by the international pet trade. Notifiable wildlife diseases attributable to locally endemic pathogens often fail to generate conservation concern so are rarely subject to border surveillance or import controls. Because of the danger novel variants pose, national border control agencies need to implement disease screening and quarantine protocols to ensure the safety of their endemic fauna.


Variantes Patógenas Nuevas de Quitridios y el Mercado Mundial de Anfibios Mascota Resumen El mercado mundial de fauna dispersa enfermedades infecciosas emergentes que amenazan a la biodiversidad. El quitridio patógeno de anfibios Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) ha causado declinaciones poblacionales y la extinción de especies en todo el mundo excepto Asia. El sapo Bombina orientalis, exportado en grandes cantidades desde Asia, es tolerante al Bd y carga genéticamente las variantes ancestrales hipervirulentas de quitridio BdAsia-1. Analizamos la virulencia de una nueva cepa de BdAsia-1 con el modelo de la rana australo-asiática hospedera Litoria caerulea. Todos los individuos infectados (n = 15) mostraron una progresión acelerada de la enfermedad que culminaba con la muerte, mientras que los individuos con inoculación simulada (n = 10) no presentaron señales clínicas de la enfermedad y todos sobrevivieron (prueba log de rango, χ2 = 15.6, df = 1, p < 0.0001). La virulencia de la nueva cepa de BdAsia-1 es comparable a la que analizamos previamente (χ2 = 0.0, df = 1, p = 0.91). La fauna comercializada internacionalmente, incluso cuando parece estar saludable, puede portar variantes hipervirulentas de los patógenos. Una vez que un patógeno nuevo se introduce al ambiente, pueden perecer las especies nativas que no han tenido la oportunidad de evolucionar la resistencia a estos patógenos. Nuestro estudio sugiere que los patógenos hipervirulentos se están dispersando mediante el mercado internacional de mascotas. Con frecuencia las enfermedades silvestres notificables que pueden atribuirse a los patógenos endémicos no generan interés para la conservación, así que rara vez están sujetas a la vigilancia fronteriza o el control de importación. Debido al riesgo que representan las variantes nuevas, las agencias nacionales de control fronterizo necesitan implementar evaluaciones patológicas y protocolos de cuarentena para asegurar la seguridad de su fauna endémica.


Subject(s)
Chytridiomycota , Amphibians , Animals , Animals, Wild , Anura , Conservation of Natural Resources , Extinction, Biological , Humans
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