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1.
Pharmaceutical Technology ; 45(9):26-28, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2169917
2.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2150218

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), disproportionately affects immunocompromised and elderly patients. Not only are hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell recipients at greater risk for severe COVID-19 and COVID-19-related complications, but they also may experience suboptimal immune responses to currently available COVID-19 vaccines. Optimizing the use, timing, and number of doses of the COVID-19 vaccines in these patients may provide better protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection and better outcomes after infection. To this end, current guidelines for COVID-19 vaccination in HCT and CAR T-cell recipients from the American Society of Transplantation and Cellular Therapy Transplant Infectious Disease Special Interest Group and the American Society of Hematology are provided in a frequently asked questions format.

3.
JAAD Case Reports ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2159235
4.
Vnitr Lek ; 68(7): 444-448, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2114787

ABSTRACT

Kidney transplant recipients are a very vulnerable population at risk of severe course and death from Covid-19. Several antiviral drugs are now available for the treatment of nonhospitalized individuals with mild to moderate Covid-19 and hospitalized patients with severe disease. The combination of monoclonal antibodies is also available to be used as pre-exposure prophylaxis in elderly patients. Previously used monoclonal antibodies for post-exposure prophylaxis are no longer effective because of the new mutations and are no longer recommended. Although the immune response to Covid-19 vaccines is impaired in kidney transplant recipients, the effectiveness of the Covid-19 vaccines was described even in this immunocompromised group. Therefore vaccination, together with anti-epidemic measures, remains the most important tool to prevent Covid-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Aged , Humans , Antibodies, Monoclonal , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Vaccination
5.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(10)2022 Oct 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071922

ABSTRACT

The mortality rate after novel coronavirus infection, which causes severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (SARS-CoV-2), is much higher in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) compared to the general population. Seroconversion after vaccination is also lower, and breakthrough infection is much higher. Many studies reported seroconversion rate after a booster (third) dose of vaccine but clinical outcomes received less attention. Here, we reported the impact of an mRNA vaccine booster dose on clinical outcomes of KTRs with SARS-CoV-2 infection. A total of 183 KTRs with SARS-CoV-2 infection were identified. Of 183 KTRs, 146 KTRs had sufficient data for analysis and were included in this study. Forty-eight patients (32.9%) received zero to 1 doses of vaccine (Group 1), thirty-one (21.2%) received two doses (Group 2), and sixty-seven (45.9%) received a booster dose (Group 3). Pneumonia developed in 50%, 23%, and 10% in Group 1, 2, and 3 (p < 0.001). Hospital admission requirement was 81%, 48%, and 12% (p < 0.001). Mortality rate was 26%, 3%, and 3% (p = 0.001). A multivariate analysis showed that only diabetes adversely affects mortality while the booster dose of the vaccine significantly reduced mortality. The booster dose of the vaccine is strongly recommended in all KTRs especially those with diabetes. Our study also suggested the timing of the booster dose vaccine to be administered within 4 months after the second dose.

6.
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences ; 10(E):1169-1173, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2066702

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The implementation of the vaccine on a large scale has almost reached all provinces in Indonesia. East Kalimantan, one of the provinces affected by COVID-19, has also implemented a vaccine program. Seroprevalence surveys are essential to describe the success of vaccine program based on antibody titer test. AIM: This study aims to determine the anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody titer value based on the type of vaccine received by the academic community in Samarinda, one of the cities most affected by COVID-19 in East Kalimantan. METHODOLOGY: The study was population-based. The study sampled 100 people from the community. Participants must be in good health, aged 16–60, with a positive COVID-19 test, no comorbid illnesses or other chronic problems, no blood transfusions, and most importantly, have received the least initial dosage of immunization. The data will be analyzed using SPSS 26 and STATA 16. A normality test and Tobit regression test to determine the antibody distribution in each vaccine type. RESULTS: The results showed that Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine provided a significant (p = 0.001) increase in antibody prediction of 1090 U/ml (95% CI: 764–1416), while Pfizer provided a significant (p = 0.000) rise of 766 U/ ml (95% CI: 307–1226). CONCLUSION: According to the results of a seroprevalence survey conducted among the academic community in East Kalimantan, receivers of inactivated vaccinations outnumbered those of mRNA and vector-based vaccines. It can be determined that booster immunizations for students and academic staff are required to guard against COVID-19 infection. As boosters, both Moderna’s COVID-19 Vaccine and Pfizer’s COVID-19 Vaccine are strongly recommended.

