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1.
In Vivo ; 36(5):2116-2125, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2030531

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: Rapid spread of COVID-19 resulted in the revision of the value of ultraviolet C (UVC) sterilization in working spaces. This study aimed at investigating the UVC sensitivity of eighteen malignant and nonmalignant cell lines, the protective activity of sodium ascorbate against UVC, and whether Dectin-2 is involved in UVC sensitivity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Various cell lines were exposed to UVC for 3 min, and cell viability was determined using the MTT assay. Anti-UV activity was determined as the ratio of 50% cytotoxic concentration (determined with unirradiated cells) to 50% effective concentration (that restored half of the UV-induced loss of viability). Dectin-2 expression was quantified using flow cytometry. RESULTS: The use of culture medium rather than phosphate-buffered saline is recommended as irradiation solution, since several cells are easily detached during irradiation in phosphate-buffered saline. Oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines showed the highest UV sensitivity, followed by neuroblastoma, glioblastoma, leukemia, melanoma, lung carcinoma cells, and normal oral and dermal fibroblasts. Human dermal fibroblasts were more resistant than melanoma cell lines;however, both expressed Dectin-2. Sodium ascorbate at micromolar concentrations eliminated the cytotoxicity of UVC in these cell lines. CONCLUSION: Normal cells are generally UVC-resistant compared to corresponding malignant cells, which have higher growth potential. Dectin-2 protein expression itself may not be determinant of UVC sensitivity.

2.
Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering ; 17(3), 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2027649

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic remains ever prevalent and afflicting—partially because one of its transmission pathways is aerosol. With the widely used central air conditioning systems worldwide, indoor virus aerosols can rapidly migrate, thus resulting in rapid infection transmission. It is therefore important to install microbial aerosol treatment units in the air conditioning systems, and we herein investigated the possibility of combining such filtration with UV irradiation to address virus aerosols. Results showed that the removal efficiency of filtration towards f2 and MS2 phages depended on the type of commercial filter material and the filtration speed, with an optimal velocity of 5 cm/s for virus removal. Additionally, it was found that UV irradiation had a significant effect on inactivating viruses enriched on the surfaces of filter materials;MS2 phages had greater resistance to UV-C irradiation than f2 phages. The optimal inactivation time for UV-C irradiation was 30 min, with higher irradiation times presenting no substantial increase in inactivation rate. Moreover, excessive virus enrichment on the filters decreased the inactivation effect. Timely inactivation is therefore recommended. In general, the combined system involving filtration with UV-C irradiation demonstrated a significant removal effect on virus aerosols. Moreover, the system is simple and economical, making it convenient for widespread implementation in air-conditioning systems.

