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1.
J Intell Robot Syst ; 106(3): 57, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2085455

ABSTRACT

In the last decades, mobile robotics has become a very interesting research topic in the field of robotics, mainly because of population ageing and the recent pandemic emergency caused by Covid-19. Against this context, the paper presents an overview on wheeled mobile robot (WMR), which have a central role in nowadays scenario. In particular, the paper describes the most commonly adopted locomotion strategies, perception systems, control architectures and navigation approaches. After having analyzed the state of the art, this paper focuses on the kinematics of three omnidirectional platforms: a four mecanum wheels robot (4WD), a three omni wheel platform (3WD) and a two swerve-drive system (2SWD). Through a dimensionless approach, these three platforms are compared to understand how their mobility is affected by the wheel speed limitations that are present in every practical application. This original comparison has not been already presented by the literature and it can be used to improve our understanding of the kinematics of these mobile robots and to guide the selection of the most appropriate locomotion system according to the specific application.

2.
Advances in Optical and Mechanical Technologies for Telescopes and Instrumentation V ; 12188, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2082418

ABSTRACT

A near-infrared radial velocity (RV) survey focusing on the late-M dwarfs started in February 2019 within the framework of the Subaru Strategy Program (SSP). The InfraRed Doppler (IRD) instrument mainly consists of a high-resolution spectrometer and a laser frequency comb (LFC) system as a wavelength reference. Late-M dwarfs emit most of their energy in the near-infrared rather than in the visible. Therefore, to cover the bright absorption lines of M dwarfs, LFC provides a broadband spectrum from 970 nm to 1750 nm with a mode spacing of 12.5 GHz. It has advantages such as simple and robust frequency stabilization, an all-fiber optic configuration, and being observer friendly. The original comb spectrum just generated from highly nonlinear fibers undergoes optical processing such as spectral shaping, depolarization, and mode scrambling in multimode fiber utilization before it is input to the spectrometer. Using the IRD instrument, the IRD-SSP has made more than 100 nights of observations over the last three years. The LFC system operated stably without major trouble during this period, helping to maintain high RV accuracy. Despite the lack of direct maintenance for two and a half years due to Covid-19, the system has continued to operate without any interruption to the observations.

3.
Toxics ; 10(10)2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071786

ABSTRACT

Many studies have found that bioaerosols are harmful to humans. In particular, infectious viruses, such as the virus that causes COVID-19, are increasing. Therefore, the research on methods for reducing bioaerosols is becoming progressively more important. The purpose of this study was to improve the existing electrostatic precipitator, which generates high concentrations of ozone, by reducing bioaerosols effectively without significant ozone production. A brush-type ionizer was studied as a replacement for the existing electrostatic precipitator. The study, which was conducted at the laboratory scale, determined the amounts of ions generated with different ionizer materials (carbon, copper, and stainless steel) and voltages (-1, -2, and -3 kV), as well as it compared the virus inactivation efficiency under the various conditions. As a result, about two million ions were produced when a voltage of -3 kV was applied to all of the materials, and 99.9 ± 0.2% and 98.8 ± 0.6% virus inactivation efficiencies were confirmed in the cases of carbon and copper, respectively. In addition, an assessment of the effect of flow velocity confirmed that the inactivation efficiency decreased as the flow velocity increased. However, the results for the flow velocities of 0.2 and 0.4 m/s had similar trends. Therefore, this system can be used with flow velocities up to 0.4 m/s.

4.
Iranian Journal of Neurology ; 19(4):122-130, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067436

ABSTRACT

Background: Few studies have reported the association of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) infection. In this study, we reported GBS in six patients infected with COVID-19 and reviewed all existing literature about GBS in association with COVID-19. Method(s): This study was performed in three referral centers of COVID-19 in Iran, and six patients with the diagnosis of GBS were enrolled. Patients enrolled in the study with acute progressive weakness according to the demyelinating or axonal variant of GBS, according to Uncini's criteria. Result(s): Four of our patients had axonal polyneuropathy, two patients had demyelinating polyneuropathy, and one patient required mechanical ventilation. All our patients had a favorable response to treatment. In one patient, the GBS symptoms recurred four months after the first episode. Conclusion(s): Limited case reports suggest a possible association between GBS and COVID-19. Such associations may be an incidental concurrence or a real cause-and-effect linkage;however, more patients with epidemiological studies are necessary to support a causal relationship. Copyright © 2020 Iranian Neurological Association, and Tehran University of Medical Sciences.

