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1.
IOP Conference Series. Earth and Environmental Science ; 1107(1):012082, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2160860

ABSTRACT

Enterprise upgrading strategy is related to investment decisions by MSMEs as investors, closely related to the sustainable development of business. This research aims to identify determinants upgrading, the risks faced and the performance of Agribusiness MSMEs in Palu, and also the influence of determinants upgrading on the performance of Agribusiness MSMEs in Palu during the COVID-19 pandemic. The response of the research on the characteristics of entrepreneurs earned an average of 4.04. It means that the characteristics of entrepreneurs include the "GOOD” category. Other while the response for company characteristics earned an average of 4.41, which gives the meaning of employer characteristics including the "VERY GOOD” category. The response for business and social networks, gained an average of 4.43, entering the category of "VERY GOOD” and last the response to risk earned an average of 3.04 including the "MEDIUM” category. The constant value (α) has a value of -5,633 which means that if the characteristics of entrepreneurs (X1), company characteristics (X2), business and social networks (X3), and business environment (X4) are equal to zero (0), then agribusiness MSMEs will be decreased. The results of the analysis of business characteristic variables (X1), corporate characteristics (X2), business and social activities (X3), and business environment (X4) partially have a significant effect on the performance of Agribusiness MSMEs.

2.
World J Clin Cases ; 10(26): 9228-9240, 2022 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2033420

ABSTRACT

Management of colorectal cancer (CRC) was severely affected by the changes implemented during the pandemic, and this resulted in delayed elective presentation, increased emergency presentation, reduced screening and delayed definitive therapy. This review was conducted to analyze the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on management of CRC and to identify the changes made in order to adapt to the pandemic. We performed a literature search in PubMed, Medline, Index Medicus, EMBASE, SCOPUS, Reference Citation Analysis (https://www.referencecitationanalysis.com/) and Google Scholar using the following keywords in various combinations: Colorectal cancer, elective surgery, emergency surgery, stage upgrading, screening, surveillance and the COVID-19 pandemic. Only studies published in English were included. To curtail the spread of COVID-19 infection, there were modifications made in the management of CRC. Screening was limited to high risk individuals, and the screening tests of choice during the pandemic were fecal occult blood test, fecal immunochemical test and stool DNA testing. The use of capsule colonoscopy and open access colonoscopy was also encouraged. Blood-based tests like serum methylated septin 9 were also encouraged for screening of CRC during the pandemic. The presentation of CRC was also affected by the pandemic with more patients presenting with emergencies like obstruction and perforation. Stage migration was also observed during the pandemic with more patients presenting with more advanced tumors. The operative therapy of CRC was altered by the pandemic as more emergencies surgeries were done, which may require exteriorization by stoma. This was to reduce the morbidity associated with anastomosis and encourage early discharge from the hospital. There was also an initial reduction in laparoscopic surgical procedures due to the fear of aerosols and COVID-19 infection. As we gradually come out of the pandemic, we should remember the lessons learned and continue to apply them even after the pandemic passes.

