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1.
Environ Pollut ; 313: 120166, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031270

ABSTRACT

The rapid growth of plastic wastes exceeds efforts to eliminate plastic pollution owing to the outbreak of COVID-19 in 2020 and then aggravates inherent environmental threats to the ecosystem. The paper provided a short introduction relating to the hazards of plastic wastes on environment and a detailed statement about plastic toxicity on human. The article stated on plastic how to enter the body and cause harm for us step by step. Given the toxicity and harm of plastic wastes on human, the degradation of plastic wastes via the physical, chemical and biotic methodologies is looked back. The advanced physical techniques are introduced briefly at firstly. Additionally, evaluate on chemical method for plastic decomposition and review on biotic degradation of plastic. The reactive oxygen species and the enzymes play a crucial role in chemical and biotic degradation processes, respectively. The reactive oxygen species are derived from the activated state of oxides, and the enzymes that aid the microorganism to ingest plastic through its metabolic mechanism are secreted by the microorganism. Subsequently, the potential possibility of upcycling plastic is analyzed from two aspects of the technology and application. The innovative technology utilizes sunlight as driver-power of plastic upcycling. And the carbon capture, utilization and sequestration and the growth substrate provided the novel guided directions for plastic recycle. Lastly, the three suggestions on plastic waste management are expected to establish an economy and efficient plastic sorting system, and two engineering solutions on plastic recycle are to make a contribution for sustainable upcycling of plastic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Plastics , Carbon , Ecosystem , Humans , Oxides , Plastics/toxicity , Reactive Oxygen Species , Technology
2.
Sustainability ; 14(17):10862, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024206

ABSTRACT

The waste generated by small-scale ultra-fresh juice producers, such as bistros and restaurants, has been little studied so far, mainly because it is unevenly distributed and dissipated in the economic ecosystem and would require high costs associated with transportation and subsequent recovery of bio composites. The present article seeks to offer solutions by providing sustainable methods to reduce their waste losses to a minimum and transform them into valuable products, with affordable equipment and techniques. The study focuses on the preliminary phase of quantitative analysis of fruit and vegetable by-products generated on a small scale, the results showing a mean 55% productivity in fresh juices. Due to the high amount of remnant water content in waste, a new process of mechanically pressing the resulting squeezed pulp was introduced, generating an additional yield in juice, ranging from 3.98 to 51.4%. Due to the rising trend in healthier lifestyle, the by-products were frozen or airdried for conservation in each of the processing stages, and the total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were analyzed in order to assess the traceability of these bioactive compounds to help maximize their transfer into future final products. The polyphenols transferred into by-products varied between 7 and 23% in pulps and between 6 and 20% in flours. The highest DPPH potential was found in flours, up to three-fold in comparison with the raw material, but the high dry substance content must be accounted for. The results highlight the potential of reusing the processing waste as a reliable source of bioactive compounds.

3.
Chemical Engineering Journal ; 451:138603, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1982695

ABSTRACT

In accordance with global economic prosperity, the frequencies of food delivery and takeout orders have been increasing. The pandemic life, specifically arising from COVID-19, rapidly expanded the food delivery service. Thus, the massive generation of disposable plastic food containers has become significant environmental problems. Establishing a sustainable disposal platform for plastic packaging waste (PPW) of food delivery containers has intrigued particular interest. To comprise this grand challenge, a reliable thermal disposable platform has been suggested in this study. From the pyrolysis process, a heterogeneous plastic mixture of PPW was converted into syngas and value-added hydrocarbons (HCs). PPW collected from five different restaurants consisted of polypropylene (36.9 wt%), polyethylene (10.5 wt%), polyethylene terephthalate (18.1 wt%), polystyrene (13.5 wt%), polyvinyl chloride (4.2 wt%), and other composites (16.8 wt%). Due to these compositional complexities, pyrolysis of PPW led to formations of a variety of benzene derivatives and aliphatic HCs. Adapting multi-stage pyrolysis, the different chemicals were converted into industrial chemicals (benzene, toluene, styrene, etc.). To selectively convert HCs into syngas (H2 and CO), catalytic pyrolysis was adapted using supported Ni catalyst (5 wt% Ni/SiO2). Over Ni catalyst, H2 was produced as a main product due to CH bond scission of HCs. When CO2 was used as a co-reactant, HCs were further transformed to H2 and CO through the chemical reactions of CO2 with gas phase HCs. CO2-assisted catalytic pyrolysis also retarded catalyst deactivation inhibiting coke deposition on Ni catalyst.

