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1.
Sociology of Health & Illness ; n/a(n/a), 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1819864

ABSTRACT

Previous research on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine hesitancy lacks a gender perspective, and it is unclear whether gender intersects with socioeconomic status to co-produce inequalities in people's intent to take vaccines. The current study draws on intersectionality theory and uses data from the 2021 US Household Pulse Survey (n = 50,359). Both bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted. The results suggest that American women had a higher vaccine hesitancy rate than men. Gender interacts with socioeconomic status to shape people's vaccine hesitancy in a complex way. Specifically, women living in poverty or currently working were more vaccine-hesitant, while poverty and employment status did not affect men's vaccine hesitancy. However, not having a college education contributed to both women's and men's COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. Moreover, women were more worried about the safety of the vaccine, but men's hesitancy tended to be driven by lower perceptions of COVID-19 dangers and belief in conspiratorial claims.

2.
Vaccine ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1819624

ABSTRACT

Background Several early COVID-19 studies aimed to assess the potential acceptance of a vaccine among healthcare providers, but relatively few studies of this population have been published since the vaccines became widely available. Vaccine safety, speed of development, and low perceived disease risk were commonly cited as factors for COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among this group. Purpose and Methods In a secondary analysis based on a cross-sectional, structured survey, the authors aimed to assess the associations between self-reported vaccine hesitancy and a number of sociodemographic and COVID-19 vaccine perception factors using data from 3,295 healthcare providers (physicians, nurses, community health workers, other healthcare providers) in 23 countries. Findings 494 (15.0%) of the participants reported vaccine hesitancy, of whom 132 (4.0%) would outright refuse to accept a COVID-19 vaccine. Physicians were the least hesitant. Vaccine hesitancy was more likely to occur among those with less than the median income and, to a lesser degree, younger age. Safety and risk concerns and lack of trust that vaccines would be equitably distributed were strongly associated with hesitancy, less so were concerns about the efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines. Interpretation Findings suggest a need to address safety and risk concerns through tailored messaging, training, and/or incentive approaches among healthcare providers, as well as the need for international and national vaccination efforts to ensure equitable distribution.

3.
Vaccine ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1819622

ABSTRACT

Demographics and media discourse impact vaccine hesitancy. We explored the New Zealand public's perceptions of COVID-19 vaccines and associated media portrayal, and determined predictive factors associated with willingness to receive vaccines. A community cohort (N=340) completed online surveys. A logistic regression explored whether characteristics predict willingness to receive the vaccine. Textual data were analysed thematically. Willingness to receive the vaccine was high (90%). Having a postgraduate degree (p=.026), trying to receive an influenza vaccine (p<.001) and fewer concerns (p<.001) predicted willingness. Health keyworkers (p<.001) were less willing. Participants wanted the vaccine for protection and returning to normality. Reasons against receiving vaccines regarded safety, efficacy, and an unclear roll-out plan. The media was reported to generally provide good/positive coverage, but also engage in unbalanced reporting and spreading misinformation. Education strategies should include collaborations between media and scientists and focus on distributing easy-to-access information. Health keyworkers should be reassured of testing/safety.

4.
Preventive Medicine Reports ; : 101810, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1819582

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy is context specific and highly dynamic in the United States. The objective of this study was to examine the underlying causes of COVID-19 vaccine use and hesitancy among students at two colleges in Central New York (USA) in order to better understand how to promote vaccination in this demographic. A Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs & Behaviors survey was designed to measure the relationship between gender, political ideology, media consumption, beliefs, mental health and anxiety, and pandemic-related behaviors. The survey was distributed by email to students in April 2021. Of 8,894 eligible respondents, 627 students completed the survey. Structural Equation Modeling was utilized to explore both direct and indirect relationships. Modeling suggests that the effect of political ideology (being more conservative) is to promote the consumption of right wing news, which in turn tends to increase vaccine hesitancy. Conservative political ideology does not directly lead to vaccine hesitancy, but it does encourage the consumption of news from sources that promote fear and hesitation about the vaccines. News sources significantly contribute to vaccine attitudes among this demographic.