5.
Ethics in Biology, Engineering and Medicine ; 12(1):127-140, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2065235

ABSTRACT

Over 60% of the population in the United States received the SARS-Co-V type 2 messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine, manufactured by Pfizer-BioNTech and by Moderna. The pace at which these mRNA vaccines have been developed may be alarming to the public when compared with timelines for the development of traditional vaccines for other diseases, eliciting issues of mistrust. Ethical issues arise regarding the pace of vaccine development and have been described and highlighted by the media. In addition, testing and validation of basic science and clinical findings, combined with potential side effects of the mRNA vaccines have contributed to public mistrust of this particular vaccine platform. Here, we focus on the current ethical concerns involved with vaccine development, identify the ethical concerns that mitigate the role of public vaccine hesitancy and efforts to minimize the role of such issues, and address some of the scientific concerns cited by the public in their hesitancy to obtain the mRNA vaccine. Copyright © 2021 by Begell House, Inc.

6.
Archives of Disease in Childhood ; 107(Supplement 2):A401-A402, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2064054

ABSTRACT

Aims The Respiratory Surge in Children Programme, led by the London Transformation and Learning Collaborative (LTLC) a Health Education England and NHS England and Improvement initiative, aimed to prepare healthcare workers for a predicted paediatric respiratory surge, specifically RSV, during 2021/22. An innovate model that had previously been successfully used during the Covid 19 pandemic was used to approach this. This involved the creation of a national, online, open access repository of resources. The aim was to collate materials that differed in both length and style to ensure users had access to a variety of resources to suit their needs. Methods The programme pulled together the best of the existing resources from across the NHS. The content was organised into 6 main categories, including Recognition, Management and Escalation of the Sick Child, Respiratory Support (including CPAP and High flow/High Velocity therapy) and Emergency Stabilisation and Transfer. A team of multi-professional educators reviewed all content and led the curation of the wide-ranging resources, mapping them to a skills matrix whilst assessing them all for accessibility and relevance. Throughout the fast-paced project, the entire programme was regularly reviewed by a multidisciplinary expert advisory group. Working collaboratively and engaging with the group enabled real time feedback which shaped the programme in terms of both content and organisation/accessibility. In order to reach a wide range of practitioners across the spectrum of paediatric care, the team connected to various national bodies and the programme was endorsed by the. To aid the success and increase awareness of the programme, the team engaged with the regional Operational Delivery Networks who were pivotal in disseminating information and updates. There was also a strong push via social media to connect and engage users with the content. Results The programme launched in June 2021, and as of February 2022, 340 resources were categorised and uploaded to the programme hub site. As the project grew and developed the team not only collated resources suited to any user, but were also able to create categories for specific audiences such as educators. The programme has been accessed over 53,000 times by a wide variety of staff, both geographically and organisationally and has ensured the inclusion of a range of professional groups including but not limited to;nurses, doctors, AHPs, students and social care staff. Evaluations continue to demonstrate high degrees of satisfaction, coupled with suggestions for further development. 100% of those that completed the evaluation (n=17) either agreed or strongly agreed that they would recommend the programme to a colleague. Many respondents have commented about the refreshing and inspiring way the project has brought together paediatrics as a whole. Conclusion This project has worked at pace to create a valuable resource, and has demonstrated the value of sharing resources, skills and ideas. The flexible working environment, strong leadership and innovative use of technology to connect the remotely working team has been an inspiration, kept the team motivated and energised to deliver the key aims and ensure the success of the programme.

7.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):877, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063474

ABSTRACT

Purpose: SARS-CoV-2 infection in kidney transplant recipients is associated with an increased risk of severe disease and mortality relative to other patient populations, with mortality reported to be as high as 30% early in the pandemic. It has been demonstrated that vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 after transplantation is less effective as when administered prior to immunosuppression administration. To reduce the risk of poorer outcomes associated with immunosuppression, it is advisable that transplant candidates complete a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine series prior to transplantation. SARS-CoV-2 vaccine hesitancy contributes to under-vaccination in the transplant candidate population. We describe candidate perspectives associated with vaccine hesitancy in kidney transplant candidates. Method(s): Vaccination status of actively listed kidney transplant candidates at our center was reviewed in January 2022. The infectious disease nurse practitioner performed counseling telephone visits with all available candidates not vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 to uncover their perspectives around vaccination and determine reasons for vaccine refusal/hesitancy. Result(s): Of the 233 candidates actively listed for kidney transplant, 23 (9.8%) were found to be unvaccinated against SARS-CoV-2. Of the 23 patients, 20 (87%) were successfully contacted for telephone interview. Thirteen (65%) candidates described safety concerns as their primary reason for vaccine hesitancy. The most common concerns shared by unvaccinated candidates were a lack of trust in the development of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, speed of development and general lack of safety data. Five (38%) of the 13 candidates expressed additional concern about the effect of vaccines could have on their native kidney function. One candidate expressed fear that vaccine will increase HLA sensitization, making it more difficult for organ matching. Three candidates stated they did not need the vaccine, citing isolation, healthy diet and prior infection as protective factors. Three candidates cited medical reasons. These included recent monoclonal antibody treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection (2) and lymphadenopathy (1). Conclusion(s): For patients awaiting kidney transplant, the primary reason contributing to vaccine hesitancy is concern regarding vaccine safety. For some, concerns are specific to diagnosis and status as a transplant candidate. Transplant centers should continue to address vaccine hesitancy in order to provide accurate information and targeted patient education around vaccine safety and benefit to aid patients in making decisions based on available scientific data.