4.
Canadian Journal on Aging ; 41(3):501-502, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1947136

ABSTRACT

Contributors cover a range of SRV theory applications: measures of service quality rooted in SRV and grounded in the perspectives of service recipients, a critique of respite for older individuals and their caregivers, an analysis of three common residential models for older people, and the importance of developing counter-narratives to the prevailing stories of the decline, disease, and disengagement of older people that are so prevalent that they are rarely questioned. The devastating revelations of long-term care in Canada during the COVID-19 pandemic has shown that the claim of “home-like” is a gross overstatement. Several contributors note that the current set of expectations for old age mirrors what families of children with disabilities faced: one either takes care of oneself or faces the rest of life in residential options, downsized into a hospital bed in a shared room, and attended to by strangers.

5.
Resources, Conservation and Recycling Advances ; 14, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1886052

ABSTRACT

Bauxite residue (BR), simultaneously an environmental challenge as well as known to be a secondary resource for resources various valuable metals like Ti, V, Ga, and rare earth metal (REM). Lack of understanding and technology detects BR to be stockpiled which is counterproductive considering the environment, land scarcity, and management of BR inventories. As BR remains unexploited, significant amounts of REMs in BR remain unlocked, which are critical metals from green energy, environmental sustainability, and supply chain bottleneck perspective. Our current investigation analyses the potential of BR as secondary resources and quantity and worth of REM being remains unlocked. The quantitative content of global bauxite, alumina, and BR production during the last 5 decades have been analyzed. Also, plausible BR generation in the next 3 decades has been estimated. Considering the content of REM in BR amount of REM either stockpiled or to be stockpiled along with BR has been analyzed. Our study indicated about 9.14 million tons of REM remain locked in the stockpiled BR, 31.24 million tons of REM remain locked in the bauxite reserve. The worth of worldwide REM oxide remains unexploited in bauxite reserves and locked in stockpiled BR could be approximately $5000 billion, potentially can meet current and project demand of REM abundantly.

6.
Khimiya Rastitel'nogo Syr'ya ; - (1):11-33, 2022.
Article in Russian | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1876206

ABSTRACT

The review considers two directions of lignin valorization: valorization of technical lignins, as such, without preliminary depolymerization, and valorization through monomeric compounds formed as a result of their selective destruction. The first area includes the production of lignin hydrogels, the use of lignin in medicine and pharmacology, 3D printing, as well as in the production of carbon fibers and biofuels. Lignin hydrogels are distinguished by a high sorption capacity with respect to heavy metals such as lead, iron and copper, which, depending on the content of acidic groups in lignin and the molar mass of sorbate, is ~ 25-50% of the mass of lignin, and therefore they can be used for the purification of waste waters of chemical enterprises. Lignin has high biological activity against various pathogens, including viruses, which makes research in this area very relevant, especially against the backdrop of the COVID-19 pandemic. The use of lignin in some composites for 3D printing can increase the mechanical strength of finished products. The industrial implementation of the technology for the production of carbon fibers from lignin will ensure a twofold reduction in the mass of vehicles. The second direction of lignin valorization - hydrogenolysis and selective oxidation - allows one to obtain monomeric compounds with a yield close to the theoretical one. The economic aspects of valorization are also considered. In addition, based on a comparison of the results of valorization of coniferous and deciduous lignins, a hypothesis on the structure of native lignin was proposed. © 2022 Altai State University. All rights reserved.

7.
Revue Medicale Suisse ; 16(706):1695-1698, 2020.
Article in French | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1870406

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has imposed a reorganization of our health care system leading to an unhoped-for boom in telemedicine, particularly in Geneva. The deployment of HUG@home at the Geneva University Hospitals and of docteur@home in the doctors’ offices has allowed health professionals to come together around a single solution thus ensuring continuity of care for patients with chronic diseases but also the triage and follow-up of patients with COVID-19 in compliance with security and confidentiality rules. The ease of use of remote consultation tools is essential for the sustainable anchoring of telemedicine in practice. The supervision of practices, training and the financial valorization of telemedicine are also necessary for the development of quality care.