5.
Journal of Medical Virology ; n/a(n/a), 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1819377

ABSTRACT

The promotion of the booster shots against SARS-CoV-2 infection is an open issue to be discussed. Little is known about the public intention and the influencing factors regarding the booster vaccine. A cross-sectional survey in Chinese adults was conducted using an online questionnaire, which designed on the basis of protection motivation theory (PMT) and vaccine hesitancy (VH) scales. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to compare the fitness of the PMT and VH scales for predicting booster vaccination intention. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze the factors associated with the acceptance. 6321 (76.8%) of participants were willing to take the booster shot. However, the rest of the participants (23.2%) were still hesitant to take the booster vaccine. The PMT scale was more powerful than the VH scale in explaining the vaccination intention. Participants with high perceived severity (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.69) and response cost (aOR = 0.47) were less willing to take the booster shots, but participants with high perceived susceptibility (aOR = 1.19), response efficacy (aOR = 2.13) and self-efficacy (aOR = 3.33) were more willing to take the booster shots. In summary, interventions based on PMT can provide guidance to ensure the acceptance of the booster vaccine.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

6.
Journal of Contemporary Clinical Practice ; 7(2):65-76, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1818892

ABSTRACT

Introduction This study aimed to explore the factors contributing to COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy (VH) among healthcare workers (HCWs) who missed the first dose of the COVID-19 vaccine in Nigeria. Methods We conducted a qualitative study of the factors contributing to COVID-19 VH among HCWs at the University College Hospital, Ibadan using purposive sampling technique. Each interview session was held through telephone conversation. Qualitative data were analyzed using Colaizzi's phenomenological method. Results The mean age of the 15 HCWs was 34.33±3.77 years;10 (66.7%) were females;6 (40.0%) were physiotherapists. Three themes were identified. The first theme, “Factors contributing to COVID-19 VH among healthcare workers” had five clusters: i) Lack of adequate information regarding the COVID-19 vaccine;ii) Challenges with immunization schedule;iii) Fear of side effects of the COVID-19 vaccine;iv) Lack of trust in the government;and v) Concerns about the safety of the COVID-19 vaccine. The second theme, “Healthcare workers' perception on the solution to COVID-19” had three clusters: i) Adherence to non-pharmaceutical measures;ii) Vaccine production: key to submerging the COVID-19 pandemic;and iii) Healthcare workers' perception of their roles in patient education on the COVID-19 vaccine. The third theme;“Recommendations to encourage COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among healthcare workers” had three clusters: i) Disclosure of extensive information on COVID-19 vaccine components;ii) Decentralization of COVID-19 vaccine collection points;and iii) Procurement of other brands of the COVID-19 vaccine. Conclusions Public health authorities should promote information on the safety and efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccine.

7.
Journal of Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology ; 32(1):7-12, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1818564

ABSTRACT

Objective: As approval of one of many coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) vaccines' use for pregnancy is getting closer, vaccine hesitancy may take place in pregnant individuals for this new vaccine. Our study aimed to evaluate vaccine acceptance and factors affecting vaccine acceptance in case of an approved COVID-19 vaccine for pregnant individuals. Material and Methods: Our study was designed as one group, cross-sectional, prospective study. Sample consisted of pregnant individuals who didn't have any chronic illnesses and didn't contract COVID-19 in the last 6 months. In-person style survey was used to collect data about demographics, knowledge about COVID- 19 disease and it's effects on pregnant individuals, vaccine acceptance and reasons for acceptance or refusal. Results were analyzed with descriptive statistics, chi-square test and Shapiro-Wilk test of normality using Number Cruncher Statistical System. Results: Among 250 participants, 183 (73.2%) reported they wouldn't accept COVID-19 vaccination if there was a safe and effective vaccine approved for use in pregnancy. Main reasons of refusal were the belief that vaccine hadn't been studied on humans enough or that it might have adverse effectes on baby and/or pregnant individual. Only factor associated with vaccine acceptance was found to be knowing someone who had severe COVID-19 disease (p=0.022). Conclusion: Our study shows that vaccine hesitancy rates may be high among pregnant individuals when a COVID-19 vaccine is approved for use in pregnancy. The main reason for vaccine hesitancy is safety concerns.