3.
Journal of Silk ; 59(6):1-9, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1994268

ABSTRACT

With the continuous iteration of digital technologies Artificial Intelligence AI is emerging as a core strength leading the technological revolution and industrial transformation. Furthermore since the outbreak of COVID-19 epidemic AI has been promoted to a new high. To build new international competitiveness AI has been undoubtedly seen as an important avenue to improve the status of international specializations. Under the opportunity of global value chain GVC reconstruction the traditional comparative advantages such as labor cost are gradually weakened. The textile industry urgently needs to improve the core competitiveness of products through intelligent manufacturing and upgrade from the processing and manufacturing link with the lowest added value to the textile machinery production and product design link with higher added value. Does the current development level of AI have an obvious driving effect on the international specializations status of textile industry in various countries What is the specific mechanism The discussion of these problems has theoretical value and important practical significance for the formulation of AI-related policies the transformation of textile industry and the promotion path selection of the international specializations status. This paper measures the comprehensive development index of AI in 28 countries from 2010 to 2017. Based on the world input-output table a global value chain position index is constructed to measure a country's status of international specializations. The two indicators are connected within a unified framework and the multi-dimensional panel fixed effect model is used for empirical test of textile industry. Then using the intermediary effect model this paper analyzes the influence mechanism of AI on the status of international specializations from three channels technological innovation production efficiency and human capital. There are three possible marginal contributions of this paper First the research on integrated evaluation systems for AI development in 28 economies from 2010 to 2017 allowing for the international comparison and dynamic tracking from multiple dimensions could be initial efforts to break up the one-fold measurement of AI. Second it is the first time to use AI as an emerging influencing factor of the international specializations status in the textile industry. Third through connecting the AI index with international specializations status of the textile industry within the unified accounting framework our study provides a better understanding of mechanisms for AI influence on international specializations from three channels technological innovation production efficiency and human capital. The main conclusions are as follows First AI has significantly improved the position of a country's textile industry in the global value chain. Second through the mechanism test it is confirmed that AI has improved the international specializations status of the textile industry through three channels technological innovation production efficiency and human capital. Among them the kinetic energy of promoting the textile industry to move up the value chain through production efficiency needs to be further stimulated. Therefore in order to seize the opportunity of technological revolution the textile industry should actively develop intelligent manufacturing and use AI technology to help enterprises complete the transformation of automation intelligence and digitization so as to improve the added value and technical content of export products. Meanwhile enterprises and governments should increase R&D research and development investment vigorously promote the transformation of innovative achievements of AI technology in the textile industry and make it gradually occupy the core position of global value chain in international competition. Finally in order to solve the key problems of textile industry such as the over-dependence on low-end labor force administrative departments should speed up the construction of high-end talent team of AI. The emer ing technology represented by AI provides a new path choice for the international specializations status of the textile industry which can not only further promote the AI sustainable development and the effective integration of all links of the textile industry but also break through the dilemma of "low-end locking" of the global value chain so as to achieve the goal of promoting the digital transformation of the textile industry and improving the status of international specializations. It provides a theoretical and factual basis for AI to cultivate new digital kinetic energy in the upgrading of textile industry and to participate in the positioning of a new round of international competition. © 2022 China Silk Association. All rights reserved.

4.
Revista Vórtex ; 10(1):1-16, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1975833

ABSTRACT

[...]audiovisual installations are usually restricted to wealthier areas, in which the specialized equipment can be afforded and properly hosted. [...]the tool can be used to compose audiovisual interactions that reach a large audience via web. [...]the access to the artistic richness brought by interactive artwork is socially and economically determined (VIEIRA;SCHIAVONI, 2020) (FIGUEIRO, 2019). Cameras have been used in humancomputer interaction for music for decades (WINKLER, 1998), and MOTUS employs this concept while deploying its software as a webpage, thus only requiring hardware that is becoming increasingly ubiquitous (TURNER, 2021) (ZUGARA, 2021). [...]even though it is an art installation, it can be understood as a virtual one, as the audience does not have to be physically present in a particular place to participate on it.

5.
Revista Cubana de Educacion Medica Superior ; 36(2), 2022.
Article in Spanish | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1957849

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic caused professional upgrading to acquire new shades. Universities encouraged the use of information and communication technologies, as well as learning in virtual settings. Objective: To present criteria on the virtualization of professional upgrading for the improvement of pedagogical performance during COVID-19. Author's stance: The situation caused by COVID-19 demanded to carry out the teaching-learning process in virtual settings;therefore, the professors from the social sciences area took up this challenge without previous preparation. The professional upgrading process carried out in the virtual classroom proved to be an effective way for the application of virtual educational resources. Conclusions: Professional upgrading during public health circumstances of emergency was carried out in the virtual classroom of the Latin American School of Medicine, where pedagogical performance could be improved among the professors from the social sciences area. © 2022, Editorial Ciencias Medicas. All rights reserved.