3.
Farmatsiya ; 71(6):12-18, 2022.
Article in Russian | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2026431

ABSTRACT

Introduction. Clopidogrel bisulfate (Clopidogrel) is one of the main drugs for the treatment of various cardiovascular diseases (acute coronary syndrome, ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack, peripheral artery disease, etc.). Especially, this drug is very relevant in the treatment of COVID-19. Clopidogrel has repeatedly been the cause of lethal poisoning, and cases of clopidogrel being used for suicide are very common in China. According to the studied literature data, the analysis of this drug in the biological material is not presented. Objective: The aim of the research was to establish the distinctive ability of conventional methods of isolating medicinal substances from biological material in relation to clopidogrel in chemical and toxicological analysis (CTA). Material and methods. The study was carried out with model samples of pig liver that had not undergone putrefactive changes, which contained the studied drug. Detection and quantification of clopidogrel in extracts were carried out using thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and UV spectrophotometry. Results. The isolation efficiency of clopidogrel according to the method of A.A. Vasilyeva was 57.75±5.08%, according to the method of V.P. Kramarenko – 64.23±5.44%. When using the isolation method of A.A. Vasilyeva, the detection limit of clopidogrel was 1.04%, according to the method of V.P. Kramarenko – 1.09%. The limit of quantitative determination of clopidogrel according to the method of A.A. Vasilyeva is 3.31%, according to the method of V.P. Kramarenko – 3.34%, respectively. Conclusion. For analytical diagnostics in case of clopidogrel poisoning, TLC screening and UV spectrophotometric determination must be carried out with preliminary TLC purification. Isolation of clopidogrel with water acidified with ethyl alcohol (the Stas-Otto method) does not work. The effectiveness of isolating the drug by the method of V.P. Kramarenko is 64.23±5.44%. The greatest selectivity of the UV spectrophotometric method for determining clopidogrel in biological material in relation to matrix components was provided by the method of isolation with water acidified with sulfuric acid (V.P. Kramarenko's method). (English) [ FROM AUTHOR] Введение. Клопидогрела бисульфат (клопидогрел) является одним из основных лекарственных препаратов для лечения различных сердечно-сосудистых заболеваний (острый коронарный синдром, ишемический инсульт, транзиторная ишемическая атака, заболевания переферических артерий и др.). Данный препарат особенно актуален при лечении СОVID-19. Неоднократно клопидогрел был причиной летальных отравлений, например, в Китае очень часто встречаются случаи использования клопидо- грела в целях самоубийства. Анализа данного препарата в биологическом материале по литературным данным не представлено. Целью исследований явилось установление отличительной способности клопидогрела, общепринятой в химико-токсико- логическом анализе методов изолирования лекарственных веществ из биологического материала. Материал и методы. Исследование проводили с модельными пробами свиной печени, не претерпевшей гнилостных изме- нений, которые содержали исследуемый препарат. Обнаружение и количественное определение клопидогрела в экстрактах проводили с помощью тонкослойной хроматографии (ТСХ) и УФ-спектрофотометрии. Результаты. Эффективность изолирования клопидогрела по методу А.А. Васильевой составила 57,75±5,08%, по методу В.П. Крамаренко – 64,23±5,44%. При использовании метода изолирования А.А. Васильевой предел обнаружения клопидогрела составлял 1,04%, по методу В.П. Крамаренко – 1,09%. Предел количественного определения клопидогрела по методу А.А. Васильевой – 3,31%, по методу В.П. Крамаренко – 3,34%. Заключение. Для проведения аналитической диагностики при отравлении клопидогрелом ТСХ-скрининг и УФ-спектрофотометрическое определение необходимо проводить с предварительной ТСХ-очисткой. Изолирование клопидо- грела водой, подкисленной этиловым спиртом (метод Стаса–Отто), не происходит. Наибольшую селективность УФ-спектрофотометрического метода определения клопидогрела в биологическом материале по отношению к матричным компонентам обеспечивал метод изолирования водой, подкисленной серной кислотой (метод В.П. Крамаренко). Эффективность изолирования препарата по методу В.П. Крамаренко составляет 64,23±5,44%. (Russian) [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Farmatsiya (Pharmacy) is the property of Russian Physician Public House Ltd. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

4.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(9):4597-4607, 2022.
Article in Chinese | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2025656

ABSTRACT

The degradation of chloroquine phosphate (CQP), an anti-COVID-19 drug, was investigated in a UV-activated persulfate system (UV/PS). The second-order rate constants of CQP with hydroxyl radicals (HO·) and sulfate radicals (SO(4)(-)·) were determined using a competition kinetics experiment, and the effects of persulfate concentration, pH, and inorganic anions on the degradation of CQP were also systematically studied. Furthermore, a kinetic model was established to predict the concentration of CQP and major free radicals to explore its mechanism of influence. The results showed that the degradation efficiency of CQP could reach 91.3% after 10 min under UV/PS, which was significantly higher than that under UV, sunlight, or PS alone. At pH=6.9, the second-order rate reaction constants of CQP with HO· and SO(4)(-)· were 8.9×10(9) L·(mol·s)(-1)and 1.4×10(10) L·(mol·s)(-1), respectively, and the main active species was SO(4)(-)·. The degradation rate of CQP increased with increasing concentrations of PS and decreased with the addition of HCO(3)(-) and Cl(-). The removal efficiency of CQP was inhibited under stronger alkaline conditions. N-de-ethylation, cleavage of the C-N bond, and hydrogen ion were proposed as the principal pathways of CQP degradation based on LC-MS analysis. The mineralization rate of CQP could be improved by increasing PS concentration and pH values. This study could be helpful for the treatment of anti-COVID-19 pharmaceutical wastewater.

