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1.
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society ; 2022, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1832675

ABSTRACT

The intrinsic information shared by financial assets provides a means of assessing their mutual linkages. In times of crisis, spillovers and information flow between markets increase, and this drives empirical investigations into the degree of connectedness between financial assets. In the context of commodity markets, empirical evidence about the mutual information shared and its influence on portfolio management is largely unknown. This study examines the situated information between the food commodities (cereals, dairy, food, meat, vegetable oil, and sugar) of the FAO and regional stock markets’ returns. From the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD)-based Rényian transfer entropy analysis employed, we find significant bidirectional information flow between the food commodities and regional equity markets. Our findings divulge that the diversification potentials of food commodities rest in the long term, with sugar being a consistent diversifier across all investment horizons. The investment and policy implications of our findings are further discussed.

2.
Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies ; 12(3):386-399, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1831677

ABSTRACT

Purpose>This study focuses on accessing the impact of lockdown implemented to curb the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on prices of potato and onion crops using the time series analysis techniques.Design/methodology/approach>The present study uses secondary price series data for both crops. Along with the study of percent increase or decrease, the time series analysis techniques of autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH), as well as machine learning;neural network autoregressive (NNAR) models were used to model the prices. For the purpose of comparison, the data from past years were taken as the period of normalcy. The behaviour of the forecasts for the normal periods and during the pandemic based on respective datasets was compared.Findings>The results show that there was an unprecedented rise in prices during the months of lockdown. It could be attributed to the decline in arrivals due to several reasons like issues with transportation and labour availability. Also, towards the end of lockdown (May 2020), the prices seemed to decrease. Such a drop could be attributed to the relaxations in lockdown and reduced demand. The study also discusses that how some unique approaches like e-marketing, localized resource development for attaining self-sufficiency and developing transport chain, especially, for agriculture could help in such a situation of emergency.Research limitations/implications>A more extensive study could be conducted to mark the factors specifically that caused the increase in price.Originality/value>The study clearly marks that the prices of the crops increased more than expectations using time series methods. Also, it surveys the prevailing situation through available resources to link up the reasons behind it.

3.
Advances in Nutrition ; 13(2):388-423, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1830958

ABSTRACT

The lockdowns resulting from the first wave of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic impacted deeply on all life activities, including diet. We performed a systematic review to investigate changes in food intake, eating behaviors, and diet quality during lockdown as compared with before the lockdown. A literature search was performed using 3 electronic databases from inception until 13 June 2021. Observational studies evaluating changes in general populations during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown were eligible. Of 1963 studies retrieved from the search strategy, 95 met inclusion criteria (85 in adults, 10 in children/adolescents), and the majority were of high quality (72.6%). Most of the studies were web-based surveys using convenience sampling, mainly focused on variations in the consumption of foods and eating behaviors during lockdown, whereas only 15 studies analyzed diet quality through dietary indices. On the basis of the definition of a healthful diet as reflected by a traditional Mediterranean diet, an increase in recommended foods such as fruit and vegetables, legumes, cereals, and olive oil was observed, although a sharp decrease in fish intake and an increase in dairy products were documented. Accordingly, a reduction in foods that should be eaten less frequently was reported-namely, red and processed meat. However, a higher consumption of unhealthy foods (e.g., snacks and sweets) was also observed. Results indicated improved diet quality in Europe, especially among Mediterranean countries, with the exception of France, while a switch to poor nutrient patterns was observed in Colombia and Saudi Arabia. Analyses of eating behaviors suggest an increase in food intake, number of daily meals, and snacking. In conclusion, changes in intake of major food groups, apart from fish intake, were in line with the definition of a traditional Mediterranean diet, indicating a consistent moderate improvement in dietary habits worldwide. This review protocol was registered at < https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/ > as CRD42020225292.