6.
Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics ; 34(7):1325-1347, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1922459

ABSTRACT

Purpose>Upgrading in global value chains (GVCs) has become a crucial strategy for enhancing competitive advantage and attaining higher profitability, especially among firms in developing countries. Drawn from the sociological approach, this study treats GVC upgrading as an entrepreneurial act and examines factors affecting firms' intention to move up in their chains based on the theory of planned behavior. The authors also further test the moderating effects of firms' knowledge about rule of origin and governmental supports on the intention-behavior gap.Design/methodology/approach>In-depth interviews with eight Vietnamese business managers were implemented to support the development of hypotheses and measurement scales. Afterwards, the authors conducted a survey on decision-makers of 402 Vietnamese firms which currently have export-import activities to collect quantitative data for testing the hypothesized relationships.Findings>The empirical results indicate that both attitudes, behavioral control and social norms have significant positive impacts on the intention to upgrade in GVCs. In turn, such intention could further activate actual behaviors to move up in their chains. However, those who have better knowledge about rule of origin and receive governmental supports either in terms of finance, credit or technology have a higher probability of demonstrating actual behavior to upgrade in GVCs once their intentions are formed than those who do not.Practical implications>This research provides valuable implications for policymakers in accelerating firms' actions to upgrade within their chains, hence, actively enhancing not only organizational performance but also significantly contributes to the national economic development.Originality/value>While most of the previous studies examine the preconditions for firms to participate and upgrade in their GVCs, there is limited attention on determinants of firms' own intention and actual behavior to upgrade in their chains once they have participated in the GVC. Specifically, this research not only contributes to the existing knowledge regarding factors affecting firms' intention to upgrade in their chains but also closes the gap between the intention and the actual GVC upgrading behavior.

7.
Transnational Corporations Review ; : 16, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1852808

ABSTRACT

This paper aims at mapping machinery value chains in Brazil to check the validity of the smiling curve and the impacts of the COVID-19 crisis, investigating opportunities for upgrading. The empirical methodology is based on qualitative research among 50 machinery manufacturing companies in three steps: online survey, interviews, and poll. The main conclusion is that the executives in our sample are sceptical about the smiling curve in Brazil. The COVID-19 crisis seriously impacted most of the consulted machinery companies, and it has caused significant disruptions in their value chains. Companies that reduced their chain's dependence on suppliers, relying on local networks and verticalization, had more hedge against those ruptures. The executives have shown eight fields of opportunities to upgrade in value chains. The paper contributes to the international literature on Management through its innovative methodology and insights for companies from developing countries.

8.
Sci Total Environ ; 832: 155072, 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778445

ABSTRACT

Biomedical wastes (BMWs) are potentially infectious to the environment and health. They are co-dependent and accumulative during the ongoing coronavirus disease-2019(COVID-19) pandemic. In India the standard treatment processes of BMWs are incineration, autoclaving, shredding, and deep burial; however, incineration and autoclaving are the leading techniques applied by many treatment providers. These conventional treatment methods have several drawbacks in terms of energy, cost, and emission. But the actual problem for the treatment providers is the huge and non-uniform flow of the BMWs during the pandemic. The existing treatment methods are lacking flexibility for the non-uniform flow. The Government of India has provisionally approved some new techniques like plasma pyrolysis, sharp/needle blaster, and PIWS-3000 technologies on a trial basis. But they are all found to be inadequate in the pandemic. Therefore, there is an absolute requirement to micromanage the BMWs based on certain parameters for the possible COVID-19 like pandemic in the future. Segregation is a major step of the BMW management. Its guideline may be shuffled as segregation at the entry points followed by collection instead of the existing system of the collection followed by segregation. Other steps like transportation, location of treatment facilities, upgradation of the existing treatment facilities, and new technologies can solve the challenges up to a certain extent. Technologies like microwave treatment, alkaline hydrolysis, steam sterilization, biological treatment, catalytic solar disinfection, and nanotechnology have a lot of scopes for the treatment of BMWs. Hi-tech approaches in handling and transportation are found to be fruitful in the initial steps of BMW management. End products of the treated BMWs can be potentially fabricated for the application in the built environment. Some policies need to be re-evaluated by the health care facilities or government administrations for efficient BMW management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Medical Waste , Humans , Incineration , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Applied Sciences ; 11(11):5245, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1731909

