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1.
Frontiers in Public Health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2199523

ABSTRACT

The global outbreak of COVID-19 caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus elicited immense global interest in the development and distribution of safe COVID-19 vaccines by various governments and researchers, capable of stopping the spread of COVID-19 disease. After COVID-19 was declared a global pandemic, several vaccines have been developed for emergency use authorization. The accelerated development of the vaccines was attributed to many factors but mainly by capitalizing on years of research and technology development. Although several countries tried to develop COVID-19 vaccines only a few countries succeeded. Therefore, we applied statistical methods to find factors that have contributed to the fast development of COVID-19 vaccines. All 11 countries that developed vaccines were considered and chose other 24 countries for comparison purposes according to different criteria of their R&D. Fourteen R&D indicator variables that are a measure of the R&D for all countries [World Development Indicators (WDI)] were obtained from the World Bank DataBank and data on the COVID-19 vaccine R&D were obtained from The Knowledge Portal of the Graduate Institute Geneva and Global Health Center. The World Bank records WDI yearly, and 2019 was chosen because of a few missing values. Also, different vaccine policies were adopted by different countries during the COVID-19 vaccination period, producing different impacts of vaccinations on the population. So, we applied the generalized estimating equations (GEE) approach to find policies that contributed greatly to decreasing the spread of COVID-19 using data from the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker (OxCGRT) and age-specific vaccination data from the European Center for Disease and Prevention and Control. Logistic regression, two-sample t-test, and Wilcoxon rank-sum test found scientific and technical journals, liability, and COVID-19 Vaccine R&D Funding (investment in pharmaceutical industry US$) are significantly associated with fast COVID-19 vaccine development. Vaccine prioritization and government vaccine financial support were significantly associated with COVID-19 daily cases. The impact of vaccination on lowering the rate of new cases is greatly observed among the mid-aged populations (25-64 years) and lower or non-significant among the younger (<25 years) and (>65 years) older populations. Therefore, these age-groups especially > 79 can be prioritized during vaccine roll-out.

2.
Future Virology ; 17(12):849-862, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2198203

ABSTRACT

What is this summary about?This is a summary of an article about part of a clinical study for the BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine, also called the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine. The article was published in the New England Journal of Medicine in September 2021. The part of the study described in the article began in July 2020 and is ongoing. This means that the final results may be different from the results included in this summary.What happened in this study?The participants in this study received 2 injections of either the BNT162b2 vaccine or a placebo, 21 days apart. The placebo looked like the BNT162b2 vaccine but had no active vaccine in it. None of the trial participants or study teams knew who received vaccine or placebo.What were the results?Most of the reactions to the injections were mild or moderate and lasted for a short period of time. The most common reactions were pain at the injection site, extreme tiredness (fatigue), and headache. These reactions usually happened in the first 7 days after receiving a vaccine dose. A small number of participants had severe reactions to the vaccine.Compared to participants who received the placebo, participants who received the BNT162b2 vaccine were much less likely to become ill if they were infected with the virus that causes COVID-19. The vaccine also had very good efficacy at preventing severe COVID-19.Participants in South Africa who received the BNT162b2 vaccine were less likely to become ill after infection with the beta variant of the virus compared to participants who received the placebo. The beta variant was very common in South Africa when the study was taking place.

3.
Production and Operations Management ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2193185

ABSTRACT

Aggressive overlapping of stochastic activities during phases of vaccine development has been critical to making effective vaccines for COVID-19 available to the public, at "pandemic" speed. In cyclical projects wherein activities can be overlapped, downstream tasks may need rework on account of having commenced prior to receiving requisite information that is only available upon completion of upstream task(s). We provide a framework to understand the interplay between stochastic overlap duration and rework due to overlap, and its impact on minimizing expected completion time for a cyclical project. We motivate the problem using the new paradigm for planning vaccine development projects. It best exemplifies features and scenarios in our model that were not considered and are also not apparent in the examples for cyclical development projects in the literature focused on engineered and manufactured products. We find that planning overlapping in scenarios that may be deemed ineffective with an assumption of deterministic tasks, can actually be beneficial when analyzed using stochastic task duration. We determine optimal planned start times for stochastic tasks as a function of a parameter that proxies for the extent of net gain/loss from overlap to minimize expected completion time for the project. We show that in situations with a net gain from overlap it is optimal to start the downstream task concurrently unless the downstream task does not stochastically dominate the upstream task and the net gain from overlap is not low enough. However, in situations with a net loss from overlap it is always optimal to have some degree of overlap in a stochastic task environment. We find that project rescheduling flexibility is always beneficial in a scenario with net loss from overlap and only beneficial in a scenario with net gain from overlap when the downstream task does not stochastically dominate the upstream task and the net gain from overlap is high enough. Our results on overlapping in 1-to-1, 1-to-n, and n-to-1 stochastic task configurations guide the development of an effective heuristic. Our heuristic offers good solution quality and is scalable to large networks as its computational complexity is linear in the number of tasks.

