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1.
Inflamm Res ; 2022 Jul 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1955946

ABSTRACT

Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at higher risk for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Such patients are more likely to develop "COVID-19-induced acute kidney injury (AKI)", which exacerbates the pre-existing CKD and increases the mortality rate of the patients. COVID-19-induced AKI is pathologically characterized by acute tubular necrosis and the interstitial infiltration of proinflammatory leukocytes. In our rat model with advanced CKD, immunohistochemistry for angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) demonstrated their strong expression in the cytoplasm of damaged proximal tubular cells and the infiltrating leukocytes within the cortical interstitium, which overlapped with the lesions of COVID-19-induced AKI. Since ACE2 and TMPRSS2 are enzymes that facilitate the viral entry into the cells and trigger the onset of cytokine storm, the renal distribution of these proteins in advanced CKD was thought to be responsible for the development of COVID-19-induced AKI. Concerning such mechanisms, the pharmacological blockade of ACE2 or the use of soluble forms of the ACE2 protein may halt the entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) into host cells. This would protect against the COVID-19-induced exacerbation of pre-existing CKD by preventing the development of AKI.

2.
Molecules ; 27(13)2022 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917635

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, a pandemic caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2, has spread globally, necessitating the search for antiviral compounds. Transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) is a cell surface protease that plays an essential role in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Therefore, researchers are searching for TMPRSS2 inhibitors that can be used for the treatment of COVID-19. As such, in this study, based on the crystal structure, we targeted the active site of TMPRSS2 for virtual screening of compounds in the FDA database. Then, we screened lumacaftor and ergotamine, which showed strong binding ability, using 100 ns molecular dynamics simulations to study the stability of the protein-ligand binding process, the flexibility of amino acid residues, and the formation of hydrogen bonds. Subsequently, we calculated the binding free energy of the protein-ligand complex by the MM-PBSA method. The results show that lumacaftor and ergotamine interact with residues around the TMPRSS2 active site, and reached equilibrium in the 100 ns molecular dynamics simulations. We think that lumacaftor and ergotamine, which we screened through in silico studies, can effectively inhibit the activity of TMPRSS2. Our findings provide a basis for subsequent in vitro experiments, having important implications for the development of effective anti-COVID-19 drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Ergotamines , Humans , Ligands , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Endopeptidases
3.
Microvasc Res ; 138: 104232, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446976

ABSTRACT

The mechanisms by which the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) induces neurological complications remain to be elucidated. We aimed to identify possible effects of hypoxia on the expression of SARS-CoV-2 cell entry mediators, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor and transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) protein, in human brain endothelial cells, in vitro. hCMEC/D3 cells were exposed to different oxygen tensions: 20% (Control group), 8% or 2% O2 (Hypoxia groups). Cells were harvested 6-, 24- and 48 h following hypoxic challenge for assessment of mRNA and protein, using qPCR and Western Blot. The response of the brain endothelial cells to hypoxia was replicated using modular incubator chambers. We observed an acute increase (6 h, p < 0.05), followed by a longer-term decrease (48 h, p < 0.05) in ACE2 mRNA and protein expression, accompanied by reduced expression of TMPRSS2 protein levels (48 h, p < 0.05) under the more severe hypoxic condition (2% O2). No changes in levels of von Willebrand Factor (vWF - an endothelial cell damage marker) or interleukin 6 (IL-6 - a pro-inflammatory cytokine) mRNA were observed. We conclude that hypoxia regulates brain endothelial cell ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression in vitro, which may indicate human brain endothelial susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and subsequent brain sequelae.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Brain/blood supply , COVID-19/virology , Endothelial Cells/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/enzymology , Cell Hypoxia , Cell Line , Endothelial Cells/enzymology , Gene Expression Regulation , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics
4.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 184: 297-312, 2021 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265684

