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1.
ASAIO Journal ; 68:140, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2032190

ABSTRACT

Background: Timing of tracheostomy in COVID-19 patients supported with extracorporeal oxygenation membrane (ECMO) remains unclear. This study aims to compare the short-term outcomes in early (≤7 days from ECMO insertion) (ET) versus late (LT) tracheostomy. Methods: Charts of COVID-19 patients with tracheostomy from 2020 to 2021 were reviewed, retrospectively. Primary endpoint was in-hospital mortality. Secondary endpoints were analgesics/sedatives doses, length of treatment (LOT), and initiation of physiotherapy (PT). Results: Eight patients with ET were compared to six patients with LT. Mean age was 41.4±12.5 (ET) and 49.5±6.9 (LT) years. In both groups, 50% were male with comparable BMI. Twelve patients received venovenous (VV) and two received veno-arterial (VA) ECMO. Tracheostomy post ECMO cannulation was performed in 12 [ET:6(75%);LT:6(100%)] patients, whereas in the remaining two patients, it was performed immediately after initiation of ECMO support. Average duration of ECMO support was 48.0±21.3 (ET) than 42.2±27.0 (LT) days, P=0.34. Requirement of sedatives before [ET:6.4±4.6;LT:9.3±5.3;P=0.15] and after [ET:21.6±11.9;LT:12.2±14.0;P=0.11] along with analgesics before [ET:6.3±4.9;LT:7.0±6.5;P=0.41] and after [ET:19.0±6.9;LT:14.8±15.5;P=0.28] tracheostomy was comparable. No difference was observed in the LOT during sedatives/ analgesics dosing after tracheostomy. However, the LOT before tracheostomy was significantly longer in sedatives [ET:2.9±3.1;LT:11.8±6.2, P<0.01] and analgesics [ET:2.9±2.8;LT:9.8±3.5, P<0.01], explained by the longer interval between ECMO insertion and tracheostomy in LT group. Compared to LT, number of days from ECMO insertion to first PT session was significantly shorter in ET patients [ET:13.6±5.6;LT:26.5±4.5, P<0.01]. In-hospital mortality rate was 21.4% [ET:1(13%);LT:2(33%), P=0.33] patients with comparable ICU stay [ET:56.9±18.6;LT:50.2±26.4, P=0.30] between groups. Conclusion: Although the advantages of ET to reduce the requirement of analgesics and sedatives amongst COVID19 patients supported with ECMO were like LT group, ET was associated with early initiation of PT and improved survival.

2.
ASAIO Journal ; 68:76, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2032187

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a rare but life-threatening complication of SARS-CoV-2 that is characterized by a hyperinflammatory state leading to multiorgan dysfunction. With prompt initiation of appropriate medical management, patients fair well with resolution of the hyperinflammatory state and recovery of end-organ function. However, a small subset of patients with MIS-C develop progressive end-organ dysfunction necessitating mechanical circulatory support (MCS). This case series describes a single center experience of MCS for MIS-C. Methods: This is a retrospective case series of patients diagnosed with MIS-C who required MCS between May 2020-February 2022 at Texas Children's Hospital. The study was conducted under institutional review board approval. Results: During the study period, 291 patients were diagnosed with MISC. Of those, 6 required MCS: 4 were placed on VAECMO with 1 patient additionally requiring a left ventricular assist device (LVAD), 1 required solely LVAD support, and 1 required VV-ECMO in the setting of pulmonary hemorrhage. In 5 of the 6 patients, the primary indication for MCS was a hemodynamically significant tachyarrythmia. Echocardiography showed worsening of global longitudinal strain (GLS) prior to cannulation in those patients in which it was measured. 5 of the 6 patients survived to hospital discharge. 2 patients required emergent fasciotomies and subsequent limb amputation. Immunomodulation with anakinra before MCS correlated with shorter intensive care length of stay. Outpatient follow-up was conducted in the MIS-C clinic, ranging from 1 to 15 months since discharge, with notable normalization of cardiac function and no additional adverse events. Conclusion: Overall, the need for MCS in patients diagnosed with MIS-C is uncommon and outcomes seem favorable. The development of tachyarrhythmias and worsening GLS may be risk factors for MCS. These findings need to be validated with larger, multicenter studies. Prospective studies of early therapeutic intervention in MIS-C are also needed.