8.
Vaccines ; 10(3), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1818226

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 vaccination has been the subject of unprecedented misinformation, false news, and public concerns. This study presents a unique analysis comprising persons who were not vaccinated and became ill. It investigates reasons for not vaccinating and evaluates how the personal experience of COVID-19 affected further attitudes and decisions related to health. The study included 730 consecutive unvaccinated patients hospitalized in 12 centers in Poland during the autumn 2021 pandemic wave. The most frequent reason behind the refusal to receive the vaccine was concern over the adverse effects, disbelief that the vaccine was sufficiently tested, and one’s conviction that COVID-19 will not affect a patient. Online information, friends, spouse, children/grandchildren, and other family members were most often the source of discouragement from vaccination. Most individuals regretted their decision not to receive a vaccine (66.0%), declared to promote COVID-19 vaccination after discharge (64.0%), and to receive a COVID-19 vaccine in the time recommended for convalescents (69.5%). Individuals expressing no regrets of vaccine refusal more frequently revealed conspiracy beliefs. The study shows that personal experience with severe COVID-19 can influence the perception of vaccination, but approximately one-third of unvaccinated hospitalized patients still appear to express vaccine hesitancy.

9.
Vaccines ; 10(3), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1818225

ABSTRACT

In Italy, following the start of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccination campaign, community pharmacies (CPs) were recruited on a voluntary basis in order to administer COVID-19 vaccines as part of their activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate the knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding SARS-CoV-2 infection prevention, and vaccine acceptance/hesitancy towards COVID-19 and influenza vaccinations among the community pharmacists operating in the Palermo Province. A cross-sectional study was conducted, with two different questionnaires administered before and after the conduction of the vaccination campaign against SARS-CoV-2 at the COVID-19 vaccination center of the Palermo University Hospital (PUH). The baseline survey showed that 64% of community pharmacists (CPs) declared that they planned to vaccinate against SARS-CoV-2, and 58% were vaccinated against influenza during the 2020/2021 season. Factors significantly associated with willingness to receive the COVID-19 vaccination were confidence in vaccines (adjOR 1.76;CI 1.11–2.80), fear of contracting SARS-CoV-2 infection (adjOR 1.50;CI 1.06–2.11), considering COVID-19 vaccination to be the best strategy to counteract SARS-CoV-2 (adjOR 1.79;CI 1.39–2.29), and adherence to influenza vaccination during the 2020/2021 season (adjOR 3.25;CI 2.23–4.25). The adherence among CPs of the Palermo Province to COVID-19 vaccination was 96.5%. From the post-vac-cination survey, the main reasons for changing opinions on vaccination adherence were the introduction of mandatory vaccinations, fear of contracting COVID-19, and limitations on work activities in the case of vaccine refusal. The achievement of very high COVID-19 vaccination coverage rates among healthcare professionals (HCPs) in the present study was mainly due to the mandatory vaccination policies;nevertheless, a willingness for COVID-19 vaccination was relatively high among pharmacists before the beginning of the vaccination campaign. HCPs and CPs should receive train-ing on vaccination, which is recommended in the national immunization plan and is also suggested by the respondents in our study, in order to routinely re-evaluate their own vaccination profiles, as well as those of their patients.