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 corona virus has become a global pandemic. In the absence of drugs and vaccine, and premises of time, efforts and cost required for their development, natural resources such as herbs are anticipated to provide some help and may also offer a promising resource for drug development. Here, we have investigated the therapeutic prospective of Ashwagandha for the COVID-19 pandemic. Nine withanolides were tested in silico for their potential to target and inhibit (i) cell surface receptor protein (TMPRSS2) that is required for entry of virus to host cells and (ii) viral protein (the main protease Mpro) that is essential for virus replication. We report that the withanolides possess capacity to inhibit the activity of TMPRSS2 and Mpro. Furthermore, withanolide-treated cells showed downregulation of TMPRSS2 expression and inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro, suggesting that Ashwagandha may provide a useful resource for COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism , Withanolides/pharmacology , A549 Cells , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Computer Simulation , Down-Regulation , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Humans , MCF-7 Cells , Models, Molecular , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protein Conformation , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Serine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Viral Matrix Proteins/chemistry , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Withanolides/chemistry
6.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 10: 575404, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-904729

ABSTRACT

The resurgence of SARS in the late December of 2019 due to a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has shadowed the world with a pandemic. The physiopathology of this virus is very much in semblance with the previously known SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. However, the unprecedented transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 has been puzzling the scientific efforts. Though the virus harbors much of the genetic and architectural features of SARS-CoV, a few differences acquired during its evolutionary selective pressure is helping the SARS-CoV-2 to establish prodigious infection. Making entry into host the cell through already established ACE-2 receptor concerted with the action of TMPRSS2, is considered important for the virus. During the infection cycle of SARS-CoV-2, the innate immunity witnesses maximum dysregulations in its molecular network causing fatalities in aged, comorbid cases. The overt immunopathology manifested due to robust cytokine storm shows ARDS in severe cases of SARS-CoV-2. A delayed IFN activation gives appropriate time to the replicating virus to evade the host antiviral response and cause disruption of the adaptive response as well. We have compiled various aspects of SARS-CoV-2 in relation to its unique structural features and ability to modulate innate as well adaptive response in host, aiming at understanding the dynamism of infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/genetics , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/genetics , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
7.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 278(7): 2637-2640, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-833982

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is caused by Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and presents with respiratory symptoms which can be life threatening in severe cases. At the start of the pandemic, allergy, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were considered as risk factors for COVID-19 as they tend to exacerbate during respiratory viral infections. Recent literature has not shown that airway allergic diseases is a high-risk factor or that it increases the severity of COVID-19. This is due to a decrease in Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) gene expression in the nose and bronchial cells of allergic airway diseases. Conventional asthma treatment includes inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), allergen immunotherapy (AIT), and biologics, and should be continued as they might reduce the risks of asthmatics for coronavirus infection by enhancing antiviral defence and alleviating inflammation.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Hypersensitivity , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Bioinformation ; 16(5): 398-403, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-729741

ABSTRACT

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus2 (SARS-CoV2) is responsible for Corona Virus Disease 2019 (CoViD-19), the pandemic that has afflicted close to two million people worldwide, and has taken the lives of over 120,000 patients since its first report in late December 2019. Per million people globally, the infection rate is close to 250 with a death rate of close to 14 (death rate average global death rate: 6.06%; for comparison, revised estimate of the 1918 influenza pandemic had an average global death rate of 5.4% [1]). About 400,000 SARS-CoV2-positive patients have been declared 'recovered', although it is not clear to date what exactly that entails. To be clear, the natural history of SARS-CoV2 infection and of the patho-physiology of CoViD-19 remains shrouded in relative confusion, in part due to the exceedingly virulent nature of the virus, as manifest by its elevated morbidity and mortality, and the fast accumulation of clinical observations and research evidence. Many pieces of a complex puzzle are emerging all at once and their organization into a coherent and cogent picture of the natural history of CoViD-19 is arduous and still wanting. Here, we discuss the recent findings in the context of the available evidence. We propose a putative prediction model of the natural history of CoViD-19. We highlight putative loci and modes of therapeutic intervention that may become beneficial preventive and treatment modalities for individuals at risk of SARS-CoV2 infection and CoViD-19 patients.