8.
Clinical Toxicology ; 60(Supplement 2):80-81, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2062720

ABSTRACT

Background: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup provides a weak conditional recommendation in support of hemodialysis (HD) for select patients with severe phenytoin poisoning. Despite this recommendation, the HD clearance of phenytoin is poorly studied. We present a patient who developed phenytoin toxicity that was treated with hemodialysis and report on the efficacy of phenytoin removal during HD. Case report: An 87-year-old man with epilepsy who was maintained on a stable dose of 300mg phenytoin extended-release daily was admitted to the hospital for treatment of Coronavirus Disease 2019 and congestive heart failure. On hospital day 14, the patient had a gradual onset of depressed mental status with hypothermia (nadir 35 degrees Celsius). At this time, he had a rising total blood phenytoin concentration (peak 49.3 mcg/mL [therapeutic 10-20mcg/mL] with an albumin of 3.8 g/dL [normal 3.4-5.4 g/dL]). The patient's other medications included furosemide, aspirin, atorvastatin, digoxin, doxycycline, metoprolol tartrate, and warfarin;he was also receiving albumin and crystalloid for hypovolemia (albumin nadir on hospital day 14: 2.5 g/dL). Free phenytoin concentrations were not available. Alternate etiologies of hypothermia (endocrine, infectious) were excluded. The Poison Control Center was consulted and recommended HD because of the concern for prolonged coma, as per EXTRIP guidelines. The patient received three sessions of HD over a period of 6 days at 2.5-3 h per session using an F160 Optiflux membrane filter (Fresenius Medical Care, Waltham, MA, USA), with a blood flow rate of 350mL/min and a dialysate flow rate of 700mL/min. After the first session of HD (2.5 h) on hospital day 21, his hypothermia resolved and his phenytoin concentration fell from 39.2mcg/mL to 34.2 mcg/mL with only mild improvement in his mental status. After 6 days (hospital day 27), his phenytoin concentration decreased to 19.5 mcg/mL and his mental status normalized. Effluent from the first HD session had phenytoin concentrations below the limit of detection (0.50mcg/mL). Thus, no greater than 52mg of phenytoin was removed during a 2.5-h session of hemodialysis. Discussion(s): The reason for the sudden increase in blood phenytoin concentrations in this patient is unclear in the absence of drug-drug interactions or dosing changes to the phenytoin. Although uncommonly reported, patients with phenytoin toxicity can experience hypothermia. In this case, the patient's hypothermia resolved during HD, although it is unclear if this was related to changes in phenytoin concentration or (more likely) direct extracorporeal warming via the HD machine. If the patient's phenytoin clearance from the first session were extrapolated to subsequent sessions an estimated maximum of 166.4mg of phenytoin would be removed in 8 total hours of HD, which is far less than previously reported phenytoin clearances on the order of grams. This difference may be related to the use of high cutoff dialysis membranes in prior studies, which are not routinely used. Conclusion(s): Although HD rapidly resolved this patient's hypothermia, a minimal amount of phenytoin was recovered in the patient's dialysate. Prior studies suggesting consequential clearance and efficacy of phenytoin removal by extracorporeal treatment may not apply to routine HD methods. Further studies on the utility of extracorporeal treatment for phenytoin toxicity are needed.