10.
Vaccines ; 10(3), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1818223

ABSTRACT

Vaccine hesitancy is a major barrier to achieving large-scale COVID-19 vaccination. We report trends in vaccination intention and associated determinants from surveys in the adult general population in Greece. Four cross-sectional phone surveys were conducted in November 2020 and February, April and May 2021 on nationally representative samples of adults in Greece. Multino-mial logistic regression was used on the combined data of the surveys to evaluate independent predictors of vaccination unwillingness/uncertainty. Vaccination intention increased from 67.6% in November 2020 to 84.8% in May 2021. Individuals aged 65 years or older were more willing to be vaccinated (May 2021: 92.9% vs. 79.5% in 18–39 years, p < 0.001) but between age-groups differences decreased over time. Vaccination intention increased substantially in both men and women, though earlier among men, and was higher in individuals with prograduate education (May 2021: 91.3% vs. 84.0% up to junior high). From multivariable analysis, unwillingness and/or uncertainty to be vaccinated was associated with younger age, female gender (in particular in the April 2021 survey), lower educational level and living with a child ≤12 years old. Among those with vaccine hesitancy, concerns about vaccine effectiveness declined over time (21.6% in November 2020 vs. 9.6% in May 2021, p = 0.014) and were reported more often by men;safety concerns remained stable over time (66.3% in November 2020 vs. 62.1% in May 2021, p = 0.658) and were reported more often by women. In conclusion, vaccination intention increased substantially over time. Tailored communication is needed to address vaccine hesitancy and concerns regarding vaccine safety.

11.
Vaccines ; 10(3), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1818221

ABSTRACT

Health care professionals (HCPs) working in pediatric and perinatal settings have a strong influence on parental vaccine decision making. Furthermore, HCPs’ motivations behind vaccine acceptance are associated with their likelihood of recommending vaccines to their patients. Understanding these motivations in the context of the COVID-19 vaccination campaign may aid in the development of interventions that improve pediatric practitioners’ vaccine confidence and prescription. We aimed at studying the motivations affecting COVID-19 vaccination behavior among a sample of vaccinated Italian HCPs working in pediatric settings. A sample (n = 162) of HCPs completed an online self-reported survey exploring motivations behind getting vaccinated against COVID-19. Emotions of HCPs at the moment of COVID-19 vaccination injection were also recorded to collect data about the main feelings connected to the vaccination decision-making process. Data were collected between 19 March 2021 and 21 April 2021. The most effective motivational incentives were the beliefs that vaccination helped protect vulnerable members of the community (97.5% agreement), could protect one’s own health (93.7%), health authorities could be trusted (58.7%), and the vaccine had been rigorously tested (53.8%). Actual personal exposure to COVID was less important (reported importance agreement 16–24%), and the influence of news and social media was still lower (4–6%). Differences between physicians’ and other HCPs’ ratings were also found. Finally, emotional status at vaccination showed high ratings for positive emotions surrounding the vaccination act. This study provided additional evidence about the multifaceted motivations behind COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and showed the potential of understanding the psychosocial roots of vaccine behaviors for shaping public communication campaigns. The highly emotionally charged response obtained underscores the importance of strengthening the community feeling among HCPs.

12.
Vaccines ; 10(3), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1818220

ABSTRACT

Vaccine hesitancy due to safety concerns is a hindrance to the success of vaccination campaigns. In February 2021, Trinidad and Tobago commenced its National COVID-19 Vaccination Program. Healthcare workers were among the first group to receive the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (Oxford–AstraZeneca (Covishield, Serum Institute of India, Pune, India), the first COVID-19 vaccine available nationally. This study examined the safety of this vaccine in terms of the systemic and local adverse events following immunization reported by healthcare worker recipients. A cross-sectional study was conducted via a telephone questionnaire. Data concerning demographics, medical and COVID-19-related anamneses, and local and systemic side effects experienced within the first 48 h after receiving the first and second dose of this vaccine, respectively, were gathered. Among the 687 participants (male = 275;female = 412), prevalence of fever, body pain, chills, nausea, myalgia, headache, malaise, fatigue, and other systemic symptoms declined significantly 48 h after administration of the second dose compared to the first dose. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression demonstrated the greater likelihood of younger recipients to report systemic symptoms compared to older recipients. Multiple logistic regression indicated that females were more likely to report headache, fatigue, and discomfort, and were less likely to report no symptoms, compared to males, after both doses. On average, recipients reported less local and systemic side effects 48 h after receiving the second dose compared to the first dose. The reported rate of occurrence of side effects was <50% for most adverse events, which is consistent with the manufacturer’s claims that the vaccine is safe. This study adds data on the safety of this vaccine in a population that has not been previously studied. The findings can inform public health policy efforts to lower vaccine hesitancy based on safety concerns surrounding the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine across various groups in society, including healthcare workers.