7.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):931, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063524

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Most developing countries do not have access to high-efficiency mRNA vaccine. In Thailand, the first and most available vaccines were inactivated, and later on, viral vector vaccine. Here, we reported the efficacy of inactivated and viral vector vaccine in preventing severe disease and death in kidney transplant recipients. Method(s): This is a retrospective study comprised 45 kidney transplant recipients with Covid-19 infection. Patients were classified into 2 groups based on vaccination status before COVID-19 infection. Patients in group 1 were vaccinated with either inactivated or viral vector vaccine and patients in group 2 were unvaccinated. Group 1 was also subdivided into fully and partially vaccinated. All patients received the same standard of care. Outcomes of interest were rate of death, pneumonia and requirement of oxygen therapy. Result(s): There were 23 patients (51%) in group 1 [7 fully vaccinated (5 inactivated, 2 viral vector), 16 partially vaccinated (all viral vector)] and 22 patients (49%) in group 2. All of baseline characteristics including recipient factors, donor factors, immunologic factors and immunosuppressive regimens were similar between groups except only mean recipient age was older in group 1 (55 +/- 11 years in group 1 VS 48 +/- 15 years in group 2, p = 0.035). Of 45 patients in this study, 11 patients died (24%). Significantly more death occurred in group 2. Three patients (all partially vaccinated) and 8 patients died in group 1 and group 2 respectively (13% VS 36%, p = 0.03). No patient receiving full vaccination died. Pneumonia developed equally in both groups (70% VS 71%, p = 0.89). There was a trend toward less oxygen requirement in group 1 (50% VS 74% p = 0.10) as well as less ventilator requirement (9% VS 19% p = 0.48). Conclusion(s): Inactivated and viral vector COVID-19 vaccines have good efficacy in mortality reduction in kidney transplant recipients. Even partial vaccination can exert some protection against death. However, to achieve better prevention, full vaccination should be encouraged to all kidney transplant recipients.

8.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):696, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063494

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Recent data has shown poor antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination among adult kidney transplant (tx) recipients, with seroconversion ranging between 22%-58% after two mRNA vaccine doses. Here, we evaluated the antibody and T cell response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and evaluate the effects of intensified immunosuppression on such response in pediatric (ped) kidney tx recipients. Method(s): Between April and November 2021, 31 ped renal tx patients (pts)aged 13-22 years old had SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG assessment after receiving 2 doses of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA or 1 dose of viral vector vaccine. Pts were evaluated by their level of immunosuppression: A) standard immunosuppression (tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil +/- steroids) or B) intensified immunosuppression (standard immunosuppression + solumedrol pulse, IVIG, rituximab, and/or tocilizumab within 11 months prior to and up to 5 months after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination). A subgroup of 18 pts had SARS-CoV-2 Tc assessment post-vaccination. Result(s): 23 of 31 (74.2%) pts seroconverted at a median assessment time of 83 days (IQR 43-124) post-vaccination. There was no difference in the use of steroid-based or steroid-free immunosuppression between the two groups or the type of vaccine received (Table 1). 15 of 17 (88.2%) of those who received standard immunosuppression seroconverted post-vaccination compared to 8 of 14 (57.1%) in those who received intensified immunosuppression (Table 1;p = 0.10). In a subgroup of pts who had SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific Tc testing, 7 of 7 (100%) in the standard immunosuppression group had positive Tc compared to 7 of 11 (63.6%) in the intensified immunosuppression group (Table 1, p = 0.12). There was no leukopenia or difference in the WBC count in either group at the time of Tc testing (Table 1;p = 0.97). No pts developed symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. Conclusion(s): Ped renal tx recipients appear to have higher rates of seroconversion after the standard 2-dose mRNA or 1-dose viral vector SARS-CoV-2 vaccination compared to adult renal tx recipients. The intensified immunosuppression group appears to have a trend towards lower SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG and Tc conversion, however, results are limited by the small sample size. Larger studies are needed to better understand the humoral and cellular response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in this group. (Figure Presented).