4.
24th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, HCII 2022 ; 13518 LNCS:441-460, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2173820

ABSTRACT

This paper presents a user-centered approach to translating techniques and insights from AI explainability research to developing effective explanations of complex issues in other fields, on the example of COVID-19. We show how the problem of AI explainability and the explainability problem in the COVID-19 pandemic are related: as two specific instances of a more general explainability problem, occurring when people face in-transparent, complex systems and processes whose functioning is not readily observable and understandable to them ("black boxes”). Accordingly, we discuss how we applied an interdisciplinary, user-centered approach based on Design Thinking to develop a prototype of a user-centered explanation for a complex issue regarding people's perception of COVID-19 vaccine development. The developed prototype demonstrates how AI explainability techniques can be adapted and integrated with methods from communication science, visualization and HCI to be applied to this context. We also discuss results from a first evaluation in a user study with 88 participants and outline future work. The results indicate that it is possible to effectively apply methods and insights from explainable AI to explainability problems in other fields and support the suitability of our conceptual framework to inform that. In addition, we show how the lessons learned in the process provide new insights for informing further work on user-centered approaches to explainable AI itself. © 2022, The Author(s).

5.
Research Journal of Biotechnology ; 17(11):170-179, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2170049

ABSTRACT

The current outbreak of coronavirus-associated disease characterized as coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) marked its existence in late 2019. Since then, it has been a concern for human health and safety. Coronaviruses (CoVs) are known to cause a wide range of diseases;out of which common cold and pneumonia occur in human beings. In this review, we elaborate on the basic characteristics, structure, variants mutations and the pathological attributes of SARS-CoV 2. We also discuss the interaction of the viral proteins with the host cell receptor known as the ACE2 receptor and various therapeutics for the treatment of disease.

6.
ONdrugDelivery ; 2022(129):12-15, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2169287

ABSTRACT

In this article, Tom Oakley, Director of Drug Delivery Device Development, Springboard, looks at some of the current trends in the drug delivery industry and projects some of the key factors that will influence drug delivery decision making in 2022. Copyright © 2022, Frederick Furness Publishing. All rights reserved.

7.
ONdrugDelivery ; 2022(136):12-14, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2168115

ABSTRACT

In this article, Sara Dorman, Global Biopharma Market Manager at Roquette, discusses the benefits of single-use systems, including how they help accelerate a drug product's journey to market securely and more sustainably. Copyright © 2022, Frederick Furness Publishing. All rights reserved.

8.
Zhongguo Bingdubing Zazhi = Chinese Journal of Viral Diseases ; 12(6):421, 2022.
Article in Chinese | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2167543

ABSTRACT

In order to thoroughly implement the decision-making and deployment of the Party Central Committee and the State Council, further do a good job in the response to the new crown pneumonia epidemic, and ensure the safety and health of the people, after research, it is proposed to implement the second dose of the new crown virus vaccine to strengthen the immunization Program. 1. Target population At this stage, on the basis of the first dose of booster immunization, the second dose booster can be carried out in high-risk groups of infection, the elderly over 60 years old, people with more serious underlying diseases, and people with low immunity Immunization. 2. Vaccine selection and time interval (1) Vaccine selection. According to the progress of vaccine development

9.
Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology ; 15(12):5868-5874, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2207050

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak started in Wuhan, China when people started with the symptoms of respiratory disorder. The onset of this disease have symptoms like fever, dry cough, fatigue, and difficulty in breathing. The nature of SARS-CoV-2 seems highly contagious as it also can be spread with asymptomatically infected individuals. It has been more than a year which this outbreak have been announced as a pandemic by World Health Organization (WHO) due to major public health crisis and uncontrollable around the globe. Some countries have taken initiatives in inventing vaccines and step up in the clinical trial process since a vaccine is an all-powerful tool which it always been a saviour in fighting infectious disease. In searching for the vaccine, researchers had studied the previously published article of SARS-CoV or MERS as in the beginning, in light, there will be a suitable vaccine to fight this pandemic situation. Recent research on the vaccine has been tested to seek the right vaccine for COVID-19. This study is to focus on the current vaccine development against COVID-19 and to explore the potential vaccines' characteristics that have been studied by the previous proven research findings. This review was done based on the research articles and reviews published until the end of April 2021 through established scientific search engines and related scientific platforms based on the inclusion criteria with its related keywords like coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19 Vaccine, clinical trials, and COVID-19 vaccine development. This review summarized a few vaccine candidates that have entered clinical trials and some supported evidence from Phase I until Phase III clinical trial studies that have been published and reported. In this review, 12 vaccine candidates have the potential to against SARS-CoV-2. Thus, their vaccine platform, characteristic as well as its efficacy studies have been discussed. Copyright © RJPT All right reserved.