13.
Vaccines ; 10(3), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1818217

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Booster vaccinations for SARS-CoV-2 convalescents are essential for achieving herd immunity. For the first time, this study examined the influencing factors of vaccination willingness among SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals and identified vaccination-hesitant subgroups. (2) Methods: Individuals with positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR results were recruited by telephone. They completed an online questionnaire during their home isolation in Germany. This questionnaire assessed the vaccination willingness and its influencing factors. (3) Results: 224 home-isolated individuals with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection were included in the study. Vaccination willingness of home-isolated SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals with asymptomatic or moderate course was 54%. The following factors were associated with significantly lower vaccination willingness: younger age, foreign nationality, low income, low trust in vaccination effectiveness, fear of negative vaccination effects, low trust in the governmental pandemic management, low subjective informativeness about SARS-CoV-2, support of conspiracy theories. (4) Conclusions: The vaccination willingness of home-isolated SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals with asymptomatic or moderate symptomatic course was low. Motivational vaccination campaigns should be adapted to individuals with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection and consider the vaccination-hesitant groups. Vaccination education should be demand-driven, low-threshold, begin during the acute infection phase, and be guided for example by the established 5C model (“confidence, complacency, constraints, calculation, collective responsibility”).

14.
Allergy, Asthma and Clinical Immunology ; 18(SUPPL 1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1817256

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 vaccination efforts focus on adolescents and adults and are expected to include children< age 12 years shortly. We aim to assess barriers and identify solutions for vaccination, especially in parents and their children. Methods: Families seen at the outpatient allergy clinic at the Montreal Children's Hospital and at a private allergy clinic were invited to complete an anonymous online survey on COVID-19 and vaccination. Statistical results were analyzed using R (version 4.0.0). Uni and multivariate logistic regressions were compared to estimate factors associated with vaccine hesitancy. Results: Between May and June 2021, 97 parents and children responded to the survey. The majority (36.1%) of children were 6 to 10 years old (range: 0 - 17years). Most parents (56.7%) were 40-49 years (range: 20-59 years) and 41.2% had at least college level education. The most common barrier to vaccination was fear of adverse effects. (49.5%). Over half of families (56.7%) believed that a history of allergies was a contra indication for vaccination. Fifty-nine (60.8%) participants stated that dissemination of additional information would increase their willingness to be vaccinated. Educational videos (59.8%) were preferred by respondent. Health professionals i.e. (physicians, nurses and pharmacists) were the favored sources of information. Most (96.9%) parents reported that their children's vaccinations were up to date. Interestingly 76.3% of parents indicated they would vaccinate their children for while only 44.3% stated a plan to vaccinate for seasonal influenza in 2021 COVID (28.1% difference, 95%CI: 17.9%, 46.0%). Hesitant parents were less likely to have children between the ages of 11-14 and were more likely to be of Asian descent while controlling for parental sex and education level. Conclusions: Most families of children with food allergy plan to vaccinate their children for COVID-19. Videos addressing identified concerns and misinformation, especially the adverse effects of this vaccine would be reassuring.