5.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences ; 23(17):9991, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023754

ABSTRACT

Carbohydrate antigen 199 (CA199) is a serum biomarker which has certain value and significance in the diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and postoperative monitoring of cancer. In this study, a lateral flow immunoassay based on europium (III) polystyrene time-resolved fluorescence microspheres (TRFM-based LFIA), integrated with a portable fluorescence reader, has been successfully establish for rapid and quantitative analysis of CA199 in human serum. Briefly, time-resolved fluorescence microspheres (TRFMs) were conjugated with antibody I (Ab1) against CA199 as detection probes, and antibody II (Ab2) was coated as capture element, and a “TRFMs-Ab1-CA199-Ab2” sandwich format would form when CA199 was detected by the TRFM-based LFIA. Under the optimal parameters, the detection limit of the TRFM-based LFIA for visible quantitation with the help of an ultraviolet light was 4.125 U/mL, which was four times lower than that of LFIA based on gold nanoparticles. Additionally, the fluorescence ratio is well linearly correlated with the CA199 concentration (0.00–66.0 U/mL) and logarithmic concentration (66.0–264.0 U/mL) for quantitative detection. Serum samples from 10 healthy people and 10 liver cancer patients were tested to confirm the performances of the point-of-care application of the TRFM-based LFIA, 20.0 U/mL of CA199 in human serum was defined as the threshold for distinguishing healthy people from liver cancer patients with an accuracy of about 60%. The establishment of TRFM-based LFIA will provide a sensitive, convenient, and efficient technical support for rapid screening of CA199 in cancer diagnosis and prognosis.

6.
Crystals ; 12(8):1082, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023241

ABSTRACT

In this study, we found that the current droop (J-droop) in AlGaN-based UVB light-emitting diodes was more obvious at higher temperatures, despite both the main and parasitic peaks undergoing monotonic decreases in their intensity upon an increase in the temperature. The slower temperature droop (T-droop) did not occur when the forward current was increased to temperatures greater than 298 K. After an aging time of 6000 h, the emission wavelengths did not undergo any obvious changes, while the intensity of the parasitic peak barely changed. Thus, the degradation in the light output power during long-term operation was not obviously correlated to the existence of the parasitic peak.

7.
Catalysts ; 12(8):829, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023197

ABSTRACT

The transmission of pathogens via surfaces poses a major health problem, particularly in hospital environments. Antimicrobial surfaces can interrupt the path of spread, while photocatalytically active titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles have emerged as an additive for creating antimicrobial materials. Irradiation of such particles with ultraviolet (UV) light leads to the formation of reactive oxygen species that can inactivate bacteria. The aim of this research was to incorporate TiO2 nanoparticles into a cellulose-reinforced melamine-formaldehyde resin (MF) to obtain a photocatalytic antimicrobial thermoset, to be used, for example, for device enclosures or tableware. To this end, composites of MF with 5, 10, 15, and 20 wt% TiO2 were produced by ultrasonication and hot pressing. The incorporation of TiO2 resulted in a small decrease in tensile strength and little to no decrease in Shore D hardness, but a statistically significant decrease in the water contact angle. After 48 h of UV irradiation, a statistically significant decrease in tensile strength for samples with 0 and 10 wt% TiO2 was measured but with no statistically significant differences in Shore D hardness, although a statistically significant increase in surface hydrophilicity was measured. Accelerated methylene blue (MB) degradation was measured during a further 2.5 h of UV irradiation and MB concentrations of 12% or less could be achieved. Samples containing 0, 10, and 20 wt% TiO2 were investigated for long-term UV stability and antimicrobial activity. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy revealed no changes in the chemical structure of the polymer, due to the incorporation of TiO2, but changes were detected after 500 h of irradiation, indicating material degradation. Specimens pre-irradiated with UV for 48 h showed a total reduction in Escherichia coli when exposed to UV irradiation.