9.
Gesundheitswesen, Supplement ; 84(8-9):765-766, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2062336

ABSTRACT

Einleitung For a transformation of cities into sustainable and health-promoting places, the development of suitable acoustic urban spaces is necessary. The acoustic environment, as a designable quality in urban spaces, can be understood as an important resource for a health-promoting city. In particular, motorized mobility plays a central role in urban areas, as recently demonstrated by the massive impact of the COVID-19 lockdown restrictions on the urban acoustic environment. The Be-MoVe (participation-based transformation of active mobility for health-promoting urban and transport infrastructures) project is a new public health intervention project, launched end of 2021. The main objective of the cooperation project of the Green Capital Agency of the city of Essen, the Institute for Mobility and Urban Planning and the Institute for Urban Public Health is to test co-created alternative forms of mobility and designs of public spaces in neighborhoods. Aim here is to present the study design of the sub-project urban soundscapes. The sub-project addresses the evaluation of planned temporary mobility interventions in terms of their impact on recorded noise emission as well as on the perceived acoustic environment of local residents. Methoden Real-World Labs will be set up in two Essen neighborhoods over the next two years. Together with local residents various temporary measures such as road closures, speed reductions, protected bike lanes and premium pedestrian routes will be implemented on an experimental basis for several months. To assess the perceived acoustic environment, we conduct soundwalks, a participatory instrument described and standardized in the DIN ISO 12913 series. The DIN standards provide guidelines for the application of soundwalks, including questionnaires. The questionnaires aim to identify distinctive sound sources as well as to evaluate the perceived sounds according to predefined criteria, including affective qualities. Soundwalks will be conducted before, during and after the interventions developed in the Real-World Labs. Eight sound walk groups of five people each are planned. Participants are recruited via public relations work, as well as by directly approaching local actors such as sports clubs and citizens' initiatives. In addition, automatic and binaural audio recordings are performed. The recordings allow to analyze the acoustic environment of primarily physical-acoustic characteristics from biophonic, geophonic and anthrophonic sounds and to compare changes of the acoustic environment due to the interventions independent of human perception. Ergebnisse - Schlussfolgerung The inclusion of the concept of sound quality in regard to mobility interventions as well as a link between perception-related and physical-acoustic parameters represent innovative components of this project. The implementation of the soundscape concept in participation-based urban transformations might help to motivate residents for a more health promoting and sustainable active mobility.

10.
Cardiology in the Young ; 32(Supplement 2):S247, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2062100

ABSTRACT

Background and Aim: An infection with SARS-CoV-2 is associated with systemic inflammation, that also affects the endothelium. This may result in endothelitis, which can influence vascular regulation and morphology. Until now, the specific mechanism of vessel damage after a SARS-CoV-2 infection is still unclear, especially in children and adolescents. The LICO Study (Long term impact of COVID-19) aims to investigate the long-term effects of a SARS-CoV-2 infection on vascular structure and function in chil-dren and adolescents. Method(s): Children and adolescents with confirmed evidence of survived SARS-CoV-2 infection are screened 6 +/- 3 months post-infection. Vascular function is assessed by flow-mediated vas-odilation (FMD) and aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV). Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and retinal diagnostics (arteriove-nous ratio-AVR) are used to examine vascular structure. The matched control group without prior SARS-CoV-2 infection undergoes the same examination procedure. Result(s): So far, we have been able to evaluate 24 (9 post-covid) subjects (13.5 +/- 1.9 years;9 girls). Compared to the mean refer-ence values of the control group, 5 post-covid subjects have higher cIMT (0.49 +/- 0.01 mm vs. reference value 0.46 +/- 0.03 mm). Of these, 3 post-covid subjects even deviate from the norm PWV (4.96 +/- 0.16 m/sec vs. reference value 4.63 +/- 0.29 m/sec). The same 3 post-covid subjects are also below the norm FMD (2.06 +/- 1.05 % vs. reference value 4.18 +/- 7.04 %). None of the post-covid subjects deviates from the norm AVR values (refer-ence value 0.85 +/- 0.07). Conclusion(s): It is shown that infection with SARS-CoV-2 has the potential to impair vascular regulation. These initial results provide trends for early vascular changes among children and adolescents after recovered SARS-CoV-2 infection. Due to that this is an ongoing study, the results are constantly being expanded and may still change. To determine lasting changes in morphology, the examination is repeated after 6 months and the further results of this longitudinal study must be awaited.