9.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):440, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063396

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Organ transplant recipients (OTR) have worse outcomes from COVID-19 and weaker antibody responses to vaccination than do immunocompetent individuals. Data on clinical outcomes among OTR with breakthrough COVID-19 are urgently needed, given decreased vaccine efficacy against the B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant. We compared crude case fatality rates (CFR) between fully vaccinated and unvaccinated kidney transplant recipients (KTR) with COVID-19. Method(s): We identified KTR with COVID-19 at our institution between 3/1/20 and 11/17/21. Multi-organ transplant recipients, KTR who received additional ("booster") doses, and those with partial or unknown vaccination status were excluded due to small numbers. KTR were considered fully vaccinated 2 weeks after receiving either the second dose of an mRNA vaccine series (Moderna, Pfizer-BioNTech) or one dose of the Janssen viral vector vaccine. Demographics, clinical characteristics, and in-hospital or hospice care mortality were extracted from electronic medical records. Result(s): Among 109 KTR with COVID-19, 19 were fully vaccinated at symptom onset. Vaccinated KTR with COVID-19 were older (median: 63.5 vs. 57.5 years, P<0.05) and waited longer to seek care after symptom onset (median: 6 vs. 3 days, P<0.05). Comorbidities and time from transplant were comparable between the two groups. CFR was higher among vaccinated KTR (26% vs. 10%, HR 0.34, 95%CI 0.11-1, P=0.05;Fig. 1), although the difference was not significant after adjustment for age (aHR 0.53, 95%CI 0.17-1.61, P>0.1). All fatal breakthrough infections occurred when the Delta variant accounted for >98% of COVID-19 cases in our HHS region. Conclusion(s): Vaccinated OTR remain at high risk for fatal COVID-19. Younger OTR are likely more immunoprotected than older OTR, which-combined with the emergence of the Delta variant and easing of restrictions-may have contributed to the observed shift toward older age among KTR with breakthrough COVID-19 and the high resultant CFR. Vaccinated OTR may delay seeking care for breakthrough symptoms due to a false sense of security. Our findings highlight the importance of pretransplant vaccination, and, among OTR, the need for ongoing preventive measures (masks, social distancing, vaccination of close contacts, post-vaccine education) and additional vaccine doses. OTR should be linked to care immediately after exposure or onset of symptoms consistent with COVID-19, given the availability of anti-spike monoclonal antibodies for prevention or treatment. (Figure Presented).

10.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 2022 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2060052

ABSTRACT

In the current scenario of the coronavirus pandemic caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), considerable efforts have been made to control the pandemic by the development of a strong immune system through massive vaccination. Just after the discovery of the genetic sequences of SARS-CoV-2, the development of vaccines became the prime focus of scientists around the globe. About 200 SARS-CoV-2 candidate vaccines have already been entered into preclinical and clinical trials. Various traditional and novel approaches are being utilized as a broad range of platforms. Viral vector (replicating and non-replicating), nucleic acid (DNA and RNA), recombinant protein, virus-like particle, peptide, live attenuated virus, an inactivated virus approaches are the prominent attributes of the vaccine development. This review article includes the current knowledge about the platforms used for the development of different vaccines, their working principles, their efficacy, and the impacts of COVID-19 vaccines on thrombosis. We provide a detailed description of the vaccines that are already approved by administrative authorities. Moreover, various strategies utilized in the development of emerging vaccines that are in the trial phases along with their mode of delivery have been discussed along with their effect on thrombosis and gastrointestinal disorders.