8.
Antioxidants ; 11(8):1591, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023091

ABSTRACT

Electron transfer plays a crucial role in ROS generation in living systems. Molecular oxygen acts as the terminal electron acceptor in the respiratory chains of aerobic organisms. Two main mechanisms of antioxidant defense by exogenous antioxidants are usually considered. The first is the inhibition of ROS generation, and the second is the trapping of free radicals. In the present study, we have elucidated both these mechanisms of antioxidant activity of glycyrrhizin (GL), the main active component of licorice root, using the chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization (CIDNP) technique. First, it was shown that GL is capable of capturing a solvated electron, thereby preventing its capture by molecular oxygen. Second, we studied the effect of glycyrrhizin on the behavior of free radicals generated by UV irradiation of xenobiotic, NSAID—naproxen in solution. The structure of the glycyrrhizin paramagnetic intermediates formed after the capture of a solvated electron was established from a photo-CIDNP study of the model system—the dianion of 5-sulfosalicylic acid and DFT calculations.

9.
2022 International Conference on Advancement in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, ICAEEE 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2018772

ABSTRACT

In this work, a cost-effective disinfection system for Coronavirus Disease of 2019 (COVID-19) is proposed to be used inside public transport. The disinfection system is twofold, firstly containing a tower unit where UV-C (Ultraviolet type-C) lamps are positioned in parallel, in such a way that, 360-degree space is covered, and secondly a power unit that incorporates robotics and electrical parts. The UVC unit is a separate and movable tower that can be placed anywhere inside a vehicle horizontally or vertically. UV lamps in the tower have a 254 nm wavelength with a total power of 180 Watt. The system can provide a dose of it 16.9 mj/cm2 within 26.83 seconds if the distance of the targeted surface inside a vehicle from the UVC light source is 1.5 meters. Various distances from the UV source to the targeted surface inside the vehicle are chosen and calculated the required corresponding times to achieve the required dose to inactivate all viral concentrations. The developed disinfection system not only minimizes the growth of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by performing robotic features ensuring human detection auto turn off but also utilizes minimum labor work which is vital in the current Covid-19 pandemic. © 2022 IEEE.

10.
Scientific Reports ; 12(1):14545, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2016826

ABSTRACT

There is an urgent need for evidence-based engineering controls to reduce transmission of SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19. Although ultraviolet (UV) light is known to inactivate coronaviruses, conventional UV lamps contain toxic mercury and emit wavelengths (254 nm) that are more hazardous to humans than krypton chlorine excimer lamps emitting 222 nm (UV222). Here we used culture and molecular assays to provide the first dose response for SARS-CoV-2 solution exposed to UV222. Culture assays (plaque infectivity to Vero host) demonstrated more than 99.99% disinfection of SARS-CoV-2 after a UV222 dose of 8 mJ/cm2 (pseudo-first order rate constant = 0.64 cm2/mJ). Immediately after UV222 treatment, RT-qPCR assays targeting the nucleocapsid (N) gene demonstrated ~ 10% contribution of N gene damage to disinfection kinetics, and an ELISA assay targeting the N protein demonstrated no contribution of N protein damage to disinfection kinetics. Molecular results suggest other gene and protein damage contributed more to disinfection. After 3 days incubation with host cells, RT-qPCR and ELISA kinetics of UV222 treated SARS-CoV-2 were similar to culture kinetics, suggesting validity of using molecular assays to measure UV disinfection without culture. These data provide quantitative disinfection kinetics which can inform implementation of UV222 for preventing transmission of COVID-19.

