Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 1.577
Filter
1.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(11)2022 Nov 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110009

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has emphasized a need to assess the cause of vaccine hesitancy. This study verified the reliability and validity of the Korean versions of the COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy scale and vaccine conspiracy belief scale and the correlation between them. The COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy scale, Korean COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy scale, vaccine conspiracy beliefs scale, and self-efficacy scale were the study tools. Following translation into Korean, back translation into English, content validity verification, and preliminary survey, valid samples were obtained from 400 adults aged >20 years. Exploratory factor analysis revealed that "belief" and "lack of trust" accounted for 62.4% of the total variance. The model fit index of the vaccine conspiracy beliefs scale revealed that all values were in a good range. The Korean version of the COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy scale showed a positive correlation with vaccine conspiracy beliefs (r = 0.74, p < 0.001) and a significant negative correlation with self-efficacy (r = -0.17, p < 0.001). The validity and reliability of the COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy scale and vaccine conspiracy beliefs scale were verified. The Korean versions of the two scales can contribute to programs that measure and mediate various factors influencing vaccination during the COVID-19 pandemic.

2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 994330, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109881

ABSTRACT

Background and purpose: As Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) continues to spread around the world, COVID-19 vaccines are the most effective weapons against the global pandemic. Yet vaccine hesitancy remains a serious problem and can pose certain hazards to individuals' mental health, such as rising anxiety. Therefore, based on Self-Discrepancy Theory, this paper aims to explore the role of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy on individual generalized anxiety disorder and its influence mechanisms through two studies. Methods: Study one involved 654 Chinese participants using the Vaccine Hesitancy Questionnaire and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7) scale. In Study two, the Vaccine Hesitation Questionnaire, GAD-7 scale, Perceived Risk of COVID-19 pandemic scale, and Vaccination Status Questionnaire were used and data from 3,282 Chinese residents was collected. Results: Vaccine hesitancy directly increases generalized anxiety disorder; risk perception plays a partial mediating role between vaccine hesitancy and generalized anxiety disorder; vaccination status moderated vaccine hesitancy's effect on risk perception and generalized anxiety disorder. Conclusion: Vaccine hesitancy predicts generalized anxiety disorder through risk perception, but the mediating role of risk perception is moderated by vaccination status, which means that for the vaccinated group when their vaccine hesitancy is reduced, it will be easier to reduce the risk perception and thus the generalized anxiety disorder.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Vaccination Hesitancy , Pandemics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Anxiety Disorders , Perception
3.
JMIR Form Res ; 6(11): e38425, 2022 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109556

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Primary care providers are regarded as trustworthy sources of information about COVID-19 vaccines. Although primary care practices often provide information about common medical and public health topics on their practice websites, little is known about whether they also provide information about COVID-19 vaccines on their practice websites. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and correlates of COVID-19 vaccine information on family medicine practices' website home pages in the United States. METHODS: We used the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid National Provider Identifier records to create a sampling frame of all family medicine providers based in the United States, from which we constructed a nationally representative random sample of 964 family medicine providers. Between September 20 and October 8, 2021, we manually examined the practice websites of these providers and extracted data on the availability of COVID-19 vaccine information, and we implemented a 10% cross-review quality control measure to resolve discordances in data abstraction. We estimated the prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine information on practice websites and website home pages and used Poisson regression with robust error variances to estimate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios for correlates of COVID-19 vaccine information, including practice size, practice region, university affiliation, and presence of information about seasonal influenza vaccines. Additionally, we performed sensitivity analyses to account for multiple comparisons. RESULTS: Of the 964 included family medicine practices, most (n=509, 52.8%) had ≥10 distinct locations, were unaffiliated with a university (n=838, 87.2%), and mentioned seasonal influenza vaccines on their websites (n=540, 56.1%). In total, 550 (57.1%) practices mentioned COVID-19 vaccines on their practices' website home page, specifically, and 726 (75.3%) mentioned COVID-19 vaccines anywhere on their practice website. As practice size increased, the likelihood of finding COVID-19 vaccine information on the home page increased (n=66, 27.7% among single-location practices, n=114, 52.5% among practices with 2-9 locations, n=66, 56.4% among practices with 10-19 locations, and n=304, 77.6% among practices with 20 or more locations, P<.001 for trend). Compared to clinics in the Northeast, those in the West and Midwest United States had a similar prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine information on website home pages, but clinics in the south had a lower prevalence (adjusted prevalence ratio 0.8, 95% CI 0.7 to 1.0; P=.02). Our results were largely unchanged in sensitivity analyses accounting for multiple comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: Given the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, primary care practitioners who promote and provide vaccines should strongly consider utilizing their existing practice websites to share COVID-19 vaccine information. These existing platforms have the potential to serve as an extension of providers' influence on established and prospective patients who search the internet for information about COVID-19 vaccines.