ABSTRACT

Service Function Chaining (SFC) is an emerging paradigm aiming to provide flexible service deployment, lifecycle management, and scaling in a micro-service architecture. SFC is defined as a logically connected list of ordered Service Functions (SFs) that require high availability to maintain user experience. The SFC protection mechanism is one way to ensure high availability, and it is achieved by proactively deploying backup SFs and installing backup paths in the network. Recent studies focused on ensuring the availability of backup SFs, but overlooked SFC unavailability due to network failures. This paper extends our previous work to propose a Hybrid Protection mechanism for SFC (HP-SFC) that divides SFC into segments and combines the merits of local and global failure recovery approaches to define an installation policy for backup paths. A novel labeling technique labels SFs instead of SFC, and they are stacked as per the order of SFs in a particular SFC before being inserted into a packet header for traffic steering through segment routing. The emulation results showed that HP-SFC recovered SFC from failure within 20–25 ms depending on the topology and reduced backup paths’ flow entries by at least 8.9% and 64.5% at most. Moreover, the results confirmed that the segmentation approach made HP-SFC less susceptible to changes in network topology than other protection schemes.

10.
Partnership : the Canadian Journal of Library and Information Practice and Research ; 16(2):1-6, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1689647

ABSTRACT

 ľautomne 2020, tout en travalllant å distance en raison de la pandemie de la COVID19, nous avons initié un modéle de communauté de pratique pour les stagiaires en bibliothéconomíe travaillant sur un projet ďaccessibilité des tutoriels video pour les bibliotheques de ľUniversité Dalhousie. Cet article fournit un aperçu du projet, notre approche pour former les stagiaires ä distance sur ľutilisation du logiciel Camtasia, la mise sur pied de la communauté de pratique et les éléments clés â reteñir en tant que superviseurs. Quoique la communauté de pratique avait été mise en place initialement pour permettre aux stagiaires de se soutenir, ľexpérience a finalement été extrémement avantageuse pour nous, car elle a permis notre développement comme superviseur en apprenant å faire du mentorat å distance. Nous réfléchissons sur la façon dont nos styles de mentorát ont évolué tout au long du projet et nous explorons les orientations futures pour poursuivre le projet avec une nouvelle cohorte de stagiaires.Alternate :In fall 2020. while working remotely due to the COVID-19 pandemic, we initiated a Community of Practice (CoP) model for library school interns working on a video tutorials accessibility project for Dalhousie University Libraries. This feature outlines the background of the project, our approach to training interns remotely on Camtasia software, the development of the CoP, and our key takeaways as supervisors. While the CoP was originally intended as a source of support for the group of interns, the experience ended up being Incredibly beneficial to us in our development as supervisors as we learned to mentor at a distance. We reflect on how our mentorship styles changed throughout the project and explore future directions for continuing the project with a new cohort of library interns.

11.
J Comb Optim ; 44(1): 74-93, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474050

ABSTRACT

Network interdiction problems by upgading critical edges/nodes have important applications to reduce the infectivity of the COVID-19. A network of confirmed cases can be described as a rooted tree that has a weight of infectious intensity for each edge. Upgrading edges (nodes) can reduce the infectious intensity with contacts by taking prevention measures such as disinfection (treating the confirmed cases, isolating their close contacts or vaccinating the uninfected people). We take the sum of root-leaf distance on a rooted tree as the whole infectious intensity of the tree. Hence, we consider the sum of root-leaf distance interdiction problem by upgrading edges/nodes on trees (SDIPT-UE/N). The problem (SDIPT-UE) aims to minimize the sum of root-leaf distance by reducing the weights of some critical edges such that the upgrade cost under some measurement is upper-bounded by a given value. Different from the problem (SDIPT-UE), the problem (SDIPT-UN) aims to upgrade a set of critical nodes to reduce the weights of the edges adjacent to the nodes. The relevant minimum cost problem (MCSDIPT-UE/N) aims to minimize the upgrade cost on the premise that the sum of root-leaf distance is upper-bounded by a given value. We develop different norms to measure the upgrade cost. Under weighted Hamming distance, we show the problems (SDIPT-UE/N) and (MCSDIPT-UE/N) are NP-hard by showing the equivalence of the two problems and the 0-1 knapsack problem. Under weighted l 1 norm, we solve the problems (SDIPT-UE) and (MCSDIPT-UE) in O(n) time by transforimg them into continuous knapsack problems. We propose two linear time greedy algorithms to solve the problem (SDIPT-UE) under unit Hamming distance and the problem (SDIPT-UN) with unit cost, respectively. Furthermore, for the the minimum cost problem (MCSDIPT-UE) under unit Hamming distance and the problem (MCSDIPT-UN) with unit cost, we provide two O ( n log n ) time algorithms by the binary search methods. Finally, we perform some numerical experiments to compare the results obtained by these algorithms.