10.
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research ; 15(12):24-30, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2205062

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has been posing a serious threat to global public health till date. This calls for the development of effective treatment protocols, and most importantly, vaccines against the pathogen. Keeping these requirements in mind, we have pooled together, across broad domains of research, accounts on the leading efforts in the development of various vaccine candidates. It is apparent from our review of various studies that the efficacy of seemingly different techniques applied together, collaborative efforts coupled with rapid, timely dissemination of results has been the key behind successful vaccine development. The availability of curated databases has also been of great advantage. Furthermore, we have summarized in this article, the side effects of the various vaccines. We hope that this review will appeal the researchers and students as well as recent entrants in these research domains and the various studies described herein will inspire and be helpful for the advancement of public health. Copyright © 2022 The Authors. Published by Innovare Academic Sciences Pvt Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)

11.
Medicinski Arhiv ; 76(5):383-386, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2202731

ABSTRACT

Background: Antibody dependent enhancement (ADE) is a unique immunopathological phenomenon in which pre-existing immunity to a viral agent accentuate disease severity upon secondary exposure. Multiple viruses have been shown to demsotrate ADE with no clear understanding of the underlying mechansims. Recently, with the emeregence of Sever acute respiratory syndrome-2 (SARS-CoV2) and the need for rapid vaccine prodcution, ADE have emerged as an important issue that need to be assessed.

12.
Frontiers in Materials ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2163030

ABSTRACT

Nanomaterials have played a significant role in effectively combating the global SARS-CoV-2 pandemic that began in December 2019 through the development of vaccines as well as antiviral therapies. These versatile, tunable materials can interact and deliver a broad range of biologically relevant molecules for preventing COVID-19 infection, generating immunity against COVID-19, and treating infected patients. Application of these nanomaterials and nanotechnologies can further be investigated in conjunction with disease models of COVID-19 and this holds immense potential for accelerating vaccine or therapeutic process development further encouraging the elimination of animal model use during preclinical stages. This review examines the existing literature on COVID-19 related nanomaterial applications, including perspective on nanotechnology-based vaccines and therapeutics, and discusses how these tools can be adapted to address new SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. We also analyze the limitations of current nanomaterial approaches to managing COVID-19 and its variants alongside the challenges posed when implementing this technology. We end by providing avenues for future developments specific to disease modelling in this ever-evolving field.

13.
Pediatrics ; 150, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2162659

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: To assess the likelihood of US parents to have their children receive a pediatric coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine and to understand parental concerns about the vaccines. STUDY POPULATION: Study participants were selected from The Understanding America Study (UAS), a nationally-representative online panel who were surveyed between February 17, 2021 and March 30, 2021. METHODS: This was a survey-based study. Parents were asked about intent to have their child vaccinated against COVID-19, their perceptions about the vaccine, their own likelihood of getting a COVID-19 vaccine, whether their child previously received the flu vaccine, their trust in sources of information about a COVID-19 vaccine, and their trust in the vaccine development and approval process. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were used to assess likelihood of vaccination and to understand the association between likelihood of child vaccination and parent demographics, child age, and parental perceptions about COVID-19 vaccines. RESULTS: A total of 1745 parents responded to the survey (87% of eligible parents, 3759 children). Overall, likelihood of child COVID-19 vaccination was as follows: very likely (28%), somewhat likely (18%), somewhat unlikely (9%), very unlikely (33%), and unsure (12%). About 12% of parents reported that they did not plan to get their child vaccinated at this time but would "wait and see." Parental factors associated with a higher likelihood of child COVID-19 vaccination included: bachelor's degree or higher education (P < .001), Asian American or Hispanic ethnicity (P < .04), and Democratic party affiliation (P < .001). The strongest predictor independently associated with increased likelihood of child COVID-19 vaccination was whether a given child's parent had received or were likely to receive a COVID-19 vaccine themselves (P < .001;adjusted risk ratio = 3.42, 95% confidence interval: 2.32–5.04). Other factors associated with a higher likelihood of vaccination included: older child age (P < .001) and child influenza vaccination in the last 2 years (P < .001;adjusted risk ratio =1.44, 95% confidence interval: 1.24–1.67). Parents were most concerned about vaccine safety and possible side effects. Pediatricians were the most trusted source of information for pediatric COVID-19 vaccines, with 72% of parents reporting that they completely or mostly trust their child's doctor. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that there is a high level of parental vaccine hesitancy for pediatric COVID-19 vaccines, with less than half of parents reporting they are likely to have their child vaccinated against COVID-19. Pediatric health care providers were identified as parents' most trusted source of information about COVID-19 vaccines for children.