3.
ASAIO Journal ; 68:61-62, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2032179

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with severe COVID-19 related respiratory failure may require veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO). After decannulation, patients on VV ECMO have historically had high percentages of cannula-associated deep vein thrombosis (CaDVT). Due to their hypercoagulable state and prolonged course on VV ECMO, we hypothesized that patients with COVID-19 would experience a higher rate of CaDVT when compared to their non-COVID-19 counterparts. We also described the association between location and size of cannula in the development of CaDVTs. Methods: This was a single center retrospective review of patients ≥ 18 years old who were treated with VV ECMO and decannulated from January 1, 2014, to January 10, 2022. Patients who were placed on VV ECMO due to trauma and patients who were cannulated for veno-arterial ECMO were excluded. Patients were managed in a dedicated Lung Rescue Unit and anticoagulated with a heparin infusion at a goal partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) of 45-55 or 60-80 depending on the presence of clotting complications. Post-decannulation venous duplexes were performed 24 hours after decannulation and if positive for DVT, performed again in 2 weeks. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to analyze our primary outcome of the development of CaDVT. Results: A total of 291 patients met our inclusion criteria: 76 COVID-19 VV ECMO patients and 215 non-COVID-19 VV ECMO patients. Decannulated COVID-19 VV ECMO patients had a significantly higher body mass index (BMI) (35.8, 32.9, p= 0.03) and length of ECMO run (hours) (660, 312, p< 0.001) than their non-COVID-19 counterparts. Most decannulated patients in both groups received post-decannulation duplexes (96%, 99%, p= 0.45). COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients decannulated from VV ECMO both experienced high incidences of CaDVT on initial post-decannulation ultrasound (95%, 88%, p= 0.13). COVID-19 patients were more likely to have multiple CaDVTs (32%, 11%, p< 0.001). Patients with COVID- 19 experienced a higher rate of right common femoral CaDVT (47%, 17%, p< 0.001) and a higher percentage of 25 French drainage cannula CaDVT (48%, 18%, p< 0.001). COVID-19 VV ECMO patients had a significantly higher incidence of persistent CaDVT on repeat ultrasound (78%, 56%, p= 0.03). A logistic regression was performed with all decannulated patients. Age, BMI, hours on ECMO, COVID-19 status, and size and location of ECMO cannulas did not predict the presence of DVT. Conclusion: Both COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 VV ECMO patients had high rates of CaDVTs. The utilization of VV ECMO in COVID-19 respiratory failure was associated with a higher incidence of CaDVTs on repeat ultrasound as compared to patients with non-COVID-19 related respiratory failure. Regular post-decannulation screening, treatment, and follow up imaging should be performed. Further investigation into the effect of anticoagulation strategy is needed. (Table Presented).

4.
ASAIO Journal ; 68, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2030674

ABSTRACT

The proceedings contain 226 papers. The topics discussed include: identification of biomarkers sensitive to pulsatile and continuous flow for identification of promising continuous flow VAD modulation protocols to mitigate non-surgical bleeding events;comprehensive machine learning analysis of pre-implantation risk factors for right heart failure after LVAD implantation;combining VA-ECMO And Impella (EC-Pella) before reperfusion mitigates left ventricular loading and injury due to VA-ECMO in acute myocardial infarction;platelet function at the intersection of the COVID-19 'cytokine storm' and mechanical circulatory support;a dialysate free portable artificial kidney device;durable right heart mechanical support system: a multi-day proof-of-concept study in pulmonary hypertension sheep;a dual-action nitric oxide-releasing slippery surface coating for extracorporeal organ support: first evaluation at clinically relevant blood flow rate for partial lung support;cannula add-on for pressure and flow measurement in VADs;and comparison of interlaboratory CFD simulations of the FDA benchmark blood pump model.

5.
Frontiers in Pediatrics ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009893

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) in December 2019 and has since unleashed a global pandemic, with over 518 million cases as of May 10, 2022. Neonates represent a very small proportion of those patients. Among reported cases of neonates with symptomatic COVID-19 infection, the rates of hospitalization remain low. Most reported cases in infants and neonates are community acquired with mild symptoms, most commonly fever, rhinorrhea and cough. Very few require intensive care or invasive support for acute infection. We present a case of a 2-month-old former 26-week gestation infant with a birthweight of 915 grams and diagnoses of mild bronchopulmonary dysplasia and a small ventricular septal defect who developed acute respiratory decompensation due to COVID-19 infection. He required veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support for 23 days. Complications included liver and renal dysfunction and a head ultrasound notable for lentriculostriate vasculopathy, extra-axial space enlargement and patchy periventricular echogenicity. The patient was successfully decannulated to conventional mechanical ventilation with subsequent extubation to non-invasive respiratory support. He was discharged home at 6 months of age with supplemental oxygen via nasal cannula and gastrostomy tube feedings. He continues to receive outpatient developmental follow-up. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a preterm infant during their initial hospitalization to survive ECMO for COVID-19.