11.
Drug Development and Delivery ; 22(4):18-23, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2012508
12.
The Science Teacher ; 90(1):34-37, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2012095

ABSTRACT

While it should be common practice to talk about climate change throughout the curriculum (NGSS Lead States 2013), only addressing climate when it comes up in other classes results in students graduating high school still unable to articulate the causes or effects of climate change as well as what needs to be done to address the problem (Monroe, Oxarart, and Plate 2013;Reid 2019;Schreiner, Henriksen, and Kirkeby Hansen 2005). Even if building climate change into other science classes was an effective strategy for teaching climate science, students would still not have gained climate literacy because CCE should also incorporate societal effects and climate justice (Stapleton 2019). Students were encouraged to submit their projects to the potentially interested groups or organizations (e.g., Department of Transportation or city planning commission) once complete. Because climate change misconceptions abound (McNeil and Vaughn 2012), we identified common misconceptions ahead of time and provided tools to prevent or resolve these noncanonical understandings. Instead of telling students that the two can be confused, we start by discussing the ozone hole (because they are already familiar with it) and how ozone interacts with UV radiation before even mentioning the greenhouse effect and carbon dioxide interacting with infrared radiation.

13.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(16), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009538

ABSTRACT

Background: Hospital readmissions are associated with increased health care utilization and unfavorable patient outcomes. Oncology patients have an increased risk of hospital readmission compared to the general patient population. The 30-day readmission rate for cancer patients at our institution is 27.7% which is higher than the reported national average of 20.2%. We sought to reduce 30-day hospital readmission rates by 25% for solid tumor oncology patients through a prospective integrated multidisciplinary discharge approach. Methods: Hospital readmissions for adult patients with a known solid tumor cancer diagnosis admitted to the oncology service at UVA from Jan 2019 - Apr 2019 were identified. Baseline information on tumor type, reason for readmission, interventions, length of stay (LOS), and inpatient morbidity and mortality (including ICU admission and transition to hospice) were collected via retrospective review. Qualitative and quantitative tools including process maps, causeand- effect diagrams, Pareto charts, and priority matrix were used to identify potential areas for intervention. Two PDSA cycles were implemented: daily multidisciplinary discharge rounds with physicians, nursing, social work, case management, and PT/OT (PDSA1), and a templated discharge email to patients' primary oncology team including attending oncologist, mid-level providers, nurse coordinator, pharmacist, and urgent care team (PDSA2). An SPC chart with 3-ℙ limits and t-test of unequal variance with 2-sided p-value was used to evaluate impact on readmission rates from baseline to PDSA2. Results: Following PDSA1 (May 2019 - Oct 2019), the 30-day readmission was 25.7%;PDSA2 was postponed due to COVID-19, however the 30-day readmission rate remained stable during the pandemic. Following PDSA2 (Sept 2021 - Dec 2021), the 30-day readmission rate was 18.2% corresponding to an absolute decrease of 34.3% which was statistically significant (p≤0.05). This was associated with a trend towards increased LOS, rate of ICU admission, and case-mix severity index although not statistically significant. There was no significant difference in inpatient mortality or transition to hospice (Table). Conclusions: Implementation of multidisciplinary discharge rounds and templated discharge communication resulted in a significant decrease in rate of 30-day readmissions for solid tumor oncology patients. There was a trend towards increased LOS and ICU admissions without increased inpatient mortality. Improvement in discharge email compliance and implementation of an urgent symptom clinic may further reduce the 30-day readmission rate.