9.
Bioinformation ; 16(4): 288-292, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-710530

ABSTRACT

CoViD-19 is the current pandemic caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Infection by SARS-CoV-2 occurs via the binding of its S protein to the angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 receptor (ACE2-R). S binding to ACE2-R leads to a drop in ACE2, a homolog of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). In the central nervous system (CNS), ACE mediates neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration and neurotoxicity responsible for several CNS disorders. ACE2 counteracts the damaging effects of ACE on CNS neurons. SARS-CoV-2 can directly access the CNS via the circulation or via cranial nerve I and the olfactory bulb. Inactivation of ACE2 following binding of SARS-CoV-2 S protein to ACE2-R in situ might blunt ACE2-moderating effects upon ACE CNS neurotoxicity and neurodegeneration. Here, we propose a neurobiological mechanism directly involving SARS-CoV-2 binding to ACE2-R in the etiology of putative Neuro-CoViD-19.

10.
Int J Oncol ; 57(2): 533-539, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-667782

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus­2 (SARS­CoV2) is the cause of a new disease (COVID­19) which has evolved into a pandemic during the first half of 2020. Older age, male sex and certain underlying diseases, including cancer, appear to significantly increase the risk for severe COVID­19. SARS­CoV­2 infection of host cells is facilitated by the angiotensin­converting enzyme 2 (ACE­2), and by transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and other host cell proteases such as cathepsin L (CTSL). With the exception of ACE­2, a systematic analysis of these two other SARS­CoV2 infection mediators in malignancies is lacking. Here, we analysed genetic alteration, RNA expression, and DNA methylation of TMPRSS2 and CTSL across a wide spectrum of tumors and controls. TMPRSS2 was overexpressed in cervical squamous cell carcinoma and endocervical adenocarcinoma, colon adenocarcinoma, prostate adenocarcinoma (PRAD), rectum adenocarcinoma (READ), uterine corpus endometrial carcinoma and uterine carcinosarcoma, with PRAD and READ exhibiting the highest expression of all cancers. CTSL was upregulated in lymphoid neoplasm diffuse large B­cell lymphoma, oesophageal carcinoma, glioblastoma multiforme, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, lower grade glioma, pancreatic adenocarcinoma, skin cutaneous melanoma, stomach adenocarcinoma, and thymoma. Hypo­methylation of both genes was evident in most cases where they have been highly upregulated. We have expanded on our observations by including data relating to mutations and copy number alterations at pan­cancer level. The novel hypotheses that are stemming out of these data need to be further investigated and validated in large clinical studies.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Cathepsin L/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Neoplasms/genetics , Opportunistic Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Virus Internalization , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/enzymology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , DNA Methylation , Databases, Genetic , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Male , Neoplasms/enzymology , Neoplasms/immunology , Opportunistic Infections/enzymology , Opportunistic Infections/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/enzymology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; 40(1): 1-13, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-436584

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) initiated in December 2019 in Wuhan, China and became pandemic causing high fatality and disrupted normal life calling world almost to a halt. Causative agent is a novel coronavirus called Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2/2019-nCoV). While new line of drug/vaccine development has been initiated world-wide, in the current scenario of high infected numbers, severity of the disease and high morbidity, repurposing of the existing drugs is heavily explored. Here, we used a homology-based structural model of transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), a cell surface receptor, required for entry of virus to the target host cell. Using the strengths of molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations, we examined the binding potential of Withaferin-A (Wi-A), Withanone (Wi-N) and caffeic acid phenethyl ester to TPMRSS2 in comparison to its known inhibitor, Camostat mesylate. We found that both Wi-A and Wi-N could bind and stably interact at the catalytic site of TMPRSS2. Wi-N showed stronger interactions with TMPRSS2 catalytic residues than Wi-A and was also able to induce changes in its allosteric site. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of Wi-N on TMPRSS2 expression in MCF7 cells and found remarkable downregulation of TMPRSS2 mRNA in treated cells predicting dual action of Wi-N to block SARS-CoV-2 entry into the host cells. Since the natural compounds are easily available/affordable, they may even offer a timely therapeutic/preventive value for the management of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. We also report that Wi-A/Wi-N content varies in different parts of Ashwagandha and warrants careful attention for their use.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Withanolides/pharmacology , Binding Sites , COVID-19 , Humans , MCF-7 Cells , Molecular Docking Simulation , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Serine , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics
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