6.
Clinical obstetrics and gynecology ; 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008650

ABSTRACT

In the last 2 decades, the use of venovenous (VV) and venoarterial (VA) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) during pregnancy and the postpartum period has increased, mirroring the increased utilization in nonpregnant individuals worldwide. VV ECMO provides respiratory support for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) who fail conventional mechanical ventilation. With the COVID-19 pandemic, the use of VV ECMO has increased dramatically and data during pregnancy and the postpartum period are overall reassuring. In contrast, VA ECMO provides both respiratory and cardiovascular support. Data on the use of VA ECMO during pregnancy are extremely limited.

7.
ASAIO Journal ; 68(SUPPL 1):28, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1913084

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Massive bleeding on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is associated with multiple coagulation defects, including depletion of coagulation factors and development of acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS). The use of recombinant factors, in particular recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa, Novoseven), to treat severe refractory hemorrhage in ECMO has been described. However, the use of multiple recombinant factors has been avoided in large part due to concern for circuit complications and thrombosis. Here, we describe the safe and effective administration of rFVIIa and recombinant von Willebrand factor complex (vWF/ FVIII, Humate-P) via post-oxygenator pigtail catheter on VA-ECMO for the treatment of massive pulmonary hemorrhage. Case Description: A 21-month-old (13.4 kg) girl with a recent history of COVID-19 infection presented to an outside hospital with parainfluenza bronchiolitis resulting in acute refractory hypoxemic respiratory failure (oxygenation index 58), refractory septic shock, and myocardial dysfunction. She was cannulated to VA-ECMO and subsequently diagnosed with necrotizing pneumonia from Pseudomonas and herpes simplex infections. Her course was complicated by a large left-sided pneumatocele and bronchopleural fistula requiring multiple chest tubes. She also had right mainstem bronchus obstruction from necrotic airway debris and complete right lung atelectasis. She was noted to have prolonged episodes of mucosal and cutaneous bleeding (oropharynx, chest tube insertion sites, peripheral IV insertion sites) associated with absent high molecular weight von Willebrand multimers consistent with AVWS. Tranexamic acid infusion was initiated and bivalirudin anticoagulation was discontinued. VA-ECMO flows were escalated to 140-160 ml/kg/min to maintain circuit integrity and meet high patient metabolic demand in the absence of anticoagulation. On ECMO day 26, she underwent bronchoscopy to clear necrotic debris from her airway to assist with lung recruitment. The procedure was notable for mucosal bleeding requiring topical epinephrine and rFVIIa. Post-procedure, she developed acute hemorrhage from her right mainstem bronchus, resulting in significant hemothorax (estimated 950 ml) with mediastinal shift, increased venous pressures, desaturation and decreased ECMO blood flow rate, necessitating massive transfusion of 2,050 ml (150 ml/kg) of packed red blood cells, platelets, plasma and cryoprecipitate. An airway blocker was placed in the mid-trachea to control bleeding. In addition to transfusion of appropriate blood products and continuation of tranexamic acid infusion, she was given both rFVIIa (100mcg/kg) and vWF-FVIII (70 units vWF/kg loading dose on the day of hemorrhage, followed by 40 units vWF/kg every 12 hours for 3 additional doses). Both products were administered over 10 minutes through a post-oxygenator pigtail to allow the product to circulate throughout the patient prior to entering the ECMO circuit. The circuit was closely monitored during administration and no changes to circuit integrity were noted in the subsequent hours while hemostasis was achieved. The ECMO circuit remained without thrombosis for 9 days after the bleeding event. Discussion: Balancing anticoagulation and hemostasis is a central challenge in maintaining ECMO support, especially given the prevalence of acquired coagulopathies such as AVWS. For our patient, AVWS contributed to mucosal bleeding necessitating cessation of anticoagulation and utilization of a high ECMO blood flow strategy to minimize circuit clot burden. This was further complicated by absent native lung function and minimal myocardial function, resulting in complete dependence on ECMO. An acute massive pulmonary hemorrhage was treated with multiple recombinant factors (rFVIIa and vWF/FVIII), that are often avoided on ECMO. To minimize clotting risk to the circuit and to maximize transit of these factors to our patient, we added a post-oxygenator pigtail for administration. While this approach was the result of extreme circumstances, th use of a post-oxygenator pigtail for administration of recombinant factors may represent a viable strategy for refractory hemorrhage while on ECMO.