4.
Farmers Weekly ; 2022(Jan 21):26-27, 2022.
Article in English | Africa Wide Information | ID: covidwho-1823605
5.
Nature ; 604(7907):620-624, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1821571

ABSTRACT

Governments, donors and others must step up to protect current and future generations from the devastating effects of malnutrition, as well as to prevent acute food insecurity. [Figure not available: see fulltext.].

6.
Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition ; 46(SUPPL 1):S139-S140, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1813564

ABSTRACT

Background: Obesity is a chronic inflammatory condition that increases the risk of multiple non-communicable diseases. Thus, impairing the quality of life. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among Sri-Lankan adults were 25.5 and 9.2 in 2010 with a rising trend adding a huge burden on the health sector. Overweight and obesity is rising even among the rural farming communities in Sri-Lanka, reflecting the double burden of malnutrition. The escalating trend can be attributed to easy accessibility leading to increased consumption of energy-dense food and increased sedentary behaviour which has replaced the traditional farming methods. The burden was further increased due to multiple effects of COVID 19 lockdown. Medical nutrition therapy with the 'plate model' is an effective method of weight reduction by portion size control of staple food and by increasing non-starchy vegetables and protein intake. The objective of the study was to assess the outcomes of the 'plate model' as a dietary intervention among patients with overweight and obesity. Methods: A retrospective descriptive study was conducted using secondary data of 281 overweight and obese patients who attended the medical nutrition clinic from January - June 2021. Inclusion criteria captured all patients above 19 years of age who attended the clinic at least once. All patients were counselled regarding the plate model by medical officers who have post-graduate qualifications in clinical nutrition. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. Results: Out of the total observed patients, 77% were females and 23% were males. The median age was 45 years with 31.7% between 40 - 49 years and 7.8% above the age of 60 years. Distribution within each BMI category was similar among both genders, with 45% of both females and males belonging to obesity class 1. More than 80% of patients' occupation was related to agriculture. Defaulted follow up was 69% while 31% had subsequent clinic visits. Among the followed-up patients (n=88) the majority (46.8%) have lost less than 0.5kg per week, while 37.5 % lost more than 0.5kg per week. Among the patients who lost weight less than 0.5kg per week (n= 42), 52% belonged to overweight category and 50% to morbidly obese category. It was also revealed that 53% of patients who lost weight more than 0.5kg per week were in the obesity class 1 category. Conclusion: The study suggests the 'plate model' along with regular and close monitoring is an effective method of weight reduction. Results also indicate the need for increasing awareness on the importance of clinic follow up. Further research is needed to evaluate the reasons for a higher number of defaulters.

7.
Agroeconomia Croatica ; 11(1):11-18, 2021.
Article in Croatian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1813061

ABSTRACT

The aim of the paper is to research the opinion of vegetable producers from the City of Zagreb on the business process and sale of vegetables during the COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, the aim is to examine which problems affected vegetable producers the most and research the vegetable sales channels they applied before and during Covid-19. The survey was conducted online on a sample of 31 respondents. On the sample of vegetable growers, the results shown that during COVID-19, the demand for vegetables increased and that there was an increase in the number of customers. Vegetable growers emphasized online sales as the biggest problem (9.68%). During the lockdown about 35% of vegetable growers were selling online, while before and throughout COVID-19 only 10% of vegetable growers accepted online sales.