14.
Pathology - Research and Practice ; : 154280, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2159729

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) which has emerged as a global health crisis. Recently, more than 50 different types of potential COVID-19 vaccines have been developed to elicit a strong immune response against SARS-CoV-2. However, genetic mutations give rise to the new variants of SARS-CoV-2 which is highly associated with the reduced effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines. There is still no efficient antiviral agent to specifically target the SARS-CoV-2 infection and treatment of COVID-19. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 may contribute to discovering a novel potential therapeutic approach to the management of COVID-19. Recently, extracellular vesicle (EV)-based therapeutic strategies have received great attention on account of their potential benefits in the administration of viral diseases. EVs are extracellular vesicles containing specific biomolecules which play an important role in cell-to-cell communications. It has been revealed that EVs are involved in the pathogenesis of different inflammatory diseases such as cancer and viral infections. EVs are released from virus-infected cells which could mediate the interaction of infected and uninfected host cells. Hence, these extracellular nanoparticles have been considered a novel approach for drug delivery to mediate the treatment of a wide range of diseases including, COVID-19. EVs are considered a cell-free therapeutic strategy that could ameliorate the cytokine storm and its complications in COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, EV-based cargo delivery such as immunomodulatory agents in combination with antiviral drugs may have therapeutic benefits in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this review, we will highlight the potential of EVs as a therapeutic candidate in the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19. Also, we will discuss the future perspectives regarding the beneficial effects of Evs in the development of COVID-19 vaccines.

15.
Journal of Health Care and Society ; 32(3):342-356, 2022.
Article in Japanese | Ichushi | ID: covidwho-2157049
16.
D + C, Development and Cooperation ; 48(7/8):19-21, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2156833

ABSTRACT

There are various challenges that must be overcome before the COVID-19 epidemic may be contained on a worldwide scale. The protection of one's intellectual property is of the utmost importance. Instead of ultimately addressing this issue in the current health emergency, many actors in industry and politics are persistently refusing to accept any modification of patent rights. This is despite the fact that the issue is a public health emergency. This article discusses the role that patents play in the health care industry and how they have become a barrier to the widespread protection of public health during a pandemic emergency, particularly in the development of vaccines.

17.
Journal of Health Care and Society ; 32(3):382-391, 2022.
Article in Japanese | Ichushi | ID: covidwho-2156785
18.
Process Biochemistry ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2150426

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 outbreak and emergence of COVID-19 resulted in the development of different vaccines based on various platforms to combat the disease. While the conventional platforms of inactivated/live attenuated, subunit proteins and virus-like particles (VLPs) have provided efficient and safe vaccines, novel platforms of viral vector- and nucleic acid-based vaccines opened up new horizons for vaccine development. The emergence of COVID-19 pandemic showed that the availability of platforms with high possibility of quick translation from bench to bedside is a prerequisite step in vaccine development in pandemics. Moreover, parallel development of different platforms as well as considering the shipping, storage condition, distribution infrastructure and route of administration are key players for successful and robust response. This review highlights the lessons learned from the current COVID-19 pandemic in terms of vaccine development to provide quick response to future outbreaks of infectious diseases and the importance of vaccine platform in its storage condition and shipping. Finally, the potential application of current COVID-19 vaccine platforms in the treatment of non-infectious diseases has been discussed.

19.
Coronavirus Drug Discovery: Druggable Targets and In Silico Update: Volume 3 ; : 51-57, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2149162

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was identified as the cause of an outbreak of respiratory illness in Wuhan in 2019. Some of the antivirals presently being tried are known anti-HIV (combination of lopinavir and ritonavir) and the rejected antiebola virus (remdesivir) drugs. Others are chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, and azithromycin. Till date, there is no specific antiviral treatment that has proven effective in the management of the pandemic. The infected victims primarily rely on symptomatic treatments and supportive care. This COVID-19 outbreak has triggered researchers worldwide to embark on more high-quality research, in addition to enacting preventive measures to manage the public health emergency in both the short and long term. Membrane lipids like cholesterol, glycerophospholipids, and sphingolipids play a key role in the modification of intracellular membrane structures for virus replication. This chapter discusses the roles of membrane lipids in coronavirus replication and inhibition of lipids biosynthesis for possible management of coronavirus disease. © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

20.
Statistics in Biopharmaceutical Research ; 14(4):397, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2134520
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