11.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 2689-2697, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051172

ABSTRACT

The rapid widespread Omicron subvariant BA.5 of SARS-CoV-2 has become a potential imminent pandemic threat, but available vaccines lack high efficacy against this subvariant. Thus, it is urgent to find highly protective vaccination strategies within available SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Here, by using a SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus neutralization assay, we demonstrated that the aerosol inhalation of adenoviral vector COVID-19 vaccine after two dose of inactivated vaccine (I-I-Ad5) led to higher levels of neutralizing antibodies against D614G strain (2041.00[95% CI, 1243.00-3351.00] vs 249.00[149.10-415.70]), Omicron BA.2 (467.10[231.00-944.40] vs 72.21[39.31-132.70]), BA.2.12.1(348.5[180.3-673.4] vs 53.17[31.29-90.37]), BA.2.13 (410.40[190.70-883.3] vs 48.48[27.87-84.32]), and BA.5 (442.40 vs 56.08[35.14-89.51]) than three inactivated vaccine doses (I-I-I). Additionally, the level of neutralizing antibodies against BA.5 induced by I-I-Ad5 was 2.41-fold higher than those boosted by a third dose of RBD subunit vaccine (I-I-S) (p = 0.1308). The conventional virus neutralizing assay confirmed that I-I-Ad5 induced higher titre of neutralizing antibodies than I-I-I (116.80[84.51-161.5] vs 4.40[4.00-4.83]). In addition, I-I-Ad5 induced higher, but later, anti-RBD IgG and IgA in plasma than I-I-I. Our study verified that mucosal immunization with aerosol inhalation of adenoviral vector COVID-19 vaccine may be an effective strategy to control the probable wave of BA.5 pandemic in addition to two inactivated vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccines, Inactivated , Adenoviridae/genetics
12.
Headache ; 62(8): 1046-1052, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019281

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine-related side effects are a key concern with the emergence of various types of vaccines in the market. We aimed to assess the frequency and characteristics of headache following different types of COVID-19 vaccines. METHODS: Fully vaccinated people were recruited by a convenience sample through an online survey from September 1 to December 1, 2021. Detailed analysis of headache following vaccination was investigated. Participants with a history of pre-existing headaches were telephone interviewed by a neurologist to ascertain the type of headache. RESULTS: A total of 1372 participants participated (mean age 32.9 ± 11.1). The highest frequency of headache was reported with the adenoviral vector type (302/563, 53.6%), followed by mRNA vaccines (129/269, 48%) and then the inactivated type (188/540, 34.8%). Recipients of the adenoviral vector type had a significantly longer latency between vaccination and the headache onset (median 8 h [5:12]) than recipients of the inactivated type (median 4 h [2:8], p < 0.001). Headache intensity was significantly higher with the adenoviral vector type (median 6 [5:8]) than with the inactivated type (median 5 [4:7], p < 0.001). Adenoviral vector vaccines would increase the likelihood of headache by 2.38 times more than inactivated vaccines (odds ratio [OR] 2.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.83-3.04, p < 0.001). Female sex and thyroid disease were significantly associated with headache related to COVID-19 vaccines (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.16-1.99; OR 3.97, 95% CI 1.55-10.2, respectively). CONCLUSION: Recipients of the COVID-19 vaccine should be counseled that they may experience headaches, especially after the adenoviral vector type. However, the intensity of such headache is mild to moderate and can resolve within a few days. Based on the current study design and the potential recall bias, these results may not be generalizable and should be preliminary.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Headache , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/etiology , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
13.
Pathog Dis ; 80(1)2022 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017915

ABSTRACT

Effective vaccination is a key element in the exit strategy from the current severe acute respiratory syndrome-CoV coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, and may also offer protection against severe disease from future variants of concern. Here, we prospectively monitored T-cell responses over time, using ELISpot interferon-γ (INF-y) release assays, and B-cell responses, using serological tests, after vaccination and booster with BioNTech/Pfizer mRNA (Pfizer) and Janssen vector (Janssen/Johnson & Johnson) vaccines in hospital health care workers. Vaccine recipients were divided into seropositive and seronegative individuals at baseline, in order to determine the effect of natural immunity on vaccine-induced immune kinetics. We found that convalescent individuals mounted higher spike-specific INF-y-secreting T-cell responses and B-cell-mediated IgG responses, after receiving the Janssen vaccine or the first dose of the Pfizer vaccine. IgG levels corresponded to the virus neutralization capacity as measured by VNT assay. At 8 months postvaccination, spike-specific cellular immunity waned to low levels in individuals with or without prior natural immunity, whereas waning of humoral immunity occurred predominantly in naive individuals. The booster shot effectively reinduced both cellular and humoral immune responses. To conclude, our data supports the implemented single-dose mRNA booster strategy employed in the Netherlands. Furthermore, the level of pre-existing natural immunity may be factored into determining the optimal time window between future booster vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin G , Interferon-gamma , Kinetics , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
14.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 2022 Aug 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1996350