14.
Journal of Virological Methods ; 309:114610, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2007918

ABSTRACT

Inactivation of human respiratory viruses in air and on surfaces is important to control their spread. Exposure to germicidal ultraviolet (UV-C) light damages viral nucleic acid rendering them non-infectious. Most of the recent viral inactivation studies have not considered potential artifacts caused by interactions between UV-C light and culture media used to suspend and deposit virus on surfaces. We show that the reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) form when commonly used virus culture media is exposed to 265 nm irradiation from light emitting diodes (LEDs) at UV-C doses (4 or 40 mJ/cm2) commonly considered to achieve multiple log-inactivation of virus. Surface viral inactivation values were enhanced from 0.49 to 2.92 log10 of viruses in DMEM, EMEM or EMEM-F as compared to absence of culture media (only suspended in Tris-buffer). The mechanisms responsible for the enhanced surface inactivate is hypothesized to involve photo-activation of vitamins and dyes present in the culture media, deposited with the virus on surfaces to be disinfected, which produce ROS and RNS. Given the rapidly growing research and commercial markets for UV-C disinfecting devices, there is a need to establish surface disinfecting protocols that avoid viral inactivation enhancement artifacts associated with selection and use of common cell culture media in the presence of UV-C light. This study addresses this weak link in the literature and highlights that inadequate selection of virus suspension media may cause a bias (i.e., over-estimation) for the UV-C dosages required for virus inactivation on surfaces.

15.
International journal of pharmaceutical compounding ; 26(5):432-435, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2006864

ABSTRACT

Airborne infectious diseases have been a major worldwide concern for many years. The sudden and fast spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome 2, causing the coronavirus disease 2019 in a pandemic form, has intensified the necessity of constant environmental disinfection. Among the possible technologies that can be used for air disinfection is the ultraviolet germicidal irradiation through the use of ultraviolet C light. The main mechanism involved in ultraviolet C light inactivation of microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria, protozoa, fungi, yeasts, and others is mainly due to its capacity to promote dimerization of pyrimidine, disturbing the microorganism's DNA (and RNA) replication and transcription, therefore leading to cell death. The aim of this study was to validate the efficacy of a new ultraviolet C light disinfection system to deactivate viruses such as coronavirus in different environmental conditions. The device was effective in the neutralization of airborne particles containing coronavirus genus samples, presenting >99.99% of inactivation rate in an aerosolization test, simulating the real conditions in which this virus is most transmitted in different environments.

16.
Chinese Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine ; 22(8):932-947, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2006473

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the evidence of the experience with medical sewage treatment procedures in medical institutions in China. Methods Databases including CNKI, WanFang Data, PubMed, Web of Science, and EBSCO were electronically searched to collect studies on the medical sewage treatment process, flow, and specifications in medical institutions in China. We used the quality evaluation system to classify and grade the experiences based on the principles and methods of evidence-based science and performed a descriptive analysis. Results After the SARS pandemic in 2003, China systematically established and standardized the technical criteria of medical sewage treatment and discharge. Moreover, a prevention system for the epidemic using medical sewage was constructed, which guaranteed that the quality of medical sewage treatment and discharge would meet the criteria and protect the citizens, and the technical specifications of medical sewage treatment would progress and increase strictly. At present, medical sewage treatment in medical institutions in China was based on mechanical and biological methods, and disinfection was mainly performed using chlorine and its compounds, ozone, and ultraviolet light. Conclusion The COVID-19 pandemic requires a higher quality of medical sewage treatment and discharge criteria for medical institutions in China. To meet these criteria, all medical institutions in China should check, replace, and update their old facilities;strengthen personnel training and effectively ensure the quality of medical sewage treatment.

17.
Building and Environment ; : 109530, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2003904

ABSTRACT

This study used Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to investigate air disinfection for SARS-CoV-2 by the Upper-Room Germicidal Ultraviolet (UR-GUV), with focus on ceiling impact. The study includes three indoor settings, i.e., low (airport bus), medium (classroom) and high (rehearsal room) ceilings, which were ventilated with 100% clean air (CA case), 80% air-recirculation with a low filtration (LF case), and 80% air-recirculation with a high filtration (HF case). According to the results, using UR-GUV can offset the increased infection risk caused by air recirculation, with viral concentrations in near field (NF) and far field (FF) in the LF case similar to those in the CA case. In the CA case, fraction remaining (FR) was 0.48–0.73 with 25% occupancy rate (OR) and 0.49–0.91 with 45% OR in the bus, 0.41 in NF and 0.11 in FF in the classroom, and 0.18 in NF and 0.09 in FF in the rehearsal room. Obviously, UR-GUV performance in NF can be improved in a room with a high ceiling where FR has a power relationship with UV zone height. As using UR-GUV can only extend the exposure time to get infection risk of 1% (T1%) to 8 min in NF in the classroom, and 47 min in NF in the rehearsal room, it is necessary to abide by social distancing in the two rooms. In addition, T1% in FF was calculated to be 18.3 min with 25% OR and 21.4% with 45% OR in the airport bus, showing the necessity to further wear a mask.