8.
CIRIEC - Espana ; - (104):65-82, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1811202

ABSTRACT

The covid-19 pandemic has had catastrophic effects on the global economy. The olive oil sector, whose producers were already undergoing their own crisis, has also clearly been affected by this situation. Despite Spain's world leadership in olive oil production, the added value that this product can generate has not been maximized. Falling prices and supply saturation are the problems that have been most highlighted and to which covid-19 has added. Faced with such a situation, the digitalization of the olive mill has gone from being a recommendation to an essential factor in avoiding the paralysis of its activity. In this context, the objective of this study is to detect the organizational factors that have been associated with a better adaptation of the organizations to the current complex situation. To this end we have made use of the fuzzy sets Qualitative Comparative Analysis technique which makes it possible to contrast different variables in order to explain a result, overcoming the limitations of more traditional techniques. The results obtained reveal that the cooperative form, the degree of innovation, the training of the top managers and the flexibility and size of the organization are factors that contribute to a better adaptation of the olive mill to the situation caused by covid-19.Alternate :La pandemia de la covid-19 ha tenido unos efectos catastróficos en la economía global. El sector del aceite de oliva también se ha visto claramente afectado por esta situación, cuyos productores ya arrastraban su propia crisis. Pese al liderazgo mundial de España en producción de aceite de oliva, no se ha terminado de maximizar el valor añadido que puede generar este producto. La caída de los precios y la saturación de la oferta son los problemas más señalados, a los que se ha sumado la covid-19. Ante tal situación, la digitalización de la almazara ha pasado de ser una recomendación a un factor imprescindible para evitar la paralización de su actividad. En este contexto, el objetivo de este trabajo consiste en detectar los factores organizacionales que se han asociado a una mejor adaptación de las organizaciones a la compleja situación actual. Para ello, se ha hecho uso de la técnica fuzzy sets Qualitative Comparative Analysis, que permite contrastar distintas variables para explicar un resultado, superando las limitaciones de técnicas más tradicionales. Los resultados obtenidos revelan que la forma cooperativa, el grado de innovación, la formación del máximo responsable, la flexibilidad y el tamaño de la organización son factores que contribuyen a una mejor adaptación de la almazara a la situación provocada por la covid-19.

9.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(8):4667, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1809865

ABSTRACT

Vegetables constitute a major component of human food security. They are the main sources of essential nutrients including antioxidants, natural dyes, minerals, and vitamins. Eating habit issues related to the consumption of vegetables are gaining importance within the context of a healthy lifestyle, longevity, and physical fitness. Additionally, food quality is of primary importance, and so-called eco-food (defined as food as natural as possible, without fertilizers, pesticides, or preservatives) seems to be the most popular world-trend in healthy nutrition. Keeping these ideas in focus, research on vegetable consumption in Poland in the context of conventional or organic production was performed using online questionnaire surveys. The results revealed that the rate of vegetable consumption depended primarily on economic status, except for the potato, which was a staple cutting across all economic strata. Among the 108 analyzed respondents, 74% bought vegetables from certified organic farms. However, 59% bought organic vegetables “rarely” or “sometimes”, and only 15% “often”. Next, respondents chose to buy vegetables from fresh food markets (45%) and in local shops (41%). About 20% of the respondents acquired vegetables from their own farms. Among the reasons for choosing vegetables from certified organic farms, respondents mentioned in decreasing order: “desire for proper nutrition” (30%), “thinking that organic vegetables are healthier” (28%), and “organic vegetables are generally better” (7%).

10.
Horticulturae ; 8(4):294, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1809837

ABSTRACT

Numerous compact tomato cultivars are available for home gardening. However, evaluations under different environmental conditions are limited. The aim of this study was to characterize the growth and productivity of 20 compact tomato cultivars grown indoors under environmental conditions that resembled a residential space (11 mol·m−2·d−1 of white light, constant 22 °C, and moderate relative humidity) or in a greenhouse with sunlight only. Plants in the greenhouse were generally larger and yielded more fruit than those grown indoors, likely due to the various differences in environmental conditions and corresponding effects of water and nutrient availability. Considering growth and yield variables, all cultivars evaluated in this study are recommended for outdoor gardening. However, ‘Little Bing’, ‘Sweet SturdyTM F1—Grace’, ‘Sweet SturdyTM F1—Jimmy’, ‘Sweet SturdyTM F1—Jo’, and ‘Tarzan F1′ are likely too large to be grown in most space-limited indoor environments. Furthermore, ‘Little Bing’, ‘Rosy Finch’, ‘Sweet ‘n’ Neat Yellow’, and ‘Yellow Canary’ were affected by intumescence when grown indoors, which could negatively affect gardening experiences until recommendations to mitigate this disorder become available. Results from this study provide baseline information for the use of compact tomato cultivars for container gardening indoors and under sunlight.