11.
Chest ; 162(4):A553, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060629

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Critical Care Presentations of TB SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 12:25 pm - 01:25 pm INTRODUCTION: We present a case of tuberculous pericarditis and cardiac tamponade due to suspected sequela of SARS-Coronavirus 19 (COVID-19) infection. It is important for clinicians to include tuberculosis (TB) in the differential diagnoses for patients presenting with presumptive viral pericarditis and tamponade. CASE PRESENTATION: A 52-year-old Hispanic man with chronic kidney disease not on hemodialysis was admitted with shortness of breath, fluid overload, hypoxemia and concern for uremic pericarditis. The patient tested positive for COVID-19 to which the symptoms were initially attributed, and he was treated with steroids, remdesevir, tocilizumab and hemodialysis. The patient incidentally had a positive QuantiFERON gold test obtained before initiating hemodialysis. On day 60 of hospitalization, the clinical exam abruptly deteriorated with stuporous mentation, hypotension, and cool skin. Bedside point of care echocardiography revealed a new large circumferential pericardial effusion with right ventricular diastolic collapse and increased respiratory variation in peak E-wave mitral inflow velocity consistent with tamponade physiology. Emergent pericardiocentesis was performed, and hemodynamic instability resolved immediately after aspiration of 750 milliliters of frank pus. Empiric antibiotics were initially given for pyogenic pericarditis. When the pericardial fluid later tested positive for acid-fast bacilli and adenosine deaminase, anti-TB therapy was started. The hospitalization was further complicated by septic shock and cardiac arrest. Though found to have a re-accumulated pericardial effusion on bedside ultrasound peri-arrest, there was no tamponade physiology (suggestive of at least a partial response to the TB treatment in the setting of overall poor underlying reserve). DISCUSSION: The coexistence of COVID-19 and tuberculous pericarditis with tamponade has been reported to date in one other case to our knowledge. COVID-19 with massive pericardial tamponade is rare and a careful diagnostic approach involving multi-modality imaging with bedside echocardiogram is invaluable in the evaluation and treatment of obstructive shock. In this case, we hypothesize that the COVID-19 infection may have led to re-activation of latent TB despite treatment of COVID-19 with corticosteroids (which are an adjunct tuberculostatic treatment in patients with tuberculous pericarditis). Tuberculous pericarditis with tamponade is a relatively uncommon manifestation of extrapulmonary TB and is a major cause of cardiovascular death and morbidity. Even with aggressive antituberculosis therapy, 30-60% of patients may need surgical pericardiectomy for constrictive pericarditis. CONCLUSIONS: This case highlights the need to consider possibility of concomitant viral and TB pericarditis in the diagnostic differential for tamponade. More histopathologic or post-mortem examinations of COVID-19 pericarditis cases are needed. Reference #1: Asif T, Kassab K, Iskander F, Alyousef T. Acute pericarditis and cardiac tamponade in a patient with COVID19: a therapeutic challenge. Eur J Case Rep Intern Med. 2020 May 6;7(6):001701. Reference #2: Barrett et al. Increase in disseminated TB during the COVID19 pandemic. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2021 Feb 1;25(2):160-166. Reference #3: Wong SW, Ng J. K.X., Chia YW. Tuberculous pericarditis with tamponade diagnosed concomittantly with COVID19: a case report. Eur Heart J Case Rep. 2020 Dec 28;5(1):ytaa491. eCollection 2021 Jan. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Jaskiran Khosa No relevant relationships by Walter Klein No relevant relationships by Amy Tran No relevant relationships by Michael Ulrich

12.
Embase; 2022.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-344865

ABSTRACT

Air filtration has limited effectiveness to stop spread of COVID-19 at near-field (e.g. talking close by), but potential to emulate far-field equivalent of N95 with 95% reduction of particles (20x) from airborne particulate sources. A wide range of air change per hour (ACH) recommendations for air filtration exist, ranging from 2 to 12 ACH (CDC, CDPH, etc.) and verifying ACH often involves an inert airborne contaminant (e.g. salt water) which can be disruptive in occupied rooms. We describe simpler procedures using an optical particle counter to track decay of ambient aerosols (0.3 mum diameter) and measure ACH from exponential decay coefficients in a room and whole house. Surface deposition in an unventilated room without ventilation or filtration was 0.6 ACH using ambient aerosols, and 3 to 17 using low-noise generating HEPA purifiers ($299-$999, reported CADR 114 to 1360 cfm) and Do-It-Yourself (DIY) air purifiers ($55-$160, 1"-5", MERV 13-16, 1-filter box-fans and 4-filter Corsi-Rosenthal boxes). CADR estimated using ACH and volume of room/house per dollar varied 4x from below 80 cfm / $100 for tested HEPA purifiers at their highest speed (for maximum CADR) up to above 350 cfm / $100 run with tested DIY air purifiers running on lowest speed (for reduced noise generation). Differences in CADR were observed in room versus house, and purifiers with higher airspeed had higher than expected CADR, possibly reflecting better mixing. Using 0.6 ACH as baseline for unventilated rooms, at least 12 ACH if not more is required for far-field protection equivalent to N95 respirators (95%), and this ACH can be achieved using either HEPA or DIY air filtration in a room or building and verified with ambient aerosols. These results offer independent, experimentally-derived interpretation of the 12 ACH recommended for airborne infection isolation rooms (AIIR) by CDC and WHO. Copyright The copyright holder for this preprint is the author/funder, who has granted medRxiv a license to display the preprint in perpetuity. It is made available under a CC-BY-ND 4.0 International license.