ABSTRACT

The appropriate interval between heterologous prime adenoviral vectored vaccination and boost mRNA vaccination remains unclear. We recruited 100 adult participants to receive a prime adenoviral vectored vaccine (ChAdOx1, AstraZeneca) and a boost mRNA vaccine (mRNA-1273, Moderna) 12 weeks apart and checked their serum SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike IgG titers and neutralizing antibody titers against B.1.1.7 (alpha) and B.1.617.2 (delta) variants on the 28th day after the boost dose. Results were compared with our previous study cohorts who received the same prime-boost vaccinations at 4- and 8-week intervals. Compared to other heterologous vaccination groups, the 12-week interval group had higher neutralizing antibody titers against SARS-CoV-2 variants than the 4-week interval group and was similar to the 8-week interval group at day 28. Adverse reactions after the boost dose were mild and transient. Our results support deploying viral vectored and mRNA vaccines in a flexible schedule with intervals from 8 to 12 weeks.

15.
Journal of General Internal Medicine ; 37:S256, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1995808

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite COVID-19 vaccines' demonstrated effectiveness in mitigating COVID-related hospitalizations and death, large numbers of Americans, including U.S. veterans, have not completed the primary vaccine series or the third/booster dose. The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) is the largest integrated health care system in the U.S. Identifying subgroups of veterans that have not completed COVID-19 vaccination and booster/third doses may inform targeted interventions to decrease disparities and promote vaccine completion. METHODS: We included veterans enrolled at VHA facilities from Jan 1, 2021 (first COVID-19 vaccinations available for highest risk veterans per CDC guidelines) through December 22, 2021. The VA COVID-19 Shared Data Resource was linked to the Corporate Data Warehouse to provide vaccination and other COVID-related clinical information, as well as demographic and social determinants data. The main study outcome was completion of the COVID-19 primary vaccine series (two doses of either mRNA vaccine or one dose of the viral vector vaccine). Secondary outcome was completion of the booster or third dose among eligible veterans. Univariate descriptive statistics determined the proportion of veterans completing vaccination by subgroup of interest;relative risks calculated statistical significance. RESULTS: Of 6,235,555 veterans, 9.5% were women;mean age was 62.9 years (+/-16.8 years);31.2% were of non-White racial/ethnic minority groups;6.7% were Hispanic. Of these, 61.7% completed primary vaccination series. Primary vaccination rates were significantly lower in younger veterans ≤ 49 years (47.2%) compared to those >50 years (67.7%). In addition, lower primary vaccination rates were found in women vs. men (57.1% vs. 62.5%);those residing in highly rural vs. urban locations (53.9% vs. 64.5%);Native Americans (56%) compared to Black/African American (64.8%), Hispanic (63.9%) or White (61.6%) veterans;those reporting food insecurity vs. not (54.9% vs. 64.3%);housing insecurity vs. not (51.6% vs. 65.1%);having had a positive vs. negative COVID-19 test prior to vaccination (45.5% vs. 71.6%);and not assigned a primary care team vs. assigned (45.2% vs. 64.5%), (all pvalues < 0.001). Of 3,672,322 eligible veterans, 33.5% received their booster/ third doses as of 12/22/21. Subgroups at risk for not having received booster/ third doses were the same as for the primary series, with the youngest veterans (18-49 years) having the lowest rates of booster/third doses compared to veterans > 50 years (16.1% vs. 36.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Based on VA data, substantial proportions of veterans remain unvaccinated-or under-vaccinated, especially younger veterans, women, Native Americans, those with food or housing insecurity, prior COVID-19, and those not assigned to primary care. Impactful interventions, including health care staff encouraging vaccine completion among more vulnerable subgroups, are needed to avoid further disparities related to adverse COVID19 outcomes.