11.
Nutrition & Food Science ; : 12, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1806861

ABSTRACT

Purpose University students are one of the vulnerable groups in terms of having nutritional problems due to their lifestyle and social environment. This study aims to determine the consumption of fast food among university students and evaluate factors that may impact it, such as sociodemographic factors, body mass index (BMI) or nutritional habits. Design/methodology/approach A cross-sectional study was conducted among a random sample of 184 university students (47.8% men and 52.2% women) with a mean age of 21.1 +/- 2.0 years. The survey included students' sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, nutritional habits and fast-food consumption. Chi-square test, t-test and binary logistic regression analysis were used depending on the characteristics of the data. Findings Results indicated that 39.7% of the students consumed fast food at least once in 15 days and preferred these foods for taste, workload and social activity. Consumption of fast food occurred at an earlier age in men (%13.6) and the portions were higher than portions of vegetables (p = 0.001). By using regression analysis, a statistically significant relationship was found between the frequency of fast-food consumption and age, gender, economic status, BMI, the amount of vegetables consumed daily and the habit of eating breakfast (p < 0.05). Research limitations/implications It is planned to reach more students in the study. However, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, transportation to students became difficult or could not be reached. Originality/value This study is one of the rare studies examining students' orientation to fast food. The number of studies in this field in Turkey is limited.

12.
Front Nutr ; 9:847996, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1792994

ABSTRACT

This paper addresses the issue of fruit and vegetable purchases in the UK during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study is motivated by the importance of fruit and vegetables for human nutrition, health and reduction of population obesity, especially in the UK where per capita consumption is still below recommended levels. A rich panel dataset was used reporting actual shopping places and quarterly expenditure for at-home consumption of fruit and vegetable purchases of 12,492 households in years 2019 and 2020. The unique dataset allowed us to compare expenditure for fruit and vegetables before and after the COVID-19 outbreak and to identify the main drivers of changes in purchases. Regression analysis found that expenditure increased ~3% less than what expected given the overall increase in the numbers of at-home meals during lockdown. Also, Online shopping was found to be an alternative source for fruit and vegetables purchase during the pandemic. However, the expenditure for processed products grew more than the one for fresh products, resulting in a reduction of the relative share of the latter and possible deterioration of the diet quality.

13.
Natural Volatiles & Essential Oils ; 8(4):8641-8657, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1790677

ABSTRACT

Background : The virus SARS COV-2 caused coronavirus disease (covid-19) across the world. So we have some other nutritional therapy. It can prevent and treat Covid 19. This deteriorated nutritional status seems to be involved within the virulence of the virus, and doubtless within the clinical outcome. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the awareness about diet modification in COVID19 among dental students.

14.
Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies ; 58(1):1-30, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1788373

ABSTRACT

Domestic and international mobility restrictions helped to reduce the numbers of confirmed Covid-19 cases until the end of 2021. Indonesia entered 2022 with caution, however, as Omicron cases began to rise. Recent success in managing the pandemic has coincided with what might be the start of an economic recovery, in no small part driven by high commodity prices—mainly for coal and palm oil—improving the fiscal and trade balances. The new tax harmonisation law is intended to lower the fiscal deficit to less than 3% of GDP by 2023, and a carbon tax will be implemented in April 2022—starting with a cap-and-tax scheme for coal power plants, before more sectors are included. Agriculture has played a key role in helping Indonesia to weather the pandemic, with the sector’s growth supporting employment and food consumption during the crisis. A resurgence in the palm oil price, together with rising agricultural wages and a narrowing of the labour productivity gap, has helped the agriculture sector lead the recovery, but concerns remain over the sector’s environmental footprint. Against recent food and environmental policy commitments, a renewed focus on increasing on-farm yields is a critical area for policy. We conclude with some reflections on the national palm oil replanting program and how better benefits might be delivered for smallholders and the environment.