8.
Regionalʹnai︠a︡ Ėkonomika. I︠U︡g Rossi ; 10(1), 2022.
Article in Russian | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1836062

ABSTRACT

The sugar industry plays an important role in the Russian economy and the southern Russian regions are the main producers of sugar in Russia (the Southern Federal District ranks the second in the production of white sugar). The specificity of sugar production is expressed in its high dependence on producers of beet raw materials, as well as in the presence of a significant amount of various types of waste, faces many problems of sustainable development in the sugar industry. The purpose of this article is to identify strategic factors for the sustainable development of sugar production, taking into account the challenges and threats of the new reality. In the study of strategic factors of sustainable development of the sugar industry, the authors identify demand factors and supply factors, as well as risk factors and stress factors. It is proved that the main threat to the sustainable development of the sugar industry is currently expressed in the risks of breaking supply chains in the conditions of the crisis caused by Coronavirus. This study focuses on the risk of stability reduction of the supply of beet raw materials. This risk is directly connected with the level of development of beet production in the region. As a result of the analysis, it was revealed that a decrease in the cultivated areas of sugar beet in the Southern Federal District is a stressful factor in the development of sugar industry. To solve this problem, state subsidies are proposed for projects for the development of abandoned agricultural land for beet cultivation. The solution of the problems of environmental sustainability growth of sugar production is associated with the circular economy models. It is concluded that the strategic factors of sustainable development of sugar industry in the South of Russia are directly connected with technological innovations in the agro-industrial sphere of the region, the implementation of which is largely determined by the level of state support for the industry.Alternate : Сахарная промышленность играет важную роль в российской экономике, а южнороссийские регионы являются основными производителями сахара в России (ЮФО занимает 2-е место по производству белого сахара). Специфика сахарного производства, выражающаяся в его высокой зависимости от производителей свекловичного сырья и наличии значительного количества различного вида отходов, сталкивается со множеством проблем обеспечения устойчивого развития. Цель данной статьи состоит в выявлении стратегических факторов устойчивого развития сахарного производства, учитывая вызовы и угрозы новой реальности. Ð’ исследовании стратегических факторов устойчивого развития сахарной промышленности авторы выделяют факторы спроса и факторы предложения, а также факторы риска и стрессовые факторы. Обосновывается, что основная угроза устойчивому развитию сахарной промышленности в настоящее время выражается в рисках разрыва цепочек поставок в условиях коронакризиса. Соответственно, в данном исследовании основное внимание уделяется риску снижения стабильности поставок свекловичного сырья, непосредственно связанному с уровнем €Ð°Ð·Ð²Ð¸Ñ‚ия свекловичного производства в регионе. Ð’ результате анализа выявлено, что уменьшение посевных площадей сахарной свеклы в ЮФО является стрессовым фактором развития сахарной промышленности. Для решения данной проблемы предлагается государственное субсидирование проектов освоения заброшенных сельскохозяйственных угодий под выращивание свеклы. Решение проблем повышения экологической устойчивости сахарного производства возможно на основе реализации моделей циркулярной экономики. Сделан вывод о том, что стратегические факторы устойчивого развития сахарной промышленности на Юге России непосредственно связаны с технологическими инновациями в АПК региона, реализация которых во многом определяется уровнем государственной поддержки отрасли.

9.
Bioresour Technol ; 348: 126798, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1664684

ABSTRACT

In this work, the co-processing of waste surgical masks, waste motor oil, and biomass was investigated to reduce the environmental impacts of the increasing medical-derived plastic pollution as well as to elucidate its effect on the production of chemicals . The results showed high yields towards an oily product with an interesting hydrocarbon content in the diesel range. Furthermore, although the initial waste motor oil had a high sulfur content, the oily products showed a low sulfur content, that was logically distributed in the solid and gas phases. In addition, all oily products presented HHVs ​​higher than 44 MJ/Kg, with cetane indices, densities, and viscosities lower than those of petroleum-derived diesel. This work could impact on the management of waste surgical masks and the joint recovery of everyday waste towards high value-added products.


Subject(s)
Masks , Petroleum , Biomass , Oils , Plastics
10.
ChemSusChem ; 15(2): e202102351, 2022 Jan 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1565188

ABSTRACT

A novel route for the valorization of waste into valuable products was developed. Surgical masks commonly used for COVID 19 protection by stopping aerosol and droplets have been widely used, and their disposal is critical and often not properly pursued. This work intended to transform surgical masks into platinum group metal-free electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) as well as into crude oil. Surgical masks were subjected to controlled-temperature and -atmosphere pyrolysis, and the produced char was then converted into electrocatalysts by functionalizing it with metal phthalocyanine of interest. The electrocatalytic performance characterization towards ORR and HER was carried out highlighting promising activity. At different temperatures, condensable oil fractions were acquired and thoroughly analyzed. Transformation of waste surgical masks into electrocatalysts and crude oil can open new routes for the conversion of waste into valuable products within the core of the circular economy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Petroleum , Humans , Masks , Pyrolysis , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Molecules ; 26(2)2021 Jan 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389465