13.
International Conference on Green Building, Civil Engineering and Smart City, GBCESC 2022 ; 211 LNCE:465-473, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2059767

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has seen the importance of confined space ventilation to reduce the risks of cross infection. To evaluate and compare the relative impacts of different mitigation strategies is important in order to reduce the risk of infection in a given situation. Using CFD methods, this study aimed to modulate the spread of exhaled contaminants in a floor-heated and ventilated space. Three different inlet velocities and four floor temperatures were used to assess the effect of the radiant floor combined with the displacement ventilation (RFDV) on room airflow and pollutant spread. Results show that RFDV reduced exposure to infection from 87% to 50% compared to the reference case. The inlet velocity is required to increase when the floor temperature is higher to decrease the contaminant exposure risk to in the room. This research provides a timely and necessary study of the ventilation and heating systems. These findings are expected to be useful for designing future of RFDV. © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

14.
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition ; 75(Supplement 1):S151-S153, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2058337

ABSTRACT

Background: The rapid spread and recurrent infections of SARS-CoV-2 has led to increased use and availability of at-home antigen testing, but widespread testing of antibodies against spike and nucleocapsid to monitor vaccine-induced immunity and exposure to the virus is lacking. Most serological tests require a serum sample from a venous blood draw, increasing risk of exposure to COVID-19 and limiting availability and scalability of testing for many patients. This is especially the case for individuals who are immunocompromised, such as those with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), which are frequently on medications that might alter their immune response and impact vulnerability to SARS-CoV-2. Use of easily acquired and stably stored dried fingerstick blood serves a promising specimen source for at-home, remote testing for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Aim(s): Validate the use of fingerstick blood (dried and then eluted) versus serum as a specimen for the measurement of quantitative spike and nucleocapsid antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in a diverse cohort of healthy and immunocompromised patients. Method(s): Patients were consented and enrolled into the Pediatric Gastrointestinal Tissue, Stool, Saliva and Blood Registry prior to having an endoscopic procedure. Five mL of blood was obtained by venipuncture and 10 muL of fingerstick blood was collected and dried on a Neoteryx Mitra device. Blood was eluted from the Neoteryx Mitra samples in 200 muL of dilution buffer (1% BSA, 0.05% Tween-20, 140 mM NaCl, 50 mM Tris (pH 8.0), 0.025% sodium azide) and placed on an orbital shaker at a speed of 500 RPM for 3 h. Paired serum and fingerstick blood eluate specimens were run on the quantitative Roche Elecsys SARS-CoV-2 spike antibody assay and the qualitative Roche Elecsys SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antibody assay. Linear regression were performed on each assay with exclusion of values that were above the upper limit of detection of the assay. Result(s): We observed an excellent correlation in both SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays when comparing fingerstick blood eluates and serum. The linear regression for the nucleocapsid antibody assay had a slope of 15.5, intercept of 4.05, and R2 of 0.92, indicating that a Neoteryx value of 1.00 COI (cut-off index) equates to a serum value of 19.6 COI. The linear regression for the spike assay had a slope of 13.6, intercept of 953, and R2 of 0.95, indicating that a value of 1,000 U/mL from a fingerstick sample equates to a serum value of 14,544 U/mL. Conclusion(s): These data demonstrate that fingerstick blood collected on Neoteryx Mitra devices can be used as a specimen source in Roche Elecsys SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays to calculate the serum levels of spike and nucleocapsid antibodies. This can serve as a platform to remotely and reliably monitor the durability of antibody responses to natural infection with and immunization against SARS-CoV-2 in patients. Chart comparisons of nucleocapsid (top) and spike (bottom) protein antibody levels detected via remote fingerstick collection (Neoteryx, x-axis) and venous blood serum (y-axis).