8.
ASAIO Journal ; 68(SUPPL 1):12, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1912889

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic caused a significant increase in suicide attempts in teenagers. Fluoxetine and Wellbutrin have been prescribed to adolescents to treat depression. Overdosing on these medications can cause seizures, arrhythmias, and cardiogenic shock. We report on a patient who presented with a normal physical assessment following a massive antidepressant drug overdose, but quickly deteriorated, and required VA Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO). Gaps identified in this case prompted us to assess our ECPR protocol, which led to areas for quality improvement. Case Review: A teenage male presented to our ED after intentionally ingesting Fluoxetine, Wellbutrin, and Hydroxyprogesterone. Fluid boluses, vasopressor infusions and multiple doses of epinephrine were administered, but his hemodynamic instability persisted. Concerns regarding cannulation, team activation and coordination of care during ECPR were areas identified as requiring improvement during a case review. The team was activated and cannulated the patient for VA ECMO. At hour eighty-five, he was hemodynamically stable, including normal sinus rhythm and resolved hypotension, and was removed from ECMO. He was successfully extubated, weaned to room air, and discharged with plans for outpatient therapy. Quality Improvement: An updated process for notifying team members for ECPR cannulation was implemented. Simulation scenarios, which are held quarterly, were developed, with clearly delineated roles, and emphasis on timing of chest compressions with minimal pauses during cannulation. Annual ECPR web-based education is mandatory. Improvements in the time to cannulation and team member interactions were noted during subsequent ECPR scenarios. Timing of team notification and cannulations continues to be tracked.

9.
Acta Clinica Belgica: International Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Medicine ; 77(sup1):1-33, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1886341
10.
Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation ; 41(4):S344, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1796802

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Myocarditis is an inflammatory disease of cardiac muscle caused by a variety of infectious and non-infectious conditions. Viral infection is the most frequent cause of myocarditis;however, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection causing myocarditis has been rarely described. We present a case of a young woman with HSV-1 viremia and fulminant myocarditis presenting with cardiogenic shock requiring venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO), complicated by hyperhemolysis. Case Report: A 35 year-old immunocompetent woman with moderate alcohol consumption presented to hospital with a 4-day history of fever and flu-like symptoms. She was fully vaccinated for COVID-19 two months prior to symptom onset. Her COVID-19 testing was negative and she was discharged home. She returned to hospital 4 days later in cardiogenic shock. Transthoracic echocardiogram demonstrated LVEF of 30% with a small pericardial effusion. Coronary angiogram revealed normal coronaries. She was placed on peripheral VA-ECMO for worsening cardiogenic shock. Due to inadequate LV unloading, she underwent atrial septostomy. Five days after VA-ECMO cannulation, HSV-1 was detected in the blood and she was started on intravenous acyclovir. Her ECMO course was complicated by acute kidney injury requiring dialysis, and hyperhemolysis with a peak LDH of 12,000 U/L. The mechanism of hemolysis was attributed to an intravascular process (plasma free hemoglobin 7487 mg/L, normal < 150 mg/L) likely from a combination cold agglutinins and the mechanical circuit. Interestingly the membrane pressure gradient was within normal. The patient received treatment with plasmapheresis (Table 1), and was eventually decannulated after 12 days following hemodynamic improvement. This case report highlights a rare viral cause of fulminant myocarditis and emphasizes the need for collaboration among various specialists in the management of complex cases.