4.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2030, 2022 11 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108761

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Only 63.8% of Americans who are 18-to-24-years-old have been fully vaccinated for COVID-19 as of June 1, 2022. The Grand Forks County, North Dakota is facing a similar challenge. As of June 2022, 47% of individuals in the 19-to-29-year-old age group are vaccinated. Focusing on unvaccinated individuals in their 20s, Study 1 aims to understand the ways in which receiving COVID-19 vaccines is construed using qualitative interviews; and Study 2 compares the predictors of short-term vaccination intention (i.e., next month) with those of long-term vaccination intention (i.e., three to 5 years) using an online survey. METHODS: For Study 1, we conducted five focus groups and four in-depth interviews via Zoom with a total of 26 unvaccinated individuals in their 20s living in the Grand Forks County. Constant comparison process was used to categorize data into themes and to recognize characteristics of the identified themes. The aim was to develop themes and associated characteristics. For Study 2, we conducted an online survey with a convenience sample of 526 unvaccinated individuals. Logistic regression estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between attitudes, perceptions, and beliefs in misinformation and short-term and long-term vaccination intentions, accounting for demographics and socioeconomic status. RESULTS: In Study 1, two themes were identified: feelings of uncertainty sparked by profits and monetization and navigating the fear of the unknown. In Study 2, an increase in the confidence of COVID-19 vaccines showed significantly higher odds of short-term intention (OR = 2.658, 95%CI 1.770, 3.990) and long-term intention (OR = 1.568, 95% CI 1.105, 2.226). Believing in misinformation had significantly lower odds of short-term intention (OR = 0.712, 95%CI 0.513, 0.990), while more positive attitudes (OR = 1.439, 95% CI 1.024, 2.024), stronger preference in calculating the benefits of COVID-19 vaccines (OR = 2.108, 95% CI 1.541, 2.882), and greater perceived susceptibility (OR = 1.471, 95% CI 1.045, 2.070) to and severity of contracting COVID-19 (OR = 1.362, 95% CI 1.020, 1.820) were significantly associated with higher odds of long-term intention. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term and long-term intentions were predicted differently. Instilling strong confidence in COVID-19 vaccines should increase both short-term and long-term intentions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intention , Young Adult , Humans , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination Hesitancy , Vaccination
5.
Scand J Public Health ; : 14034948221134187, 2022 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108622

ABSTRACT

AIM: People may differ in their vaccine-related beliefs (i.e. efficacy, safety, purpose), with a host of factors influencing these differences. This can produce homogeneous groups of individuals who share certain beliefs, attitudes and opinions not only towards vaccines but science and medicine in general. This study aims to characterise distinct subgroups and identify ideal targets for tailored public health interventions to reinforce favourable vaccine beliefs. METHODS: Latent class analysis was used to derive unique profiles using the 2019 Gallup survey of 140 countries. We modelled a composite of vaccine beliefs and regressed this on class membership and relevant covariates. RESULTS: Patterns of item endorsement indicated a well-fitting five-class model, with classes distinguished based on whether individuals sought personal knowledge about science, medicine and health; trusted science and scientists; and reported confidence in the health care system. The lowest levels of vaccine beliefs were reported by a class lacking trust and confidence and the highest levels were reported by a class endorsing trust, confidence and desiring medical and scientific knowledge. Country-level income was moderately related to class membership, and vaccine beliefs were higher in lower-income countries. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that public health campaigns can focus on improving trust in science and medical providers. Efforts to improve vaccination rates can only be achieved when individuals trust science, view the work of scientists as beneficial and hold favourable views towards health care providers. Individuals will then accrue the necessary wisdom to make good health care decisions that affect not only themselves but also their fellow citizens.