18.
Pediatrics ; 149, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2003195

ABSTRACT

Introduction: This case describes a curious cutaneous finding with a unique etiology from a cultural remedy. Case Description: A 19-month-old female was brought in by ambulance for an acutely progressive abdominal rash. Three days prior to presentation, she had a febrile seizure. The next day, she continued to have low grade temperatures and developed a faint red rash on the abdomen. On the day of presentation, the mother found a dark violaceous rash on the abdomen and called 911. The patient's presenting vital signs were unremarkable except for tachycardia to 133 and lower blood pressure for age of 86/67. She was tired and irritable. She had a large welldemarcated dusky and dark plaque with central denudation over the whole abdomen and right lateral back [Figures]. She was exquisitely tender to light palpation and guarding her abdomen. The remainder of her exam was unremarkable. Given the extent of her skin injuries, differential included intra-abdominal injury, intra-abdominal hemorrhage, burn or bruise from accidental and non-accidental cause, allergic dermatitis and disseminated intravascular coagulation in the setting of sepsis. Laboratory evaluation revealed mildly low hemoglobin for age at 10.5 g/dl with low MCV 74.2fL and a leukocytosis with WBC of 18.41 x10-3 πl with neutrophil predominance. Coagulation factors were normal. CMP revealed mild acidosis with CO2 of 17 mmol/L. Imaging studies included normal: CT head and CT abdomen with mild subcutaneous edema in the anterior abdomen near the umbilicus. Additional infectious studies were negative including nasal SARS-CoV-2 PCR, blood culture and urine culture. After the work-up, findings were consistent with a second-degree burn confirmed by Dermatology and Plastic Surgery. Suspected Child Abuse and Neglect team conducted additional social history with maternal grandmother because she is the caretaker when parents are at work, given parental denial of witnessing or causing the burn. Grandmother had limited English proficiency, so history was taken using a Medical Spanish interpreter. Grandmother explained that one day prior to presentation, she used an Oaxacan folk remedy to alleviate abdominal pain in which green tomato pulp was applied like a salve. Final diagnosis was second degree burn from phytophotodermatitis. Patient's skin improved with daily dressing changes and application of silver sulfadiazine, and she was discharged home to parents. Discussion: The use of tomato salve is a unique etiology of phytophotodermatitis that has not been well-characterized. Typical vegetation that causes burn injuries include figs, lemons and common wildflowers. Tomatillos or green tomatoes contain plant psoralens that can induce a strong phototoxic reaction to ultraviolet A radiation exposure after cutaneous contact. Conclusion: We present this case to highlight the importance of conducting thorough social history in the family's preferred language and to share a unique folk practice that can present as a severe burn and mimic child abuse.