15.
Curr Dev Nutr ; 6(3): nzac025, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788481

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has complicated rigorous evaluation of public health nutrition programs. The USDA Gus Schumacher Nutrition Incentive Program (USDA GusNIP) funds nutrition incentive programs to improve fruit and vegetable purchasing and intake by incentivizing Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants at the point of sale. GusNIP grantees are required to collect survey data (e.g., fruit and vegetable intake and food insecurity status) on a subset of participants. However, due to COVID-19, most GusNIP grantees faced formidable barriers to data collection. The Hunger Task Force Mobile Market (HTFMM), a Wisconsin-based 2019 GusNIP grantee, used particularly innovative methods to successfully collect these data (n > 500 surveys). Objectives: The aim was to explore HTFMM's successful participant-level data-collection evaluation during COVID-19. Methods: A single case study methodological approach framed this study. The case is the HTFMM in Milwaukee, WI, USA. Participants included HTFMM leadership (n = 3), evaluators (n = 2), staff (n = 3), volunteers (n = 3), and customers (n = 10). These teleconference interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded using thematic qualitative analysis methods with 2 independent coders. Results: Four salient themes emerged: 1) there were multiple key players with unique roles and responsibilities who contributed to personalized, proactive, and time-intensive, telephone-based proctored survey collection methods; 2) the importance of resources dedicated to comprehensive evaluation; 3) longstanding relationships rooted in trust and community-based service are key to successful program delivery, engagement, and evaluation; and 4) the COVID-19 data-collection protocol also serves to mitigate nonpandemic challenges to in-person survey collection. Conclusions: These findings provide guidance on how alternative methods for data collection during COVID-19 can be used and applied to other situations that may affect the ability to collect participant-level data. These findings contribute to a growing body of literature as to best practices and approaches to collecting participant-level data to evaluate public health nutrition programs.

16.
Natural Volatiles & Essential Oils ; 9(1):805-822, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1787242

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, a worldwide epidemic, is afflicting the whole planet. Vaccines have been developed;however, they will not be able to eliminate the COVID-19 virus. As a result, the only approach to address the problem is to the disease is to have a robust immune system. A well-balanced diet can help enhance immunity, which is necessary for preventing and treating viral illnesses. Vitamins A, C, and D and minerals like Selenium and Zinc found in fruits, herbs, and vegetables have been demonstrated to have beneficial immunity-enhancing effects in viral respiratory infections. In this publication, we have attempted to describe the advantages of medicinal herbs, vitamins, minerals, nutraceuticals, and probiotics in combating the new Coronavirus. The dietary concept based on existing evidence might help inhibit and regulate COVID-19.

17.
Emerald Open Research ; 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1786615

ABSTRACT

Background: Evidence suggests that people living in poverty often experience inadequate nutrition with short and long-term health consequences. Whilst the diets of low-income households have been subject to scrutiny, there is limited evidence in the UK on the diet quality and food practices of households reporting food insecurity and food bank use. We explore lived experiences of food insecurity and underlying drivers of diet quality among low-income families, drawing upon two years of participatory research with families of primary school age children. Methods: We report on a mixed-methods study of the relationship between low income, food bank use, food practices and consumption from a survey of 612 participants, including 136 free text responses and four focus groups with 22 participants. The research followed a parallel mixed-methods design: qualitative and quantitative data were collected separately, although both were informed by participatory work. Quantitative data were analysed using binary and multinomial logistic regression modelling;qualitative data were analysed thematically. Results: Lower income households and those living with food insecurity struggle to afford a level of fruit and vegetable consumption that approaches public health guidance for maintaining a healthy diet, despite high awareness of the constituents of a healthy diet. Participants used multiple strategies to ensure as much fruit, vegetable and protein consumption as possible within financial constraints. The quantitative data suggested a relationship between higher processed food consumption and having used a food bank, independent of income and food security status. Conclusions: The findings suggest that individualised, behavioural accounts of food practices on a low-income misrepresent the reality for people living with poverty. Behavioural or educational interventions are therefore likely to be less effective in tackling food insecurity and poor nutrition among people on a low income;policies focusing on structural drivers, including poverty and geographical access to food, are needed.