6.
Appl Psychol Health Well Being ; 2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2107926

ABSTRACT

It is puzzling that a sizeable percentage of people refuse to get vaccinated against COVID-19. This study aimed to examine social psychological factors influencing their vaccine hesitancy. This longitudinal study traced a cohort of 2663 individuals in 25 countries from the time before COVID-19 vaccines became available (March 2020) to July 2021, when vaccination was widely available. Multilevel logistic regressions were used to examine determinants of actual COVID-19 vaccination behavior by July 2021, with country-level intercept as random effect. Of the 2663 participants, 2186 (82.1%) had been vaccinated by July 2021. Participants' attitude toward COVID-19 vaccines was the strongest predictor of both vaccination intention and subsequent vaccination behavior (p < .001). Perceived risk of getting infected and perceived personal disturbance of infection were also associated with higher likelihood of getting vaccinated (p < .001). However, religiosity, right-wing political orientation, conspiracy beliefs, and low trust in government regarding COVID-19 were negative predictors of vaccination intention and behavior (p < .05). Our findings highlight the importance of attitude toward COVID-19 vaccines and also suggest that certain life-long held convictions that predate the pandemic make people distrustful of their government and likely to accept conspiracy beliefs and therefore less likely to adopt the vaccination behavior.

7.
Vaccine ; 2022 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106131

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy has emerged as a major public health challenge. Although medical and scientific misinformation has been known to fuel vaccine hesitancy in the past, misinformation surrounding COVID-19 seems to be rampant, and increasing evidence suggests that it is contributing to COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy today. The relationship between misinformation and COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy is complex, however, and it is relatively understudied. METHODS: In this article, we report qualitative data from two related but distinct studies from a larger project. Study 1 included semi-structured, open-ended interviews conducted in October-November 2020 via phone with 30 participants to investigate the relationship between misinformation and COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. Study 1's results then informed the design of open-ended questions for Study 2, an online survey conducted in May-June 2021 to consider the relationship between misinformation and vaccine hesitancy further. The data were examined with thematic analysis. RESULTS: Study 1 led to the identification of positive and negative themes related to attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccines. In Study 2, responses from vaccine-hesitant participants included six categories of misinformation: medical, scientific, political, media, religious, and technological. Across both Study 1 and Study 2, six vaccine hesitancy themes were identified from the data: concerns about the vaccines' future effects, doubts about the vaccines' effectiveness, commercial profiteering, preference for natural immunity, personal freedom, and COVID-19 denial. CONCLUSIONS: The relationship between misinformation and vaccine hesitancy is complicated. Various types of misinformation exist, with each related to a specific type of vaccine hesitancy-related attitude. Personal freedom and COVID-19 denial are vaccine attitudes of particular interest, representing important yet understudied phenomena. Medical and scientific approaches may not be sufficient to combat misinformation based in religion, media, or politics; and public health officials may benefit from partnering with experts from those fields to address harmful misinformation that is driving COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy.

