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1.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 29(6): 772-780, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2177755

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Evidence on the effects of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant on vaccinated and unvaccinated pregnant women is sparse. This study aimed to compare maternal and perinatal outcomes of women infected with SARS-CoV-2 during the Omicron wave in Italy, according to their vaccine protection. METHODS: This national prospective cohort study enrolled pregnant women with a positive SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal swab within 7 days of hospital admission between 1 January and 31 May, 2022. Women who received at least one dose of vaccine during pregnancy and those who completed the vaccine cycle with the first booster were considered protected against moderate or severe COVID-19 (MSCD). A multivariable logistic regression model evaluated the association between vaccine protection and disease severity. Maternal age, educational level, citizenship, area of birth, previous comorbidities, and obesity were analysed as potential risk factors. RESULTS: MSCD was rare (41/2147, 1.9%; 95% CI, 1.4-2.6), and the odds of developing it were significantly higher among unprotected women (OR, 2.78; 95% CI, 1.39-5.57). Compared with protected women (n = 1069), the unprotected (n = 1078) were more often younger, with lower educational degrees, and foreigners. A higher probability of MSCD was found among women with previous comorbidities (OR, 2.86; 95% CI, 1.34-6.12) and those born in Asian countries (OR, 3.05; 95% CI, 1.23-7.56). The percentage of preterm birth was higher among women with MSCD compared with milder cases (32.0% [8/25] versus 8.4% [161/1917], p < 0.001) as well as the percentage of caesarean section (52.0% [13/25] versus 31.6% [606/1919], p 0.029). DISCUSSION: Although severe maternal and perinatal outcomes were rare, their prevalence was significantly higher among women without vaccine protection. Vaccination during pregnancy has the potential to protect both the mother and the baby, and it is therefore strongly recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Cesarean Section , Prospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Vaccination , Italy/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control
2.
Cell ; 185(13): 2265-2278.e14, 2022 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1803705

ABSTRACT

Breakthrough infections by SARS-CoV-2 variants become the global challenge for pandemic control. Previously, we developed the protein subunit vaccine ZF2001 based on the dimeric receptor-binding domain (RBD) of prototype SARS-CoV-2. Here, we developed a chimeric RBD-dimer vaccine approach to adapt SARS-CoV-2 variants. A prototype-Beta chimeric RBD-dimer was first designed to adapt the resistant Beta variant. Compared with its homotypic forms, the chimeric vaccine elicited broader sera neutralization of variants and conferred better protection in mice. The protection of the chimeric vaccine was further verified in macaques. This approach was generalized to develop Delta-Omicron chimeric RBD-dimer to adapt the currently prevalent variants. Again, the chimeric vaccine elicited broader sera neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 variants and conferred better protection against challenge by either Delta or Omicron SARS-CoV-2 in mice. The chimeric approach is applicable for rapid updating of immunogens, and our data supported the use of variant-adapted multivalent vaccine against circulating and emerging variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Mice , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
4.
Clin Transl Med ; 11(12): e668, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1568016

ABSTRACT

The level of postvaccine protection depends on two factors: antibodies and T-cell responses. While the first one is relatively easily measured, the measuring of the second one is a difficult problem. The recent studies indicate that the first one may be a good proxy for the protection, at least for SARS-CoV-2. The massive data currently gathered by both researcher and citizen scientists may be pivotal in confirming this observation, and the collective body of evidence is growing daily. This leads to an acceptance of IgG antibody levels as an accessible biomarker of individual's protection. With enormous and immediate need for assessing patient condition at the point of care, quantitative antibody analysis remains the most effective and efficient way to assess the protection against the disease. Let us not discount importance of reference points in the turmoil of current pandemics.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies/chemistry , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Antibody Specificity , Humans , Immune System , Immunity , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Point-of-Care Systems , SARS-CoV-2 , Serologic Tests/methods , Serologic Tests/standards , Vaccines
6.
SN Compr Clin Med ; 3(6): 1261-1271, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1144436

ABSTRACT

Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine has been globally used to protect infants against tuberculosis (TB) for about a century. This vaccine has been shown to provide some degree of non-specific protection from other respiratory tract infections. This advantage has encouraged researchers to investigate the potential protection of this vaccine from the coronavirus disease 2019 from different perspectives in the ongoing pandemic. In this study, we have comprehensively reviewed the latest articles on potential vaccine effectiveness of BCG on COVID-19 and summarized the possible impacts of the BCG against SARS-COV-2 in detail.

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