11.
New Zealand Medical Journal ; 134(1542):56-66, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1766672

ABSTRACT

AIM: We sought to describe the aetiology, demographics and outcomes of patients with pneumonia undergoing venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) in Aotearoa New Zealand. METHODS: Retrospective observational study. RESULTS: Between January 2004 and August 2020, 133 patients underwent VV-ECMO for pneumonia. This VV-ECMO cohort is representative of the geographic and ethnic distribution of the population of Aotearoa New Zealand. Six-month survival was 85/133 (64%). A primary viral aetiology was identified in 63/133 cases (47%) with bacterial co-infection present in 34/63 viral pneumonias (54%). Primary bacterial pneumonia was identified in 48/133 cases (36%). Twenty-three (17%) of 133 patients developed necrotising pneumonia. The most commonly identified microorganisms were influenza A, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Infection with Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus species was strongly associated with necrotising pneumonia (OR 10.18, 95% CI 3.52–37.13, P<0.0001). Necrotising pneumonia was more common in Māori and Pacific Peoples than in other ethnic groups (OR 3.08, 95% CI 1.16–7.96, P=0.02). DISCUSSION: Outcomes from VV-ECMO for pneumonia in Aotearoa New Zealand are comparable to large international series. Although the use of VV-ECMO was matched to the ethnic distribution of the population of Aotearoa New Zealand, Māori may have reduced access because they have higher rates of pneumonia than non-Māori.

12.
Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon ; 70(SUPPL 2), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1747136

ABSTRACT

Background: We present the case of a 7-year-old girl (15 kg and 135 cm) with SARS-CoV-2 infection who developed severe heart failure due to myocarditis and acute respiratory distress syndrome resulting in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support. Method: Due to a massively dilated left ventricle (LV), LV unloading was required. The only appropriate treatment for such a petite child was off-label implantation of the smallest available impeller microaxial flow pump. After placement in the LV, a flow of 0.9 to 1.1 L/min could be generated. A significant improvement of hemodynamics and sufficient unloading of the LV was observed. The impeller pump could be removed 6 days after initial implantation. Sadly, the medical condition of the child deteriorated due to COVID-19-associated MIS-C, therapy was ceased, and the patient died in multiorgan failure. Results and Conclusion: The combination of venoarterial ECMO (VA-ECMO) and concomitant impeller pump implantation (ECMELLA) for left ventricular unloading in adult patients with cardiogenic shock has already been advocated to improve outcome. Due to the relatively large dimensions of already existing microaxial pumps (for adults), the introduction of ECMELLA in children with severe cardiovascular failure is still a long way off. Smaller devices adjusted to pediatric parameters and proportions should be developed as soon as possible for better treatment of children in need of mechanical support. This would be of great interest and an enormous benefit for both patients and physicians.

13.
Critical Care Medicine ; 50(1 SUPPL):586, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1691815

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVM) are typically associated with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. Isolated PAVM are uncommon and usually present between the 4th-6th decades of life;they are rarely seen in children and infrequently necessitate ICU admission. DESCRIPTION: A healthy 3-year-old boy presented to his pediatrician with a 3 day history of fever and rhinorrhea. He was hypoxic (SpO2=85%), so was placed on oxygen and transferred to an outside ED where he was found to have (non-COVID) coronavirus. He was admitted for supportive care but clinically deteriorated over the next 24 hours requiring intubation, ventilatory support with 100% FiO2, and inhaled nitric oxide. Despite these interventions he remained hypoxic. Echocardiogram demonstrated a structurally normal heart. Computed tomography angiogram showed multiple large peripheral PAVM in the left lower and upper lobes and no differentiation between arterial and venous phases indicating pulmonary shunting. He was transferred to our quaternary ICU for intervention. He underwent embolization of ~70% of his PAVM (limited due to contrast load). He initially improved, but 2 days post-intervention he declined with worsening hypoxia likely secondary to pulmonary vascular remodeling following intervention and residual shunt burden within the left lung. Given his instability, as well as an oxygenation index of 34, he was cannulated for venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Following cannulation, his remaining PAVM were embolized. ECMO support was subsequently weaned and he was decannulated after 4 days. His ventilator support was weaned, and he was transferred back to the referring hospital on minimal settings. He was extubated the next day and quickly weaned to room air. He was discharged after 2.5 weeks and was doing well (SpO2=95%) at his pediatrician follow-up. DISCUSSION: This is the first case of a previously healthy child requiring cannulation for ECMO due to PAVM. This case is unique among patients with PAVM due to the early presentation, likely related to an acute respiratory illness disturbing previously well-compensated ventilation-perfusion mismatch. As highlighted in this case, ECMO can be used to support patients who require interventions for PAVM and during the transition to a new physiologic state.

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