15.
Allergy, Asthma and Clinical Immunology ; 18(SUPPL 1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1817252

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has increased levels of anxiety for many Canadians. However, patients with known allergies/immunological conditions have been particularly anxious regarding COVID- 19 and related vaccinations. The purpose of this study is to describe patients with COVID-19 vaccine concerns who did not experience any reactions and explore the reactions that did occur. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed for patients seen at an Allergy and Immunology clinic in Toronto, Ontario between December 2020 and June 2021. Patients were included if they spoke with staff regarding COVID-19 vaccine concerns or reported a reaction to one of the vaccines. Results: There were 41 patients (53.7% female) concerned about the COVID-19 vaccine who had no reaction. Approximately half received one dose (n = 19, 46.3%) of the vaccine. The mRNA vaccines were the most common (Pfizer-BioNTech n = 28, 68.3%;Moderna n = 4, 9.8%;not reported n = 6, 14.6%). Most common reasons for concern included history of urticaria (n = 11, 26.8%), adverse reaction to a vaccine or drug (n = 10, 24.4%), anaphylaxis (n = 7, 17.1%) or known polyethylene glycol allergy (n = 5, 12.2%). For those who experienced a vaccine reaction (n = 33, 90.9% female), 26 (83.9%) had a known allergy(ies) or immunological condition. The majority received the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine (n = 26, 78.8%), followed by Moderna (n = 5, 15.2%) and AstraZeneca (n = 2, 6.1%). Approximately half of patients received one dose (n = 14, 42.4%;not reported n = 5, 15.2%). The most common reactions were urticaria (n = 12, 36.4%), paresthesia (n = 6, 18.2%), “COVID arm” (n = 4, 12.1%) and other cutaneous manifestations (n = 4, 12.1%). Majority of patients reported complete resolution of symptoms within a few days to weeks (n = 26, 78.8%), while seven (21.1%) have ongoing symptoms. Conclusions: From preliminary data, only 33 patients reacted to a COVID-19 vaccine. Although vaccine hesitancy is prevalent and risk of reaction is low, patients with allergy(ies)/immunological conditions may benefit from an allergist/immunologist consultation prior to vaccination.

16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1):407, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1817189

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this work was to explore barriers and facilitators to uptake of COVID-19 vaccines and to explore views and reactions to efforts to improve vaccine uptake among vaccine hesitant individuals. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with people between the age of 18-29 years who had not had a COVID-19 vaccine, and those between 30 and 49 years who had not had a second dose of a COVID-19 vaccine. RESULTS: A total of 70 participants took part in the study, 35 participants had received one dose, and 35 had not been vaccinated. Participants described a willingness to be vaccinated to keep themselves and those around them safe and to avoid restrictions. Barriers to uptake included: (1) perceived lack of need for COVID-19 vaccinations, (2) concerns about the efficacy of vaccinations, (3) concerns about safety, and (4) access issues. Uptake appeared to be influenced by age and health status, trust in government, and knowledge and understanding of science. Introduction of vaccine passes may provide a motive for having a vaccine but may be viewed as coercive. CONCLUSION: Participants were hesitant, rather than opposed, and had questions about their need for, and the safety and efficacy of the vaccine. Young people did not consider themselves to be at risk of becoming ill from COVID-19, did not think the vaccination was effective in preventing transmission, and did not think sufficient research had been conducted regarding possible long-term side-effects. Concerns were exacerbated by a lack of trust in government, and misunderstanding of science. To promote uptake, public health campaigns should focus on the provision of information from trusted sources that explains the benefits of vaccination and addresses safety concerns more effectively. To overcome inertia in people with low levels of motivation to be vaccinated, appointments must be easily accessible.