15.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science ; 63(7):379-F0210, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2058220

ABSTRACT

Purpose : Dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading contributor to visual impairment across the globe. No current treatment exists to improve visual function or reduce disease progression outside of vitamin supplementation and lifestyle changes. LIGHTSITE III is evaluating multiwavelength photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy using the LumiThera Valeda® Light Delivery System in dry AMD Methods : LIGHTSITE III (NCT04065490) is a prospective, double-masked, randomized, sham-controlled, parallel group, multi-center study to assess the safety and efficacy of PBM in dry AMD. Target enrollment was approximately 96 subjects (144 eyes). Subjects are treated with six series of PBM/Sham treatments (3x per week for 3 weeks) delivered over a 24-month period with a 13-month efficacy analysis of data. PBM therapy consists of low-level light exposure to selected tissues resulting in positive effects on mitochondrial output and improvement in cellular activity. Valeda is used to deliver multiwavelength PBM treatment using 590, 660 and 850 nm of light. Subjects are assessed for clinical and safety outcomes (i.e., best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), low- luminance BCVA, contrast sensitivity, reading speed, color vision, VFQ-25 and perimetry). Independent OCT, FAF and color fundus imaging outcomes at selected timepoints are analyzed by a masked imaging reading center Results : A total of 148 eyes from 100 subjects with dry AMD have been enrolled and randomized in a 2:1 design (PBM:Sham). The majority of subjects are female (68%) and Caucasian (99%). The average age at enrollment was 75 years and mean time since dry AMD diagnosis is 4.9 years. COVID-19 interference has been minimal and not significantly impacted subject enrollment or retention. Clinical and anatomical outcome data from the interim analysis conducted at Month 13 is presented. Results from the 21-month time point are expected at end of 2022 Conclusions : LIGHTSITE III provides the largest, randomized controlled trial evaluating the effects of PBM in dry AMD subjects. PBM therapy may offer a new treatment strategy with a unique mechanism and modality for patients with dry AMD.

16.
Journal of Applied & Natural Science ; 14(3):938-945, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2056986

ABSTRACT

The false smut disease of rice incited by Ustilaginoidea virens is a major constraint on rice production. The main aim of the present study was to ascertain the false smut disease severity in both delta and non-delta districts of Tamil Nadu through survey and surveillance and assess the correlation between the disease severity and wind velocity for the past three years, 2019, 2020 and 2021. Moreover, the present study addressed the disease distribution pattern of false smut diseases under field conditions. The results obtained from survey results revealed that the maximum disease severity was recorded in Nagapattinam district (Nagapattinam block) with 27.45% and the minimum disease severity was recorded in the district Theni (Bodinayakanur block) with 8% in 2021. Similarly in 2019 and 2020 maximum disease severity was recorded in the following districts Thanjavur district (Orathanadu block) with 19.91% and Thanjavur district (Peravurani block) with 18.54% and the minimum disease severity was recorded in the following districts Madurai district (Madurai north block) with 4.78% and Madurai district (Usilampatti block) with 4.78% respectively. The obtained R2 values through regression analysis were 0.70, 0.79 and 0.76 in the following years, 2019, 2020 and 2021, respectively. Besides the relationship between the false smut disease development, the pattern wind direction was also assessed. By assessing the false smut disease distribution pattern under field conditions, more disease distribution was observed around the surrounding area of the paddy field as well as the diagonal path of the field which clearly revealed that wind direction influences the disease development. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Applied & Natural Science is the property of Applied & Natural Science Foundation and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

17.
Drug Safety ; 45(10):1119, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2045242

ABSTRACT

Introduction: During the recent covid-19 vaccination campaign, the number of ICSRs reported by patients and professionals has dramatically increased, reaching up to almost 1 M declarations only in Europe (EMA numbers). To deal with such growing amount of data, Synapse Medicine®, in collaboration with The French National Agency for Medicines and Health Products Safety (ANSM), have developed an artificial intelligence (AI) tool, the Medication Shield, which, based on a natural language processing algorithm, is able to detect ADRs from patients' reports and to code them into an appropriate MedDRA preferred term (PT). Before the covid-19 pandemic, this system was successful in detecting ADRs from the patient reports declared through the French web national reporting system (1, 2). However, how it behaves in conditions of higher reporting flow rate is unknown at present. Objective: To evaluate the performance of the Medication Shield in detecting vaccine-related ADRs from patients' ICSRs declared across the covid-19 vaccination campaign. Methods: A machine learning (ML) pipeline composed by a light Gradient Boosting Machine ensemble model was employed to detect and code covid-19 vaccine-related ADRs from patients' ICSRs declared through the web reporting system during the vaccination campaign (Jan 2021-Apr 2022). The encoding of regional pharmacovigilance centers was employed as the reference ground truth to train the algorithm in a supervised manner. Moreover, a panel of three pharmacologists, with significant experience in ADRs encoding, was set-up to perform a case-by-case analysis of 200 hundreds reports for which the algorithm provided improper encoding. Results: Overall, 65.191 ICSRs were extracted and used to train our ML algorithm. Of this, 54.987 were employed to validate the system. Importantly, almost 86% of the ICSRs were related to covid vaccines. Because the percentage of newly reported ADRs increased over time and was higher for vaccine than not-vaccine related reports, we split the training and validation sets in batches with similar ADRs distribution. Performance evaluation is currently under process. Initial feedbacks from the analysis performed by the experts are showing an uneven distribution of false positive and false negative across samples. Results from the other experts are needed to confirm this finding. Conclusion: The core findings of this study will be gathered in the forthcoming weeks and be ready for the ISoP meeting in September. This work will provide new insights about the effectiveness of deploying AI as a support to treat real world data in a context of sanitary crisis.