18.
Asian Journal of Home Science ; 15(2):357-360, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1780341

ABSTRACT

Indian population depends on agriculture for their livelihood and they face many problems like flood, drought but COVID-19 was new challenge to the farmers. It created many problems like non availability of labour, equipments, transport facilities, storage facilities, marketing and many more. The study was conducted in Dharwad district of Karnataka during 2020 for 60 farm women from two villages of Hubli taluk by simple random method. The results revealed that 55 per cent of the farm women were in the age group of 31-50 years with medium sized family. Around 88.00 per cent knew COVID-19/Corona is a viral disease and cent per cent of the respondents knew that cough and fever were the sympots of Carona and should stay at home and not to go for work also. Three fourth of the farm women (78.33) expressed that they used to consume hot water. Indigenous practices like turmeric in hot water and ginger tea are the regular practice of the people and regularly they wash all vegetables and fruits before consumption. Eighty per cent said they are aware of only few things to develop immunity against Covid-19. Efforts by different departments should be made to create awareness regarding farming families health and other problems.

19.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 147, 2022 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779648

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In March 2020, the UK implemented the Coronavirus Job Retention Scheme (furlough) to minimise job losses. Our aim was to investigate associations between furlough and diet, physical activity, and sleep during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We analysed data on 25,092 participants aged 16-66 years from eight UK longitudinal studies. Changes in employment, including being furloughed, were based on employment status before and during the first lockdown. Health behaviours included fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and sleep. Study-specific estimates obtained using modified Poisson regression, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics and pre-pandemic health and health behaviours, were statistically pooled using random effects meta-analysis. Associations were also stratified by sex, age, and education. RESULTS: Across studies, between 8 and 25% of participants were furloughed. Compared to those who remained working, furloughed workers were slightly less likely to be physically inactive (RR = 0.85; [95% CI 0.75-0.97]; I 2 = 59%) and did not differ overall with respect to low fruit and vegetable consumption or atypical sleep, although findings for sleep were heterogenous (I 2 = 85%). In stratified analyses, furlough was associated with lower fruit and vegetable consumption among males (RR = 1.11; [1.01-1.22]; I 2 = 0%) but not females (RR = 0.84; [0.68-1.04]; I 2 = 65%). Considering changes in quantity, furloughed workers were more likely than those who remained working to report increases in fruit and vegetable consumption, exercise, and hours of sleep. CONCLUSIONS: Those furloughed exhibited similar health behaviours to those who remained in employment during the initial stages of the pandemic. There was little evidence to suggest that adoption of such social protection policies in the post-pandemic recovery period and during future economic crises had adverse effects on population health behaviours.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Diet , Exercise , Fruit , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Sleep , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Vegetables , Young Adult
20.
Agrekon ; 61(1):80-93, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1778716

ABSTRACT

With the inclusion of a locally traded soybean oil futures contract, that is dual-listed and cash-settled of the Chicago Board of Trade futures contract, the South African Futures Exchange (SAFEX) aimed to provide local soybean crushing plants, the opportunity for managing their exposure toward the variation in soybean oil prices using effective hedging strategies. Which is only viable assuming adequate liquidity, that is currently lacking in these futures contracts. The soybean oil contract used for hedging local price exposure should also reflect local import parity and/or be correlated to local price movements. Therefore, with most soybean oil usually being imported from Argentina, one would expect SAFEX soybean oil futures contracts to reflect the cost of imported soybean oil from Argentina. Hence, the research study used the Engle-Granger (1987) cointegration approach, alongside a range of diagnostic tests to determine whether SAFEX soybean oil futures contracts, that is dual-listed and cash-settled of CBOT settlement values is a misspecification and whether or not SAFEX soybean oil futures contracts should rather be based on the Argentina free-on-board soybean oil prices which is a much better representation of South Africa's import parity and local industry prices.

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