17.
Vaccine ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1815244

ABSTRACT

Ethnic minority communities in the UK have been disproportionately affected by the pandemic, with increased risks of infection, severe disease, and death. Hesitancy around the COVID-19 vaccine may be contributing to disparities in vaccine delivery to ethnic minority communities. This systematic review aims to strengthen understanding of COVID-19 vaccine concerns among ethnic minorities in the UK. Five databases were searched in February 2022, yielding 24 peer-reviewed studies reporting on vaccine hesitancy or acceptance in ethnic minority groups. Data were extracted using a standardised form, and quality assessment was carried out using the Standard Quality Criteria. There were three key themes: (1). Prevalence of vaccine hesitancy;(2). Reasons for vaccine hesitancy and acceptance;and (3). Recommendations to address vaccine concerns. Vaccine hesitancy, which was more common among some ethnic minority groups, is a complex phenomenon, driven by misinformation, mistrust, concerns about safety and efficacy, and structural and systemic inequities. Community engagement and tailored communication may help to address vaccine concerns. Robust data disaggregated by ethnicities are needed to better understand barriers and facilitators for COVID-19 vaccine delivery in ethnic minority communities. Strategies to address structural disadvantage need to be inclusive, comprehensive, and behaviorally informed and foster confidence in healthcare systems and governments. Community leaders and health care practitioners may prove to be the most important agents in creating an environment of trust within ethnic minority groups.

18.
Preventive Medicine Reports ; : 101808, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1815063

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccines are effective in preventing COVID-19 infection, disease, and death. However, there is no data about vaccine intentions among the 10.7 million undocumented immigrants in the US. This study examined the associations between immigration enforcement exposure and vaccine intentions among undocumented immigrants in California. This community-engaged study partnered with immigrant organizations across California during the COVID-19 pandemic to recruit 366 study participants to an online survey regarding their attitudes about the COVID-19 vaccine and past exposure with the immigration enforcement system. Data collection occurred from September 2020 – February 2021 before the vaccine became available. Overall, 65% of study participants indicated that they would definitely get the vaccine were it to become available. In multivariable logistic regressions, an increase in immigration enforcement scores were associated with a 12% decrease in vaccine acceptance (aOR=0.88, CI: 0.78-0.99). Additionally, undocumented women were 3.09 times more likely to report vaccine acceptance compared to undocumented men (CI: 1.79-5.35) and undocumented Asians were 57% less likely to report vaccine acceptance compared to undocumented Latinx immigrants (aOR=0.43, CI: 0.21-0.88). Exposure to the immigration enforcement system may undermine public health efforts to prevent further transmission of COVID-19 by reducing acceptability of vaccines among immigrant populations.

19.
Journal of Psychiatric Research ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1814802

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 vaccination campaign led to hesitancy, deferment and un-resolving resistance of certain groups or individuals worldwide. Reasons for these reactions include distrust in the COVID-19 vaccine that was developed rapidly, lack of trust in governing entities and unrealistic optimism (UO). Each of these reasons may involve claims of secret intentions or conspiracy theories. The present study examined the role of three different explanations for vaccine hesitancy and rejection, in predicting psychological coping, distress, and level of vaccine uptake, throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. Blaming the vaccine and its producers, blaming the state's authorities, and expressing criticism in UO terms, which may hint of some secret intention that underlies the vaccination request. The research was conducted on a sample of 2002 Israeli adults who responded to an anonymous questionnaire about vaccine hesitancy and psychological coping. We assumed that conspiracy theories aimed at the medical and the governing authorities, and the UO insinuations of covert intentions of these authorities, represent two different psychological processes. UO responses to adversity are aimed at reducing anxiety attributing covert intentions to the authorities and the pharmaceutical companies is an expression of anxiety. Three major hypotheses are examined. First, stronger criticism of the vaccine will be associated with a lower level of vaccination. Second, more extreme criticism of the political and the medical authorities for requesting vaccination, raised as a reason for vaccine hesitation will positively predict a higher level of anxiety and negatively predict the extent of good psychological coping. A stronger opposition to the vaccine in terms of UO will be positively associated with a greater scope of resilience and coping and will be negatively linked to indicators of distress. Results supported these hypotheses and enhanced the ongoing discussion on the contribution of UO to psychological adjustment, by illustrating its beneficial effects on this adjustment. Conspiracy Theories and Secret Intentions as Predictors of Psychological Coping and Vaccine Uptake throughout the COVID-19 Pandemic in Israel.

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