19.
Pediatrics ; 149, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2003054

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic had placed constraints on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), including early intubation, minimizing bag-valve mask ventilation1, and using protective equipment and barriers during resuscitation. Patient barrier devices have been introduced in emergency departments and operating rooms, consisting of plastic drapes over the patient9, or the use of an acrylic box.2 Both of these adjuncts reduce aerosolization of oropharyngeal particles from the patient, and can facilitate video-based intubation.2,3 However, it is unknown whether these devices help or hinder the ultimate resuscitation quality in cardiopulmonary arrest patients. Our specific question addresses the effect of a patient barrier device and COVID-19 resuscitation recommendations on resuscitation quality. We hypothesize that a simple patient barrier consisting of a plastic drape reduces healthcare worker (HCW) contamination without affecting resuscitation quality. Methods: This was a single-center randomized controlled pilot trial, in which in-hospital teams of 4 to 6 HCWs were randomized to either use a plastic drape (intervention) or no plastic drape (control) for a simulated adolescent cardiopulmonary arrest. The manikin was modified to emanate simulated viral particles (GloGerm®, Moab, UT) from the trachea detectable using ultraviolet light. Teams managed a cardiopulmonary arrest until intubation, using Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and PALS/ACLS algorithms. Data were captured via arbitrated video review. Resuscitation data included time-to-bagging, time-to-intubation, and chest compression quality metrics - depth, rate, and lean. Contamination data were collected visually, marking the number of PPE equipment with visible fluorescence. Mean NASA-TLX and NOTECHS scores measured workload and team performance. Descriptive and univariate statistics were used to determine differences between intervention and control teams. Results: Fifteen simulations were conducted from 2020 to 2021;one was excluded from analysis as a performance outlier, leaving 7 intervention vs. 7 control teams. Scenarios lasted an average of 10.4+/- 3 minutes. Time-to-bagging, time-to-intubation, and intubation duration were not different between groups (72.1+/-22.4 vs 56.7+/-30.9 sec, 536+/-289 vs 544+/-127 sec, 78.9+/-73.0 vs 95.7+/-113 sec, p>0.3), and CPR quality for mean depth, rate, and lean were also not different (36.1+/-11.6 vs 30.9+/-13.2 cm, 108+/-13 vs 112+/-8/min, 8.7+/-5.2 vs 4.5+/-4.3 cm, p>0.14). Contamination rates were lower for the intubating physician (2.3+/-0.5 vs 4.1+/-0.9 surfaces, p<0.001) and for all participants (2.8+/-0.7 vs 3.7+/-0.9 surfaces, p=0.05) when using a barrier. No other contamination rate changes were observed. Participants noted no differences in team performance (22.4+/-1.6 vs 20.8+/-1.8, p=0.5) but a slight trend towards higher workload with the plastic barrier (+9.5+/-7.7 vs -0.1+/-11.5, p=0.09). Conclusion: The use of a plastic drape as a patient barrier appears to reduce simulated virus contamination for HCWs, particularly for the intubation physician during a simulated cardiopulmonary arrest without affecting resuscitation performance. Perceived workload increases with the drape, and further studies are needed to substantiate these findings in larger samples and in different settings.

20.
Heliyon ; : e10472, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2004109

ABSTRACT

Due to the recent COVID-19 pandemic that occurred worldwide since 2020, scientists and researchers have been studying methods to detect the presence of the virus causing COVID-19 disease, namely SARS-CoV-2. Optical spectroscopy is a method that employs the interaction of light in detecting virus on samples. It is a promising method that might help in detecting the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in samples. Four optical spectroscopy methods are discussed in this paper: ultraviolet (UV), infrared (IR), Raman spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. UV and IR spectroscopy differ in wavelength range (less than 400 nm for UV, more than 700 nm for IR). Raman spectroscopy involves shift in wavelength due to scattering of light. Fluorescence spectroscopy involves difference in wavelength between absorbed and emitted light due to vibrational relaxation. These four methods had been proven to differentiate healthy samples from virus-infected samples. UV spectroscopy is useful in determining presence of virus based on 260 nm/280 nm absorbance ratio. However, its usefulness is limited due to its destructive properties on virus at sufficiently high intensity. Meanwhile, IR spectroscopy has becoming popular in studies involving virus samples. Mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy is most commonly used among IR spectroscopy as it usually provides useful information directly from spectral data. Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is also used in studying virus samples, but additional methods such as principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) are required to process raw spectral data and to identify molecules based on spectral peaks. On the other hand, Raman spectroscopy is useful because spectral data can be analyzed directly in identifying vibrational modes of specific molecules in virus samples. Fluorescence spectroscopy relies on interaction between viral particles and fluorescent tags for the detection of virus based on improvement or quenching of fluorescent signal. Due to non-invasive properties of virus samples, IR, Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy will be used more often in future studies involving virus detection in infected samples.

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