12.
Eur J Dev Res ; 34(1): 473-502, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1132161

ABSTRACT

There is a growing literature on the impact of Covid-19 on commercial and labour conditions at suppliers in apparel global value chains (GVCs). Yet much less is known about the implications for suppliers operating in regional value chains (RVCs) in the global South. In this article, we focus on Eswatini, which has grown to become the largest African manufacturer and exporter of apparel to the region. We draw on a combination of firm-level export data and interviews with stakeholders before and after the Covid-19 lockdown to shed light on the influence of private and public governance on suppliers' economic and social upgrading and downgrading. We point to the coexistence of two separate private governance structures: the first characterised by direct contracts between South African retailers and large manufacturers (direct suppliers); the second operating through indirect purchasing via intermediaries from relatively smaller producers (indirect suppliers). While direct suppliers enjoyed higher levels of economic and social upgrading than indirect suppliers before Covid-19, the pandemic reinforced this division, with severe price cuts for indirect suppliers. Furthermore, while retailers provided some direct suppliers with support throughout the crisis, this was not the case for indirect suppliers, who remain comparatively more vulnerable. In terms of public governance, the negative consequences of the lockdown on firms' income and workers' livelihoods have been compounded by the state's ineffective response. Our paper contributes to the research on RVCs in the global South, enhancing our understanding of how different governance structures and external shocks affect firms' and workers' upgrading and downgrading prospects.


La publications à propos l'impact de la COVID-19 sur les conditions commerciales et du travail chez les fournisseurs des chaines de valeur globales (en anglais : Global Value Chains, GVCs), dans le secteur de l'habillement, est en croissance. Cependant, on connait beaucoup moins à propos les implications de la COVID-19 sur les fournisseurs qui opèrent au niveau des chaines de valeur régionales (en anglais : Regional Value Chains, RVCs) dans les pays du Sud. Dans cet article, nous nous concentrons sur Eswatini, qui est devenu le plus grand producteur Africain et exportateur d'habillement dans la région. Combinant des données collectés au niveau de l'entreprise sur ses exportations, et des entretiens avec plusieurs partis prenants avant et après le confinement COVID-19, nous illustrons l'influence de la gouvernance publique et privée sur la revalorisation et dévalorisation sociale et économique des fournisseurs. Nous attirons l'attention à la coexistence de deux structures séparés de gouvernance privée : la première structure est caractérisée par des contrats directs entre les détaillants de l'Afrique du Sud, et les gros producteurs (fournisseurs directs) ; la deuxième structure est assurée par les achats indirects chez les producteurs relativement plus petits (fournisseurs indirects) par des intermédiaires. Alors que les fournisseurs directs bénéficiaient de des niveaux de revalorisation économique et sociale plus élevés même avant la COVID-19, la pandémie a renforcé leur séparation par rapport aux fournisseurs indirects ; ces-ci ont plutôt subi une forte réduction des prix payés pour leur production. D'ailleurs, les détaillants ont soutenu les fournisseurs directs pendant la crise, mais ceci n'a pas été le cas pour les fournisseurs indirects, qui demeurent plus vulnérables. En ce qui concerne la gouvernance publique, les conséquences négatives du confinement sur le revenu des entreprises et sur la subsistance des travailleurs ont été aggravés par les interventions inefficaces de l'état. Cet étude contribue à la recherche sur les RVCs dans les pays du Sud, améliorant notre compréhension de comment les différentes structures de gouvernance et les chocs externes touchent les perspectives de valorisation et dévalorisation des entreprises et des travailleurs.

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