16.
Front Public Health ; 10: 929445, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993896
17.
Biochimica Clinica ; 46(1):16-33, 2022.
Article in Italian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1988757

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has prompted an unprecedented race to find the means to contrast the SARS-CoV-2 infection, resulting in a huge common effort to develop an efficacious vaccine as soon as possible and an exceptional acceleration of the review process to ensure its safety and efficacy. Many technological platforms are currently under investigation or have already been approved, including those based on the inactivated virus, mRNA- or DNA-based vaccines expressing viral antigens, recombinant SARS-CoV-2 proteins and vector-based vaccines exploiting chimeric adenoviruses. The emergence of new viral variants has represented ad additional challenge and has induced the entire scientific community to potentiate the monitoring process of the ongoing vaccination campaigns. In this scenario, laboratory medicine certainly plays a pivotal role not only in the diagnosis of the infection but also in monitoring the immune response to vaccines and in the detection and prevention of clinically significant adverse events, ultimately contributing to the determination of the biological and clinical efficacy of the available vaccines. This review offers an overview of the most recent and updated data on anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and the technological principles behind them as well as on the resources that laboratory medicine can offer to support the vaccination campaigns. All these aspects represent a rapid step forward in the clinical field which transcends the COVID-19 outbreak and that will certainly pave the way for the future scientific research.

18.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(4): e0249521, 2022 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1986343

ABSTRACT

We investigated how differences in age, sex, or vaccine type can affect humoral and cellular immune responses after vaccination with vector (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19), mix-and-match (first, ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, and second, BNT162b2), or mRNA (BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273) vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Venous blood was collected from 573 subjects (vector, 396; mix-and-match, 96; and mRNA, 81) before the first vaccination (T0), 7 to 8 weeks (vector) or 3 to 4 weeks (mRNA) after the first vaccination (T1), and 3 to 4 weeks after the second vaccination (T2). The humoral and cellular immune responses were evaluated using Elecsys anti-SARS-CoV-2 (Roche), Alinity SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quant (Abbott), cPass SARS-CoV-2 neutralization antibody detection (GenScript), and QuantiFERON SARS-CoV-2 (Qiagen) kits. At T1, the levels of the receptor-binding domain antibodies (RBD Ab) and neutralizing antibodies (NAb) decreased with aging, but interferon gamma release (IGR) levels increased. The RBD Ab, NAb, and IGR levels were higher in females than in males at T1 and T2. The NAb levels were higher in the mix-and-match and mRNA vaccine groups than in the vector vaccine group at T2. The RBD Ab and IGR levels were higher in the mRNA vaccine group than in the vector or mix-and-match vaccine groups at T2. The optimal cutoffs for RBD Ab and NAb, which were used to determine the presence of T cell responses, were 5.7 binding antibody units per milliliter (BAU mL-1) and 12.0 IU mL-1, respectively. Age, sex, and vaccine type affected the humoral and cellular immune responses, and T cell responses could be estimated from RBD Ab and NAb levels. IMPORTANCE There have been few studies that comprehensively evaluated factors affecting immune responses and the correlation between humoral and cellular immune responses after vector, mix-and-match, and mRNA vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of age, sex, and the different vaccine regimens on the immune responses to vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. The correlation between humoral and cellular immune responses and the cutoffs were derived for RBD antibodies and neutralizing antibodies to predict the presence of the cellular immune responses. In this comprehensive study, we demonstrated that there were differences in the immune responses induced after vaccination depending on the age and sex of an individual. Among the three vaccine regimens, the mix-and-match and mRNA vaccines induced the most robust immune responses. Finally, the proposed optimal cutoffs for RBD and neutralizing antibodies may be useful for predicting cellular immune responses when assays for cellular immune responses are not available.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Female , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Male , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
20.
JAAD Case Rep ; 28: 18-20, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1977458
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