8.
Vaccine ; 2022 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106127

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multiple COVID-19 vaccines have now been licensed for human use, with other candidate vaccines in different stages of development. Effective and safe vaccines against COVID-19 have been essential in achieving global reductions in severe disease caused by severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), but multiple factors, including vaccine supply and vaccine confidence, continue to impact global uptake of COVID-19 vaccines. In this study, we explore determinants of COVID-19 vaccination intent across17 countries worldwide. METHODS: In this large-scale multi-country study, we explored intent to accept a COVID-19 vaccine and the socio-demographic and emotional determinants of uptake for 17 countries and over 19,000 individuals surveyed in June and July 2020 via nationally representative samples. We used Bayesian ordinal logistic regressions to probe the relationship between intent to accept a COVID-19 vaccine and individuals' socio-demographic status, their confidence in COVID-19 vaccines, and their recent emotional status. Gibbs sampling was used for Bayesian model inference, with 95% Bayesian highest posterior density intervals used to capture uncertainty. FINDINGS: Intent to accept a COVID-19 vaccine was found to be highest in India, where 77⋅8% (95% HPD, 75⋅5 to 80⋅0%) of respondents strongly agreeing that they would take a new COVID-19 vaccine if it were available. The Democratic Republic of Congo (15⋅5%, 12⋅2 to 18⋅6%) and France (26⋅4%, 23⋅7 to 29⋅2%) had the lowest share of respondents who strongly agreed that they would accept a COVID-19. Confidence in the safety, importance, and effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines are the most widely informative determinants of vaccination intent. Socio-demographic and emotional determinants played a lesser role, with being male and having higher education associated with increased uptake intent in five countries and being fearful of catching COVID-19 also a strong determinant of uptake intent. INTERPRETATION: Barriers to COVID-19 vaccine acceptance are found to be country and context dependent. These findings highlight the importance of regular monitoring of COVID-19 vaccine confidence to identify groups less likely to vaccinate.

9.
Vaccine ; 40(46): 6658-6663, 2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106126

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People with noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are at a significantly higher risk of worst outcomes if infected with COVID-19 and thus amongst the main target population for vaccination. Despite prioritizing them for vaccination, the number of vaccinated patients with comorbidities stalled post vaccine introduction. Despite that the government along with partners ran a national awareness campaign to ramp up vaccination coverage, the coverage remained suboptimal. Thus, a one-to-one health counselling initiative was implemented to explore the acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines by the NCDs patients and address the main issues surrounding vaccine hesitancy. This study evaluates the impact of this intervention by analyzing the change in COVID-19 vaccine acceptance. METHODS: In this analytical observational study, a random sample of 57,794 people living with NCDs were approached. Out of them, 12,144 received one-to-one counselling by a group of trained health professionals. The counselled group's vaccine acceptance was assessed on a Likert scale from 1 to 5 pre- and post- counselling. Moreover, a random sample was followed up 2 months after initial counselling to measure their vaccine acceptance and update their vaccination status. RESULTS: 44.5% of total respondents were already registered in the vaccination platform. On a scale from 1 to 5, the overall mean confidence significantly increased by 1.63 from 2.48 pre-counselling to 4.11 post-counselling. Two-months post counselling, a random sample was contacted again and had a mean vaccine confidence of 3.71, which is significantly higher than pre-counselling confidence level despite a significant decrease to post-counselling results. DISCUSSION: Implementing an intervention that targets all key factors impacting health decisions, such as health literacy, risk appraisal and response efficacy, helps reach an adaptive response and increase vaccine confidence. Scholars should be cautious when implementing an intervention since it could lead to maladaptive defensive responses. One-to-one interventions are more effective in population when addressing new interventions and vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control , Jordan , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Counseling
11.
SSM Popul Health ; 20: 101278, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106007

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 vaccine uptake has been suboptimal and disparities in uptake have exacerbated health inequities. It has been postulated that mistrust in the healthcare system and experiences of discrimination or unfair treatment in other settings may be barriers to uptake of the COVID-19 vaccine, although few studies to date have investigated medical mistrust and perceived discrimination together. Method: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey between April 23-May 3, 2021, among a national sample of U.S. adults ages 18 years and older. We assessed receipt of and intention to be vaccinated for COVID-19 and associations with the validated Medical Mistrust Index and Everyday Discrimination Scale. Results: 1449 individuals responded, of whom 70.2% either had ≥1 dose of COVID-19 vaccine or reported that they were 'very' or 'somewhat' likely to be vaccinated in the future. In bivariate analyses, vaccination status was significantly associated with age, race/ethnicity, education, income, employment, marital status, health insurance, and political party affiliation. In multivariable analyses comparing those who had ≥1 vaccine dose or were likely to get vaccinated in the future with those who had not had any vaccine doses or did not intend to be vaccinated, each additional point in the Medical Mistrust Index was independently associated with a 16% decrease in the odds of vaccination (adjusted odds ratio = 0.84; 95% confidence interval = 0.81, 0.86). Discriminatory experiences were not associated with vaccination behavior or intention in bivariate or multivariable analyses. Conclusions: Medical mistrust is significantly associated with vaccination status and intentions. Increasing uptake of COVID-19 vaccines will likely require substantive efforts on the part of public health and healthcare officials to build trust with those who are not yet fully vaccinated. We recommend that these efforts focus on building the 'trustworthiness' of these entities, an approach that will require a paradigm shift away from a focus on correcting individual beliefs and knowledge, to acknowledging and addressing the root causes underlying mistrust.