ABSTRACT

The food sector includes several large industries such as canned food, pasta, flour, frozen products, and beverages. Those industries transform agricultural raw materials into added-value products. The fruit and vegetable industry is the largest and fastest-growing segment of the world agricultural production market, which commercialize various products such as juices, jams, and dehydrated products, followed by the cereal industry products such as chocolate, beer, and vegetable oils are produced. Similarly, the root and tuber industry produces flours and starches essential for the daily diet due to their high carbohydrate content. However, the processing of these foods generates a large amount of waste several times improperly disposed of in landfills. Due to the increase in the world's population, the indiscriminate use of natural resources generates waste and food supply limitations due to the scarcity of resources, increasing hunger worldwide. The circular economy offers various tools for raising awareness for the recovery of waste, one of the best alternatives to mitigate the excessive consumption of raw materials and reduce waste. The loss and waste of food as a raw material offers bioactive compounds, enzymes, and nutrients that add value to the food cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. This paper systematically reviewed literature with different food loss and waste by-products as animal feed, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical products that strongly contribute to the paradigm shift to a circular economy. Additionally, this review compiles studies related to the integral recovery of by-products from the processing of fruits, vegetables, tubers, cereals, and legumes from the food industry, with the potential in SARS-CoV-2 disease and bacterial diseases treatment.


Subject(s)
Agriculture/methods , Drug Industry , Food Industry , Waste Products/economics , Agriculture/economics , Cosmetics/economics , Edible Grain , Food-Processing Industry/economics , Food-Processing Industry/methods , Fruit , Plant Roots , Plant Tubers , Vegetables
12.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(5)2021 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241233

ABSTRACT

Lignin has recently attracted the attention of the scientific community, as a suitable raw material for biomedical applications. In this work, acetylated lignin was used to encapsulate five different porphyrins, aiming to preserve their photophysical properties, and for further use as antibacterial treatment. The obtained nanoparticles were physically characterized, through dynamic light scattering size measurement, polydispersity index and zeta potential values. Additionally, the photophysical properties of the nanoparticles, namely UV-vis absorption, fluorescence emission, singlet oxygen production and photobleaching, were compared with those of the free porphyrins. It was found that all the porphyrins were susceptible to encapsulation, with an observed decrease in their fluorescence quantum yield and singlet oxygen production. These nanoparticles were able to exert an effective photodynamic bactericide effect (blue-LED light, 450-460 nm, 15 J/cm2) on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Furthermore, it was achieved a photodynamic bactericidal activity on an encapsulated lipophillic porphyrin, where the free porphyrin failed to diminish the bacterial survival. In this work it was demonstrated that acetylated lignin encapsulation works as a universal, cheap and green material for the delivery of porphyrins, while preserving their photophysical properties.

13.
Energy (Oxf) ; 230: 120876, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230473

ABSTRACT

In this study, co-pyrolysis of single-use face mask (for the protection against COVID-19) and food waste was investigated for the purpose of energy and resource valorization of the waste materials. To this end, disposable face mask (a piece of personal protective equipment) was pyrolyzed to produce fuel-range chemicals. The pyrolytic gas evolved from the pyrolysis of the single-use face mask consisted primarily of non-condensable permanent hydrocarbons such as CH4, C2H4, C2H6, C3H6, and C3H8. An increase in pyrolysis temperature enhanced the non-condensable hydrocarbon yields. The pyrolytic gas had a HHV of >40 MJ kg-1. In addition, hydrocarbons with wider carbon number ranges (e.g., gasoline-, jet fuel-, diesel-, and motor oil-range hydrocarbons) were produced in the pyrolysis of the disposable face mask. The yields of the gasoline-, jet fuel-, and diesel-range hydrocarbons obtained from the single-use mask were highest at 973 K. The pyrolysis of the single-use face mask yielded 14.7 wt% gasoline-, 18.4 wt% jet fuel-, 34.1 wt% diesel-, and 18.1 wt% motor oil-range hydrocarbons. No solid char was produced via the pyrolysis of the disposable face mask. The addition of food waste to the pyrolysis feedstock led to the formation of char, but the presence of the single-use face mask did not affect the properties and energy content of the char. More H2 and less hydrocarbons were produced by co-feeding food waste in the pyrolysis of the disposable face mask. The results of this study can contribute to thermochemical management and utilization of everyday waste as a source of energy.

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