18.
ASAIO Journal ; 68, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2030674

ABSTRACT

The proceedings contain 226 papers. The topics discussed include: identification of biomarkers sensitive to pulsatile and continuous flow for identification of promising continuous flow VAD modulation protocols to mitigate non-surgical bleeding events;comprehensive machine learning analysis of pre-implantation risk factors for right heart failure after LVAD implantation;combining VA-ECMO And Impella (EC-Pella) before reperfusion mitigates left ventricular loading and injury due to VA-ECMO in acute myocardial infarction;platelet function at the intersection of the COVID-19 'cytokine storm' and mechanical circulatory support;a dialysate free portable artificial kidney device;durable right heart mechanical support system: a multi-day proof-of-concept study in pulmonary hypertension sheep;a dual-action nitric oxide-releasing slippery surface coating for extracorporeal organ support: first evaluation at clinically relevant blood flow rate for partial lung support;cannula add-on for pressure and flow measurement in VADs;and comparison of interlaboratory CFD simulations of the FDA benchmark blood pump model.

19.
Recycling ; 7(4):44, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024017

ABSTRACT

A dramatic increase in plastic waste has resulted in a strong need to increase plastic recycling accordingly. A selective flotation has been highlighted due to its outstanding efficiency for the separation of mixed plastics with analogous physicochemical characteristics. In this study, the effects of design and operational factors on the bubble’s hydrodynamic and mixing parameters in induced air flotation (IAF) with a mixing device were investigated through a design of experiment method (DOE) analysis for improving the plastic separation efficiency (i.e., PS and ABS). As a result of DOE analysis, the increase in the induced air tube diameter together with the rotational speed could generate a smaller bubble size. This led to the enhancement of the ratio of interfacial area to velocity gradient (a/G), which was interestingly found to be a significant factor affecting plastic recovery apart from the chemical agents. It demonstrates that operating IAF with a mixing device at a greater a/G ratio improved the plastic separation performance. These findings suggest that operating an IAF process with a mixing device at suitable a/G conditions could be a promising technique for separating plastic wastes, which have similar physicochemical characteristics as PS and ABS.

20.
Journal of Composites Science ; 6(8):226, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023807

ABSTRACT

Hemodialysis (HD) is a life-sustaining treatment of crucial importance in managing end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, this membrane-based therapy is associated with acute side-effects due to bioincompatibility issues and limitations on the removal of uremic toxins. The present study assessed the influence of hydrodynamic conditions applied during HD treatment on protein-mediated inflammatory and thrombotic responses. The membrane modules considered are commonly used in Canadian hospitals and are comprised of a polymer blend of polyarylether sulfone-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PAES). The membranes morphology and hydrophilicity were assessed using SEM, AFM, BET, and zeta potential. An in vitro study evaluated the adsorptive behavior of fibrinogen (FB) to the membrane under different flow conditions. Lower rates of 200 mL/min promoted slower and significant FB adsorption, leading to more severe inflammatory and thrombotic responses. Hydrodynamic conditions also affected the concentration of all inflammatory biomarkers. Lower flow rates triggered more complement activation as well as coagulation, clotting, and inflammatory responses compared to higher flow rates. At the end of the dialysis session, patients treated with a Qb of 200 mL/min presented a significant increase in the concentration of C5a (232%), properdin (114%), serpin (545%), IL-1α (50%), IL-6 (450%), and vWF (212%). IL-1β and TNF-α concentrations declined by 12.5 and 35.5%, respectively. Male patients experienced more severe inflammatory responses than female patients at the operating conditions considered. Comparing the pre- and post-dialysis levels of female and male patients, female patients experienced significantly higher levels of IL-6 and properdin, while male patients presented higher levels of C5a, IL-1α, and IL-6. The results of this study will help clinical doctors evaluate the impact of HD operating conditions on blood activations before prescribing treatment and inform expectations for outcomes in female and male patients.

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