12.
Public Health Pract (Oxf) ; 4: 100338, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105786

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The Ethiopian government had planned to vaccinate the total population and started to deliver the COVID-19 vaccine but, there is limited evidence about vaccine acceptance among pregnant women. Thus, this study aimed to assess COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and associated factors among pregnant women attending an antenatal care unit clinic in Eastern Ethiopia. Study design: A facility-based cross-sectional study. Methods: A study was conducted from June 01 to 30/2021 among systematically selected pregnant women. Data were collected using a pre-tested structured questionnaire, which was adapted from previous studies, through a face-to-face interview. Predictors were assessed using a multivariable logistic regression model and reported using an adjusted odds ratio with 95% CI. Statistical significance was declared at p-value less than 0.05. Results: In this study, data from 645 pregnant women were used in the analysis. Overall, 62.2% of pregnant women were willing to be vaccinated if the vaccine is approved by the relevant authority. Fear of side effects (62.04%), a lack of information (54.29%), and uncertainty about the vaccine's safety and efficacy (25%) were the most common reasons for refusal to take the COVID-19 vaccine. The odds of unwillingness to accept the COVID-19 vaccine among pregnant women were increased significantly among mothers who were able to read and write [AOR = 2.9, 95% CI: (1.16, 7.23)], attain 9-12 grade level [AOR = 4.2, 95% CI: (2.1, 8.5)], lack information [AOR = 2.2, 95% CI: (1.41, 3.57)], and having a history of chronic diseases [AOR = 2.52, 95% CI: (1.34, 4.7)]. Conclusion: Less than two-thirds of pregnant women were willing to accept the COVID-19 vaccine. Extensive public health information dissemination aimed at women with lower educational backgrounds and a history of chronic disease could be critical.

13.
Public Health ; 213: 47-53, 2022 Sep 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105781

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The current health emergency caused by COVID-19 disease shows several correspondences with well-known epidemics of the past. The knowledge of their management and overcoming could give us useful tools to face the present COVID-19 pandemic and future epidemics. STUDY DESIGN: On 1 March 1801, the first smallpox vaccinations were carried out in Palermo, and a few weeks later, the vaccine was also administered in Naples and the various provinces of the Kingdom. We aim to study the mass vaccination programme initiated by the Bourbon king Ferdinand IV that was the first large-scale campaign to be conducted in Italy and one of the first in Europe. METHODS: The authors searched and examined historical testimony and different aspects linked to the public health issues on vaccination. It is a topical topic in the current period with the COVID pandemic. RESULTS: Albeit with the due differences determined by the passage of time and by the scientific and cultural advances of modern society, this testimony from the past can provide us with food for thought regarding how to face the present COVID-19 pandemic and to prepare for the future. Indeed, it shows us how the terrible smallpox epidemic was handled and finally overcome, thanks to vaccination.

14.
Public Health ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2105783

ABSTRACT

Objectives The study set out to measure public understanding of COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness (VE) and how effectiveness wanes with time since vaccination. Because perceived VE is a strong predictor of vaccine uptake, measuring perceptions can inform public health policy and communications. Study Design Online randomised experiment. Method The study was undertaken in Ireland, which has high vaccination rates. A nationally representative sample (n=2,000) responded to a scenario designed to measure perceptions of COVID-19 VE against mortality. The length of time since vaccination in the scenario was randomly varied across four treatment arms (2 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, 9 months). Results The public underestimates VE, with substantial variation in perceptions. A majority (57%) gave responses implying perceived VE against mortality of 0-85%, i.e. below scientific estimates. Among this group, mean perceived VE was just 49%. Over a quarter (26%) gave responses implying perceived VE greater than 95%, i.e. above scientific estimates. Comparing the four treatment groups, responses took no account of vaccine waning. Perceived VE was actually higher 9 months after vaccination than 2 weeks after vaccination. Conclusion Despite high vaccination rates, most of the public in Ireland underestimates VE. Furthermore, the general public has not absorbed the concept of vaccine waning in the months following vaccination. Both misperceptions may reduce vaccine uptake, unless public health authorities act to correct them through improved communication.

15.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 2138047, 2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2107200

ABSTRACT

Vaccination has proven to be the most effective tool in controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. While pregnant individuals are considered to be a high-risk population and are more likely to experience adverse effects from COVID-19, vaccination rates among pregnant individuals are significantly lower than in the general population. The Health Belief Model (HBM), Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), 3C model, 5C model, and 5A model have been used to assess vaccination hesitancy behaviors. In this paper, we review the use of each of these models to address vaccine hesitancy, with a focus on the pregnant population and the COVID-19 vaccine. The HBM, TPB, 3C model, and 5C model have demonstrated great versatility in their ability to evaluate, explain, and modify vaccine hesitancy and behavior. Up to date, the HBM and 3C models appear to be the most effective models to study and address vaccination hesitancy within the pregnant persons.

16.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 2131168, 2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2107198

ABSTRACT

Refugees, immigrants, and migrants (RIM) in the United States (US) have been identified as an underimmunized population prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. Vaccine acceptance is critical to combat the public health threat incited by COVID-19 and other vaccine-preventable disease. To better understand escalating vaccine hesitancy among US RIM, a comprehensive evaluation of the problem and solutions is necessary. In this systematic review, we included 57 studies to describe vaccination rates, barriers, and interventions addressing vaccine hesitancy over the past decade. Meta-analysis was performed among 22 studies, concluding that RIM represent an underimmunized population compared to the general US population. Narrative synthesis and qualitative methods were used to identify critical barriers, including gaps in knowledge, poor access to medical care, and heightened distrust of the medical system. Our results demonstrate the need for effective, evidence-based interventions to increase vaccination rates among diverse RIM populations.

17.
Cureus ; 14(9): e29705, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100381

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite significant advancements in immunization over the last century, vaccine hesitancy is a major threat to world health. Health-related information available from a variety of sources, including new media such as social media platforms, can encourage vaccine hesitancy. The aim of this study is to determine the level of vaccine hesitation among adults, specifically their belief in the advantages of vaccination and their perceptions of vaccine-related dangers in relation to social media addiction and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) anxiety. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between December 2021 and January 2022, 454 adults participated in an online cross-sectional survey consisting of the social media use disorder scale, the vaccine hesitancy scale, and the coronavirus anxiety scale. RESULTS: The results of the study revealed a strong correlation between social media addiction, vaccine hesitation, and COVID-19 anxiety. CONCLUSION: Given the potential for misinformation to spread through social media, especially in a situation like a pandemic, the conscious use of social media should be emphasized and anti-addiction measures are required. Novel programs including online interventions should be developed to promote vaccination among social media addicts who have relatively high vaccination hesitancy.

18.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(11)2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099909

ABSTRACT

Vaccination protects people from serious illness and associated complications.Conspiracy theories and misinformation on vaccines have been rampant during the COVID-19 pandemic and are considered significant drivers of vaccine hesitancy. Since vaccine hesitancy can undermine efforts to immunize the population against COVID-19 and interferes with the vaccination rate, this study aimed to ascertain the COVID-19-vaccine-related conspiracy beliefs, vaccine hesitancy, views regarding vaccine mandates, and willingness to pay for vaccines among the general population. A web-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted (April-August 2021) among the adult population in six countries (Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, India, Malaysia, Sudan, and Egypt). Participants were recruited using an exponential, non-discriminate snowball sampling method. A validated self-completed electronic questionnaire was used for the data collection. All the participants responded to questions on various domains of the study instrument, including conspiracy beliefs, vaccine hesitancy, and willingness to pay. The responses were scored according to predefined criteria and stratified into various groups. All data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 22. A total of 2481 responses were included in the study (Pakistan 24.1%, Saudi Arabia 19.5%, India 11.6%, Malaysia 8.1%, Sudan 19.3%, and Egypt 17.3%). There was a preponderance of participants ≤40 years old (18-25 years: 55.8%, 26-40 years: 28.5%) and females (57.1%). The average score of the COVID-19 vaccine conspiracy belief scale (C19V-CBS) was 2.30 ± 2.12 (median 2; range 0-7). Our analysis showed that 30% of the respondents were found to achieve the ideal score of zero, indicating no conspiracy belief. The mean score of the COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy scale (C19V-HS) was 25.93 ± 8.11 (range: 10-50). The majority (45.7%) had C19V-HA scores of 21-30 and nearly 28% achieved a score greater than 30, indicating a higher degree of hesitancy. There was a significant positive correlation between conspiracy beliefs and vaccine hesitancy (Spearman's rho = 0.547, p < 0.001). Half of the study population were against the vaccine mandate. Respondents in favor of governmental enforcement of COVID-19 vaccines had significantly (p < 0.001) lower scores on the C19V-CBS and C19V-HS scale. Nearly 52% reported that they would only take vaccine if it were free, and only 24% were willing to pay for COVID-19 vaccines. A high prevalence of conspiracy beliefs and vaccine hesitancy was observed in the targeted countries. Our findings highlight the dire need for aggressive measures to counter the conspiracy beliefs and factors underlying this vaccine hesitancy.

19.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(11)2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099901

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the attitudes and practices of Brazilian adults regarding the mandatory COVID-19 vaccination and their hesitancy towards the vaccination of children. METHODS: Between March and May 2022, Brazilian adults answered an online questionnaire distributed through social media. The SAGE-WG questionnaire was adapted to measure hesitancy to the vaccination of children. RESULTS: Of the 1007 participants, 67.4% believed that adult COVID-19 vaccination should be mandatory. Just over half of the participants (51.5%) believed that parents and/or guardians should decide if their children should be vaccinated against COVID-19 or not and 9.1% were unsure. Individuals who were younger, non-religious and had higher awareness of COVID-19 risks and critics of the federal government's performance in combating the pandemic were more likely to agree with mandatory adult vaccination. However, less agreement among parents and/or guardians concerning children's vaccination was observed, with lower scores for hesitancy to the vaccination of children. CONCLUSION: In Brazil, there is still far from a consensus on mandatory COVID-19 vaccination for adults and a significant proportion of the population believes that parents and/or guardians should be free to decide on their children's vaccination. These views are associated with age, religion, knowledge of COVID-19 risks and political inclination.

20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099553

ABSTRACT

Starting in early 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic has been responsible, worldwide, for millions of deaths and patients with long-COVID syndrome. In an attempt to stop the spread of the virus, the blanket administration of COVID-19 vaccines proved to be the most effective measure, yet the existence and availability of functional vaccines did not and, still, do not ensure the willingness and intent of people to be vaccinated. This study assessed the similarities and differences in vaccine fears and vaccine hesitancy through between clusters of subjects: people that were not infected with COVID-19, people that had COVID but did not develop long-lasting symptoms, and people that were infected with COVID and developed long-COVID syndrome. From the sample of 1111 Italian people, it was found that individuals who experienced mild symptoms showed higher vaccine hesitancy (confidence, complacency, and collective responsibility) than those who did not contract COVID-19. People affected by long-COVID showed a lower overall hesitancy than individuals who had COVID-19 without incurring long-lasting symptoms and, thus, essentially resembled people who had no experience of COVID-19 infection in terms of the vaccine hesitancy scores. Vaccine fear remained unchanged across all three of the examined clusters.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Vaccination Hesitancy , Pandemics , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Vaccination , Fear , Syndrome
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL