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1.
Perfusion ; : 2676591221144905, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2153351

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, nine out of 129 patients (7%) developed life-threatening bradycardia episodes ultimately requiring a TPPM, whilst being supported with VV-ECMO for severe COVID-19 ARDS in our tertiary cardio-pulmonary failure center. ANALYSIS: All subjects had asystole due to sinus node dysfunction and experienced at least one episode involving cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Most bradycardic events were seen in the context of vagal hypersensitivity. Mean time from general ICU admission to TPPM insertion was 20.6 ± 8.9 days. One patient developed a large chest wall hematoma weeks after TPPM implantation, no other TPPM-related issues were observed. No patient required a long-term pacing system. Six-months survival rate was high (89%). CONCLUSION: These findings suggested that transient life-threatening sinus node disease is not uncommon in ECMO-dependent COVID-19 ARDS patients. TPPM with an active fixation lead is sometimes needed to facilitate ongoing ICU care, however, long-term permanent pacing was not required.

2.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):420, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063366

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Extra-pulmonary organs from donors with SARS-CoV-2 detection during donor evaluation are not accepted by many centers due to theoretical concerns for productive infection and organ injury from COVID-related sequelae. We aimed to compare outcomes for kidney transplantation (KT) from donors with and without SAR-CoV-2 RNA detection, CoVD+ and CoVDneg, respectively. Method(s): We retrospectively reviewed donor data, recipient data and key outcomes for all adult CoVD+ KTs performed at our center between 2/1/2021 and 10/31/2021 and compared such data to all consecutive adult CoVDneg KTs during the same period. Organ selection was by protocol and excluded donors within the 1st 14 days of diagnosed symptomatic infection. No COVID-directed therapies were provided to CoVD+ KT recipients (KTRs). Vaccination was not required in early 2021. Result(s): There were 159 KTs, including 71 (44%) from 41 CoVD+'s with mean follow up 151d (range 35-291d). Of the 41 CoV+ donors, 16 (40%) died of COVID complications, mostly hypoxic respiratory failure, with 4 on VV ECMO. For those dying of COVID, the median time from first SARS-CoV2 RNA detection to donation was 28d (range 16-65). Compared to CoVneg donors, CoV+D's had lower KDPI (mean 31 v 43, mean difference -10.8, 95% CI -18.41 to -3.17, p=0.006), and were more likely DCD (OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.28-0.463, p=0.007). Having a CoV+ donor was not associated with delayed graft function (DGF). On multivariable analysis, CoVD+ was not associated with a higher serum creatinine (Cr) at 1, 3 or 6 months, but DCD was. There was 1 death (from pre-existing interstitial lung disease without SARS-CoV-2 detection from the lower airway) at 4 mo and 1 graft loss at 6 wk post-KT, both in the CoVD+ group. Neither of these KTR's donors had died of a COVID-related cause. Rejection occurred in 3 CoVD+ and 4 CoVneg KTRs. Six (3.7%) KTRs were diagnosed with COVID, all >3 mo post-KT, with 5/6 occurring >6 mo post-KT during peak periods of circulating virus. Conclusion(s): In a large series, kidney transplant outcomes from CoVD+s were similar to CoVDnegs up to 6 months post-transplant. CoVD+ KT recipients likely benefited from lower KDPI organs. We demonstrate safe and successful transplantation of CoVD+ kidneys outside of the peak period of symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. (Figure Presented).

3.
Chest ; 162(4):A2241, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060916

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Pulmonary Manifestations of Infections SESSION TYPE: Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 03:15 pm - 04:15 pm INTRODUCTION: Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) due to an undiagnosed autoimmune condition is rare and can be life-threatening. Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) has been described as a viable rescue therapy in severe cases, providing time to establish a diagnosis and begin remission induction therapy (1). We report a patient who presented during the Omicron surge with hypoxemic respiratory failure due to pulmonary hemorrhage ultimately diagnosed with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) associated vasculitis (AAV) who was supported with VV-ECMO without systemic anticoagulation. CASE PRESENTATION: A 46-year-old woman presented with subacute fatigue and two days of cough and brown sputum. She was found to have normocytic anemia (hemoglobin 3.5 g/dL), renal failure (serum creatinine 17.4 µmol/L), and bilateral pulmonary infiltrates on chest roentgenogram. Though vaccinated, nasal molecular testing detected SARS-CoV-2. She was intubated for progressive hypoxic respiratory failure and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was consistent with DAH. She received empiric antibiotics, remdesivir, and pulse dose intravenous methylprednisolone as well as continuous renal replacement therapy and plasma exchange. Due to refractory hypoxemia she was cannulated for VV-ECMO. Systemic anticoagulation was deferred due to concerns that it may exacerbate her underlying pathology and due to a small subcortical bleed seen on computed tomography of the head. Perinuclear ANCA (titer >1:1280) was confirmed by immunofluorescence analysis with elevated myeloperoxidase serologies and cyclophosphamide was initiated. Glomeruli with cellular crescent formation consistent with AAV was later identified on renal biopsy. Her course was complicated by recurrent DAH while tapering steroids and an iliac vein thrombus, extracted during decannulation. Her respiratory failure resolved and she was discharged to rehab. DISCUSSION: Traditionally, VV-ECMO obligates systemic anticoagulation to prevent circuit thrombosis, however this may be viewed as a barrier to its use in patients with prohibitive bleeding risk and may contribute to the therapy's overall morbidity. Some institutions have begun to demonstrate the safety of ECMO with low- or prophylactic doses of anticoagulation (2), but this practice remains controversial. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 posed diagnostic and management challenges and its significance to this case remains uncertain. There are many past examples of infectious triggers for both DAH and AAV, and there is emerging evidence for an association between SARS-CoV-2 and ANCA (3). Concerns regarding the risk of B-cell depletion influenced the selection of remission induction therapy. CONCLUSIONS: In the case described, a patient with severe DAH was successfully supported with VV-ECMO. Withholding systemic anticoagulation did not prevent recurrent bleeding and may have contributed to a deep vein thrombosis. Reference #1: Arnold S, Deja M, Nitschke M, Bohnet S, Wallis S, Humrich JY, Riemekasten G, Steinhoff J, Lamprecht P. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in ANCA-associated vasculitis. Autoimmun Rev. 2021 Jan;20(1):102702. doi: 10.1016/j.autrev.2020.102702. Epub 2020 Nov 11. PMID: 33188916. Reference #2: Kurihara C, Walter JM, Karim A, et al. Feasibility of Venovenous Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Without Systemic Anticoagulation. Ann Thorac Surg. 2020;110(4):1209-1215. doi:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2020.02.011 Reference #3: Kadkhoda, K., Laurita, K. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and their association with clinical outcomes in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Cell Death Discov. 7, 277 (2021). DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Nathaniel Nelson No relevant relationships by Radu Postelnicu no disclosure on file for Antonio Velez;

4.
Chest ; 162(4):A2099, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060898

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Pulmonary Procedures: Creativity and Complications SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 10:15 am - 11:10 am INTRODUCTION: Recent advances in the management of airway disorders have provided additional therapeutic options for pathology, such as central airway obstruction (CAO). Symptomatic CAO has been managed by bronchoscopic interventions with a high risk of airway compromise and respiratory failure. Other alternatives such as mechanical and jet ventilation may not ensure adequate respiratory support during the procedure and cause delays in life-saving treatments. Venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) has been used as an adjunct to preserve safety during these airway interventions [1,2]. We present a case of complete tracheal occlusion successfully intervened using VV ECMO support. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient is a 55-year-old male with a history of ventilator-dependent respiratory failure s/p tracheostomy, secondary to post COVID-19 fibrosis, who presented from a long-term acute care facility with worsening hypoxemia. The patient was transferred to the intensive care unit, where he underwent flexible bronchoscopy via the tracheostomy lumen, which did not reveal a patent airway. Orotracheal intubation was unsuccessful as there was complete occlusion of the airway below the vocal cords with abundant granulation tissue. Interventional pulmonology was consulted, and emergent recanalization of the airway with rigid bronchoscopy-mediated debulking was performed. Due to the severity of hypoxemia, cardiothoracic surgery was consulted, and the patient was placed on VV ECMO to support further intervention. The patient was intubated with EFER-DUMON 13 mm rigid bronchoscope. Complete recanalization was achieved using a rigid barrel and forceps with patency of both mainstems and all segmental bronchi. There were no postprocedural complications, and the patient returned to his baseline ventilator settings. DISCUSSION: VV ECMO has been used as an adjunct to preserve safety during high-risk bronchoscopic interventions, primarily in CAO. Acute respiratory decompensation remains a feared complication during these interventions in cases of CAO. Initiating ECMO before these interventions may reduce the incidence of respiratory failure and airway compromise. In a case series, ECMO has been described by Stokes et al. as a supportive measure facilitating such interventions [3]. Further guidelines are required to standardize ECMO initiation as procedural support during airway interventions. CONCLUSIONS: Planned preprocedural ECMO initiation can prevent respiratory emergencies and allow therapeutic high-risk airway interventions. The choices for this patient were stark- either airway recanalization without ECMO bridge with a risk of hypoxic brain injury vs. VV ECMO support and curative airway intervention. In the absence of large-scale data and based on local availability of excellent ECMO support and Interventional Pulmonology, the latter approach was used, leading to successful and safe airway recanalization. Reference #1: Zapol WM, Wilson R, Hales C, Fish D, Castorena G, Hilgenberg A et al.Venovenous bypass with a membrane lung to support bilateral lung lavage. JAMA 1984;251:3269–71. Reference #2: Fung R, Stellios J, Bannon PG, Ananda A, Forrest P. Elective use of venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and high-flow nasal oxygen for resection of subtotal malignant distal airway obstruction. Anaesth Intensive Care 2017;45:88–91. Reference #3: Stokes JW, Katsis JM, Gannon WD, Rice TW, Lentz RJ, Rickman OB, Avasarala SK, Benson C, Bacchetta M, Maldonado F. Venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation during high-risk airway interventions. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2021 Nov 22;33(6):913-920. doi: 10.1093/icvts/ivab195. PMID: 34293146;PMCID: PMC8632782 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Vatsal Khanna No relevant relationships by Anurag Mehrotra No relevant relationships by Trishya Reddy No relevant relationships by Bernadette Schmidt

5.
Chest ; 162(4):A1432, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060816

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Problems in the Pleura Case Posters 1 SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 12:15 pm - 01:15 pm INTRODUCTION: Severe COVID 19 has now been known to cause devastating damage to the lungs. The manifestations include severe pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, spontaneous pneumothorax, etc. As we were learning about the pathogenesis of the infection, we were also learning rapidly about the therapeutics targeted against it. A report a case of severe COVID 19 ARDS in a non-vaccinated young male, who later developed empyema during his hospital course. CASE PRESENTATION: A 29-year-old male with no past medical history presented to the emergency department complaining of chest pain and shortness of breath. He was not vaccinated against COVID-19. He was discharged from the hospital on 2 liters of supplemental oxygen two days ago after undergoing treatment for COVID-19 pneumonia with dexamethasone and remdesivir. Physical examination revealed bilateral diminished lung sounds on auscultation. His blood pressure was 112/75 mm Hg, heart rate (HR) 120 per minute, respiratory rate 25 per minute, the temperature of 38.5 Celsius and he was saturating 91% on 15 L of oxygen via a non-rebreather mask. Initial CT scan revealed bilateral ground-glass opacities (figure 1.). Due to high oxygen requirements and CRP of 10.5 MG/DL, the patient was started on Sarilumab. Given his escalating oxygen requirements and worsening respiratory distress, he was intubated and transferred to the intensive care unit. Despite intermittent prone positioning, he became progressively hypoxemic and eventually required Veno-venous Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (VV-ECMO). One week later he developed intermittent fever spikes up to 39.5 C with HR of 120 per minute and leukocytosis of 40.8 K/µL. Bedside point of care ultrasound revealed new bilateral complex pleural effusions. Chest CT-scan showed moderate bilateral pleural effusions with new cystic changes and worsening consolidations (figure 2). Pleural fluid analysis showed lactate dehydrogenase of 2798, pH of 7.11, and cell count of 100 with 98% neutrophils. Despite aggressive therapy with chest tube placements and broad-spectrum antibiotics his condition continued to worsen over the next month with the development of hydropneumothoraxes and traction bronchiectasis (figure 3). Given the clinical deterioration despite aggressive care, his family decided to pursue a comfort-oriented treatment approach and he eventually passed away. DISCUSSION: COVID-19 related pleural effusion is a reported complication of COVID-19 pneumonia in up to 2-11% of the cases [1]. Most cases are associated with comorbid conditions, such as heart failure, superimposed bacterial infections, and pulmonary embolism [2]. CONCLUSIONS: Our case indicates that bacterial empyema may complicate COVID-19 pneumonia later in the disease course even in young immune-competent patients, it is unclear if empyema is directly related to the disease process itself r the therapeutic used to treat the COVID 19 infection. Reference #1: Chong WH, Saha BK, Conuel E, Chopra A. The incidence of pleural effusion in COVID-19 pneumonia: State-of-the-art review. Heart Lung. 2021;50(4):481-490. doi:10.1016/j.hrtlng.2021.02.015 Reference #2: Zhang L, Kong X, Li X, et al. CT imaging features of 34 patients infected with COVID-19. Clin Imaging. 2020;68:226-231. doi:10.1016/j.clinimag.2020.05.016 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Rimsha Ali No relevant relationships by Konstantin Golubykh No relevant relationships by Iuliia Kovalenko No relevant relationships by Maidah Malik No relevant relationships by Taaha Mirza No relevant relationships by Navitha Ramesh

6.
Chest ; 162(4):A1111-A1112, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060770

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Impact of Health Disparities and Differences SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Original Inv PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 11:15 am - 12:15 pm PURPOSE: Vulnerable patients, including minorities and underserved populations whose care relies on public hospitals, have limited access to advanced cardiac or respiratory care in shock centers or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)-capable hospitals, especially when socioeconomic or insurance barriers play a role in patient selection. Our aim is to describe the implementation of an ECMO program for cardiac and respiratory failure during the COVID-19 pandemic in the largest public health system in the country, as a strategy to mitigate healthcare disparities and improve access to care for minorities. METHODS: We collected clinical, demographic and socioeconomic data of all patients undergoing ECMO at Bellevue Hospital Center, the shock and ECMO center for New York City’s Health and Hospitals’ network. This public health system includes 11 Hospitals and provides care to 1 million New Yorkers. The decision to proceed with ECMO took place with a multidisciplinary team discussion, which was also in charge of providing longitudinal care during their hospitalization. RESULTS: A total of 49 patients were included [30 veno-venous (VV) ECMO, 19 venoarterial (VA) ECMO, including 9 extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR)] from April 1st, 2020 to March 30th, 2022. The median age was 42.6 years, 57% were male, 38% were Hispanic, 35% African American, 14% white, 6% Asian and 8.2% had other ethnicities;33% were uninsured, 49% lived below the poverty level reported for New York City and 20% were undocumented. Level of education was 8th grade or less in 2.1%, high school in 24.5%, ≤ 2 years of college in 10.2%, >4 years of college in 12.2% and unknown in 51%. ECMO survival was 56% for VV ECMO, 44% for VA ECMO and 33% for ECPR. Survival to discharge was 56% for VV, 33% for VA and 33% for ECPR. One VV ECMO patient was bridged to lung transplant, there were no patients bridged to LVAD or heart transplant. Bleeding complications occurred in 3 patients (6%) and there were no procedural related complications. CONCLUSIONS: Our multidisciplinary ECMO program demonstrates feasibility to provide care to underserved and vulnerable populations with outcomes comparable to the national average, despite the challenges related to the potential limitations in bridging strategies for such patients. While socioeconomic and insurance status have a key role in bridging options for ECMO, they should not be a major determinant in denying patients advanced cardiopulmonary support if clinically indicated. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Access to advance cardiorespiratory therapies including ECMO for vulnerable populations is a present need and is feasible with a multidisciplinary team DISCLOSURES: Speaker/Speaker's Bureau relationship with Zoll Please note: 3 years Added 04/04/2022 by Carlos Alviar, value=Honoraria No relevant relationships by Fariha Asef No relevant relationships by Sripal Bangalore No relevant relationships by Samuel Bernard No relevant relationships by Lauren Bianco No relevant relationships by Nishay Chitkara No relevant relationships by Jennifer Cruz No relevant relationships by Michael DiVita Research support relationship with Eurofins Viracor Please note: 12/1/2021 ongoing Added 12/23/2021 by Randal Goldberg, value=Grant/Research Support No relevant relationships by Kerry Hena No relevant relationships by William Howe No relevant relationships by Norma Keller no disclosure on file for Ma-Rosario Mertola;no disclosure on file for Thor Milland;No relevant relationships by vikramjit mukherjee No relevant relationships by Kayla Nunemacher No relevant relationships by Mansi Patel No relevant relationships by Radu Postelnicu No relevant relationships by Deepak Pradhan No relevant relationships by Vito Stasolla no disclosure on file for Amit Uppal;No relevant relationships by Susan Vlahakis No relevant relationships by Kah Loon Wan no disclosure on file for Victoria Yunaev;

7.
Chest ; 162(4):A1074, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060765

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Biological Markers in Patients with COVID-19 Posters SESSION TYPE: Original Investigation Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 01:30 pm - 02:30 pm PURPOSE: Pandemic SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19), like other respiratory viruses, caused a massive incidence of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Prior literature showed that influenza infection results in a significant increase in the level of circulating High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1) in infected mice, cotton rats, and in humans;and a small molecule inhibitor of HMGB1 blocked lung pathology and lethality in influenza-infected mice and cotton rats. Moreover, HMGB1 has also been shown to be elevated in the serum of patients with ARDS and is an indicator of increased mortality. Gastrin Releasing Peptide (GRP) has been implicated in bronchopulmonary dysplasia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and fibrosis. In addition to HMGB1, GRP represents a novel DAMP that, when targeted therapeutically in influenza-infected mice, is highly protective. The interaction between GRP and HMGB1 is currently under study. We examined if these DAMPS are associated with poor clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19 ARDS. METHODS: Deidentified patient plasma and serum samples were obtained from discarded, clinical blood samples from 100 patients with COVID-19 admitted to UMMC's intensive care unit (ICU). Demographic and clinical data were collected from the patient’s electronic medical record. HMGB1 and GRP ELISA kits were used to analyze their concentrations in patients’ sera at Day 1 of admission to ICU. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the relationship between risk factors and severity of hypoxemia (P/F ratio), need for mechanical ventilation, and need for mechanical circulatory support (VV-ECMO). RESULTS: The average age of study participants was 59.1 years of which 59.2% were men and 57.1% were African American. The mean BMI was 34.3 kg/m2. The prevalence of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, pulmonary and cardiovascular disease was 57.1%, 26.5%, 42.9%, 32.7%, and 42.9%, respectively. We found that GRP concentration was associated with worsening hypoxemia (mild 31.9, mod. 42.7, severe 79.0 ng/ml;p=0.014), requirement for mechanical ventilation (No 40.1, Yes 61.5 ng/ml;p=0.063), and need for VV-ECMO (No 48.6, Yes 93.1 ng/ml;p=0.026). HMGB1 concentration was associated with worsening hypoxemia (mild 24.4, mod. 55.1, severe 40.9 ng/ml;p=0.021) but did not correlate with other outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: GRP and HMGB1 have been previously implicated in the pathogenesis of viral infections, such as influenza, and ARDS in animal models and human. Our results suggest that these DAMPs maybe associated with severity of disease in critically ill patients with COVID-19 infection. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Future studies should elucidate the specific cellular and biochemical pathways implicated in pathogenesis of ARDS, identify whether HMGB1 and GRP could be potential biomarkers for severe illness outcomes, and test novel anti-HMGB1 and GRP therapeutics in ARDS. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Fahid Alghanim no disclosure on file for Jeffrey Hasday;Consultant relationship with Guidepoint Please note: $1-$1000 by Carl Shanholtz, value=Consulting fee stock holder relationship with Teva Pharmaceuticals Please note: $1001 - $5000 by Carl Shanholtz, value=stock iinvestor relationship with illumina Please note: $1001 - $5000 by Carl Shanholtz, value=options No relevant relationships by Kari Ann Shirey No relevant relationships by Mohan Tulapurkar No relevant relationships by Stefanie Vogel

8.
Chest ; 162(4):A978-A979, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060744

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Critical Care Management of COVID-19 SESSION TYPE: Original Investigations PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 01:30 pm - 02:30 pm PURPOSE: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), typically veno-venous, is used to treat COVID19 patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and is associated with decreased mortality in some reports. This study sought to determine the effect of ECMO versus conventional invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) on hospital mortality for ARDS due to COVID19, and to compare functional status at discharge. METHODS: This was a retrospective, multicenter cohort study of adult patients admitted for COVID19 within a large US hospital network between March 1, 2020 and October 31, 2021. Patients were included if they required IMV with a fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) of at least 80% or VV ECMO. Patients were excluded if they were not independent, had a history of severe neurologic impairment, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic systolic heart failure, end stage renal disease, cirrhosis, metastatic malignancy, or a length of stay <24 hours. ECMO criteria and management were at the discretion of the treating center. Conventional IMV patients were assigned a randomized pseudo-baseline, and coarsened exact matching was used to match ECMO to conventional IMV patients based on age, sex, body mass index, pre-baseline severity of hypoxemia, prone positioning, receipt of corticosteroids, Tocilizumab, Baricitinib, acute renal replacement therapy, and vasopressors. Differences in hospital mortality and discharge destination were assessed through weighted logistic regression and weighted multinomial logit regression, respectively. RESULTS: We identified 207,965 patients across 168 hospitals for review, and 10,571 patients met study criteria. After matching, 275 ECMO patients and 5,808 conventional IMV patients were available for comparison. ECMO was associated with a significant mortality reduction, 36% versus 61% (odds ratio [OR] 0.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.34-0.57). Compared to conventional IMV survivors, ECMO survivors were significantly more likely to be discharged to acute rehabilitation than long term acute care (relative risk ratio (RRR) 2.23, 95% CI 1.16-4.32). ECMO survivors were also significantly more likely to be discharged to another acute care hospital for further management (RRR 3.21, 95% CI 1.75-5.92). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that ECMO support is significantly associated with reduced mortality in patients with severe ARDS due to COVID19 compared to conventional invasive mechanical ventilation. Further studies are needed to aid in prognostication, patient selection, and timing of intervention to maximize the benefit of this limited resource. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: These findings illustrate the importance of timely referral to an ECMO center for severely ill COVID19 patients, and may influence ECMO-capable centers to expand the use of ECMO in appropriate patients for this indication. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Elliott Cohen No relevant relationships by Katherine Cyr No relevant relationships by Jeffrey DellaVolpe No relevant relationships by Jamie Jarzembowski No relevant relationships by Chandra Kunavarapu no disclosure on file for Thomas Mcrae;Employee relationship with HCA Healthcare Please note: 6/1/2017 to current Added 04/04/2022 by Daniel Schlauch, value=Salary No relevant relationships by Owen Stell No relevant relationships by sage whitmore

9.
Chest ; 162(4):A828, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060697

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Close Critical Care Calls SESSION TYPE: Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 11:15 am - 12:15 pm INTRODUCTION: Heparin is the preferred anticoagulant for use in pregnancy while on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) (1). Alternatives to heparin in this patient population are not well studied as heparin-induced thrombocytopenia is rare in pregnancy. Parenteral non-heparin anticoagulants available in the United States include the direct thrombin inhibitors argatroban and bivalirudin, both of which are utilized in ECMO. Guidelines recommend avoidance of these agents in pregnancy if at all possible (2). Whereas case reports support the safe use of argatroban in pregnancy, to our knowledge, there are no known documented reports of bivalirudin use in this patient population (3). Here we describe the successful use of bivalirudin during pregnancy. CASE PRESENTATION: A 25 year old G2P1 was transferred to our institution at 28 weeks gestation for further management of acute hypoxic respiratory failure secondary to COVID-19. On hospital day 2 the patient was urgently placed on venovenous (VV) ECMO for refractory hypoxemia, high dead space with acidosis, and the inability to provide adequate gas exchange and lung protection with mechanical ventilation alone. Following ECMO cannulation with a 25f cannula in the right femoral vein and a 21f cannula in the right internal jugular vein, she was anticoagulated with heparin at a rate of 12 units/kg/hr. This was titrated to target a PTT goal of 60-80 seconds. On ECMO day 2, the TEG demonstrated a markedly hypocoagulable state, and the heparin nomogram called for increasing heparin dosing based on PTT. Given the already high dose of heparin that the patient was on (32.9 units/kg/hr), the decision was made to switch from heparin to bivalirudin to prevent over anticoagulation and reduce bleeding risk. Bivalirudin was titrated to a goal PTT of 50-60 seconds, with an initial rate of 0.15 mg/kg/hr (dose range 0.15-0.22 mg/kg/hr). Therapy was continued and on ECMO day 11, at 29w6d the patient delivered via cesarean section. Bivalirudin was discontinued 2.5 hours prior to the surgical procedure which resulted with no fetal bleeding complications. The patient was decannulated from ECMO on day 20 and was later discharged from the hospital. The newborn is developing well and meeting age adjusted milestones. DISCUSSION: Bivalirudin was selected based on institutional experience and the pharmacokinetic properties of the drug (half-life of 25 minutes) as we considered a situation where an emergent delivery may be indicated. Bivalirudin successfully prevented clotting of the circuit with no maternal or fetal bleeding complications during its use. CONCLUSIONS: Our case report describes a multidisciplinary approach to managing a pregnant patient on ECMO requiring anticoagulation using an alternative medication to heparin. This is the first documented use of bivalirudin in pregnancy. Reference #1: ELSO Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Extracorporeal Life Support Extracorporeal Life Support Organization, Version 1.4 August 2017. Ann Arbor, MI, USA www.elso.org. Reference #2: Bates SM, Greer IA, Middeldorp S, Veenstra DL, Prabulos AM, Vandvik PO. VTE, thrombophilia, antithrombotic therapy, and pregnancy: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. Chest 2012;141(Suppl): e691S–736S Reference #3: Young SK, Al-Mondhiry HA, Vaida SJ, et al. Successful use of argatroban during the third trimester of pregnancy: case report and review of the literature. Pharmacotherapy 2008;28: 1531–6. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Jacqueline Finger No relevant relationships by Caitlin Gluck No relevant relationships by Cameron Hypes No relevant relationships by John Rathbun

10.
Chest ; 162(4):A755, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060683

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: COVID-19 Co-Infections SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 1:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a herpesvirus with a high prevalence that causes latent disease in immunocompetent hosts. It is an important opportunistic infection with a variety of clinical manifestations, including pneumonia, in immunocompromised patients.[1] CASE PRESENTATION: A 45-year-old man with no past medical history presented with fever and dyspnea and was positive for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). He developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and was intubated 13 days after presentation, but developed refractory hypoxemia requiring veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) (cannulated 16 days after presentation). He received a 5-day course of remdesivir and 10 days of dexamethasone 6 mg daily. His course was complicated by acute renal failure requiring continuous renal replacement therapy, septic shock due to a pseudomonal ventilator-associated pneumonia, right ventricular failure, heparin induced thrombocytopenia, and right pneumothorax requiring chest tube thoracostomy. After 4 weeks of ECMO there was lung recovery with ECMO sweep gases <1L/minute, improved radiographic appearance and tidal volumes, and decannulation was anticipated. However, he subsequently developed profound shock of unknown etiology with a rapid worsening of his lung function requiring increased ECMO support. Care was withdrawn at ECMO day 46 due to multiorgan failure. Pathology of his lungs at autopsy showed prominent intranuclear viral inclusions and positive immunohistochemistry in alveolar macrophages consistent with a diagnosis of CMV pneumonia. DISCUSSION: While CMV typically causes latent disease it can reactivate in the setting of immunosuppression and/or critical illness.[1] Patients with severe COVID-19 frequently are treated with immunosuppressive therapies, such as corticosteroids, anti-interluekin-6 therapies, and JAK inhibitors. Due to this immunosuppression, opportunistic infections have been reported in these patients.[2] It can be difficult to differentiate COVID-19 pneumonia from other respiratory infections based on imaging and lab studies alone, especially in patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation and with severe parenchymal disease requiring ECMO support. Little is known about the incidence of CMV and COVID-19 coinfection. There are several cases of biopsy-proven CMV pneumonia in immunocompromised critically ill patients with COVID-19, but this is the first reported case in an immunocompetent patient. CONCLUSIONS: This case highlights the need to maintain a high degree of suspicion for CMV pneumonia in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia who receive immunosuppressive therapies. While the diagnosis was made at autopsy in this case, it may be possible to arrive at an earlier diagnosis with CMV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays sent from the serum and bronchoalveolar lavage (as lung biopsies are usually impractical in ARDS). Reference #1: de la Hoz RE, Stephens G, Sherlock C. Diagnosis and treatment approaches of CMV infections in adult patients. J Clin Virol. 2002 Aug;25 Suppl 2:S1-12. doi: 10.1016/s1386-6532(02)00091-4. PMID: 12361752. Reference #2: Abdoli A, Falahi S, Kenarkoohi A. COVID-19-associated opportunistic infections: a snapshot on the current reports [published online ahead of print, 2021 Aug 23]. Clin Exp Med. 2021;1-20. doi:10.1007/s10238-021-00751-7 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Nancy Law No relevant relationships by Mazen Odish No relevant relationships by Robert Owens No relevant relationships by Travis Pollema No relevant relationships by Alyssa Self No relevant relationships by Cassia yi

11.
Chest ; 162(4):A738, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060678

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: ECMO and ARDS in COVID-19 Infections SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Original Inv PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 12:15 pm - 1:15 pm PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to determine the incidence of bloodstream infections in COVID19 patients treated with ECMO in relation to steroid days and days of ECMO cannulation. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of data for COVID19 patients treated with ECMO in a tertiary academic medical center from January 2020 until July 2021 was performed. Data including baseline patients’ characteristics, type, and duration of ECMO support, type and days of steroids used, blood culture results, and organism type were collected. An institutional review board (IRB) approval was obtained before data collection. A two-tailed T-test was used to calculate the P-value, P-value of <0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: A Total of 34 patients were analyzed, 3 of them were on (Veno-Arterial) VA ECMO and 31 on (Veno-Venous) VV ECMO, 32 out of 34 (94%) patients received steroids (Dexamethasone alone 16 patients, Methylprednisolone 1 patient and 15 patients received multiple steroid types). Seventeen patients had positive blood cultures (50%), average steroid days for patients with positive blood cultures was 21.6 days compared to 11.8 days for patients with negative blood cultures (P-Value:0.01), Average ECMO days for patients with positive blood cultures was 40.5 days compared to 18.8 days for patients with negative blood cultures ( P-Value:0.01). Staphylococcus epidermidis was found in 47% of the cultures, Enterococcus Faecalis was found in 24% of cultures while MRSA, MSSA, and Candida Albicans were found in 6% of cultures. CONCLUSIONS: Bloodstream Infections during ECMO cannulation are common and carry significant morbidity and mortality in patients. Longer ECMO days and longer duration of steroid use were found to be associated with higher rates of bloodstream infections in our patient’s sample. This could be related to the instrumentation risk or immunosuppression from steroids or other factors not evaluated in this study. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Bloodstream infections are common in patients treated with ECMO, the risk of infections increases with longer ECMO and steroid days. Knowledge of such risks and trying to minimize them such as cautious use of steroids might help in the prevention of infections. Further studies are needed to better assess this risk. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Varun Halani No relevant relationships Added 03/21/2022 by Ghassan Kamel, value=Honoraria Removed 03/21/2022 by Ghassan Kamel No relevant relationships Added 03/22/2022 by Ghassan Kamel, value=Honoraria Removed 03/22/2022 by Ghassan Kamel No relevant relationships by Ahmad Sharayah

12.
Chest ; 162(4):A686, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060668

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: ECMO and ARDS in COVID-19 Infections SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Original Inv PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 12:15 pm - 1:15 pm PURPOSE: Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) is an important salvage therapy for patients with severe COVID-19 associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Whether gas exchange after initiation of ECMO predicts survival remains unknown. The present study aims to investigate if gas exchange parameters are associated with survival during ECMO support of COVID-19 associated ARDS. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated all ARDS patients initiated on VV-ECMO according to ELSO guidelines between 2018 and 2021 at a tertiary academic medical center. ECMO sweep and ventilator fraction of inspire oxygen (FiO2) were catalogued every eight hours for all patients and compared between COVID-19 survivors and non-survivors at Days 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 of ECMO using the Mann-Whitney U test. Cohort characteristics were compared between patients with and without COVID-19 using the chi-squared test for categorical comparisons and the Mann-Whitney U test for comparison of non-parametric continuous variables. Statistical significance was considered as p<0.05 for all tests. RESULTS: Forty-two ARDS patients were initiated on VV-ECMO during the study period, including 30 patients with COVID-19. Mortality was similar between patients with and without COVID-19 (43.3% vs 41.7%, p=0.92). ECMO duration (31 [33.5] vs 9.5 [7.0] days, p=0.002), median sweep (7.0 [4.5] vs 4.3 [4.0], p< 0.001), and median ventilator FiO2 (0.55 [0.50] vs 0.45 [25], p < 0.001) were significantly increased in patients with COVID-19 compared to those without. Among COVID-19 patients, median sweep did not differ between survivors and non-survivors at Day 0 (3.5 [1.0] vs 4.0 [1.0], p=0.20), Day 7 (6.0 [3.0] vs 7.5 [2.3], p=0.38), Day 14 (6.0 [2.5] vs 8.0 [3.3], p=0.14), Day 21 (8.0 [3.5] vs 9.0 [3.0], p= 0.97), or Day 28 (7.5 [3.5] vs 8.0 [3.0], p=0.74). Median ventilator FiO2 was significantly lower in COVID-19 survivors compared to non-survivors at Day 28 (0.50 [0.16] vs 0.81 [0.40], p=0.03), but not at Day 0 (0.75 [0.52] vs 0.60 [0.25], p= 0.98), Day 7 (0.90 [0.50] vs 1 [0.45], p = 0.54), Day 14 (0.90 [0.50] vs 1 [0.08], p=0.08), or Day 21 (0.80 [0.10] vs 0.90 [0.40], p=0.62). CONCLUSIONS: Survival was similar between ARDS patients with and without COVID-19 despite significantly increased ECMO duration and gas exchange support in patients with COVID-19. Early gas exchange parameters after initiation of ECMO were not associated with survival in patients with COVID-19. At Day 28 of ECMO, COVID-19 survivors had significantly lower ventilator FiO2 requirements compared to non-survivors. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Gas exchange parameters did not discriminate survivors from non-survivors until day 28 of ECMO in patients with COVID-19 associated ARDS. Given the need for increased gas exchange support and duration of ECMO therapy in this population, gas exchange parameters prior day 28 of ECMO may not be suitable markers for prognostication. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Andrew Davis No relevant relationships by Malcolm DeCamp No relevant relationships by Hilary Faust No relevant relationships by James Maloney No relevant relationships by Daniel McCarthy No relevant relationships by Michael Peliska

13.
Chest ; 162(4):A590, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060640

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: COVID-19 Co-Infections SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 1:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Over the past 2 years, SARS-CoV-2 has been undergoing research regarding its immunopathology, with its understanding continuously evolving. We present a case of severe respiratory failure from viral co-infection with SARS-CoV-2, parainfluenza virus III, influenza A, and adenovirus. CASE PRESENTATION: A 42-year-old female with no respiratory or immunological comorbidities, was admitted with respiratory failure that progressed within days to severe septic shock and refractory hypoxemia requiring venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO). On initial laboratory evaluation, her nasopharyngeal swab sample tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, Parainfluenza virus III, Influenza A, and Adenovirus on our institute's ROCHE PCR detection test. This was then confirmed with an endotracheal sample and a BAL sample, each of which tested positive for the above 4 viruses. The patient had no prior history of lung disease, autoimmune disorder, immunodeficiency, or malignancy. Serum immunoglobulin levels were within normal range, and the patient tested negative for HIV. She was not on any immunomodulators, and had no known contacts with individuals with polyviral infection. Her presentation had been usual, with 6 days of fever, shortness of breath, extreme fatigue, coughing, and diarrhea. She had initially received treatment with remdesivir, tocilizumab, and dexamethasone. But these tests were noted to be positive prior to her receiving any therapies. Her hospital course was complicated by septic shock, refractory hypoxemia, secondary ventilator associated pneumonia, and fungemia, requiring invasive mechanical ventilation, inhaled nitric oxide, vasopressors, broad spectrum antimicrobials, and eventually rescue by VV-ECMO. She slowly recovered over 6 weeks, received a tracheostomy and was discharged to a long-term acute care hospital for continued rehabilitation and weaning from mechanical ventilation. At 1 year follow up, she has made a full recovery with no residual respiratory limitation. DISCUSSION: Co-infection is defined as infection at diagnosis within 7 days of initial primary infection, whereas, secondary infection develops after 7 days. Co-infection of respiratory viruses, though uncommon, has been reported. Their detection has improved with the use of PCR testing. Simultaneous infection of COVID-19 and usual respiratory viruses has also been documented. Effect of co-infection on disease severity is a result of interaction of viruses among themselves and with the host. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 research has mainly focused on SARS-CoV-2 effects on the human host, but with it evolving into an endemic, its interaction and co- and superinfection with other pathogens is imperative. Further research into such interactions of SARS-CoV2 are required to help develop preventative and therapeutic measures. Reference #1: Lansbury L, Lim B, Baskaran V, Lim WS. Co-infections in people with covid-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. SSRN Electronic Journal. 2020. Reference #2: Kim D, Quinn J, Pinsky B, Shah NH, Brown I. Rates of co-infection between SARS-COV-2 and other respiratory pathogens. JAMA. 2020;323(20):2085. Reference #3: DaPalma T, Doonan BP, Trager NM, Kasman LM. A systematic approach to virus–virus interactions. Virus Research. 2010;149(1):1-9. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Vinita Kusupati No relevant relationships by Jyoti Lenka No relevant relationships by Rachel Tan

14.
Chest ; 162(4):A509, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060616

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Not the Normal Host: Infections Still Matter SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Original Inv PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 12:15 pm - 1:15 pm PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to determine the incidence of hospital acquired and ventilator associated pulmonary infections in patients on ECMO for SARS-CoV-2 related ARDS in relation to steroids and ECMO cannulation days. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of COVID19 patients treated with ECMO admitted to a tertiary care academic medical center from January 2020 until July 2021 was conducted. Data including baseline patient characteristics, type, and duration of ECMO support, type and days of steroids use and sputum culture results were collected. An institutional review board (IRB) approval was obtained prior to data collection. A two-tailed T-test was used to calculate the P-value, P-value of <0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: A total of 34 patients were included in the analysis, of which 3 of them were on (Veno-Arterial) VA-ECMO and 31 were on (Veno-Venous) VV-ECMO. 32 out of 34 (94%) patients received steroids during their hospital course. Total of 20 patients had positive sputum cultures (59%) and average steroid days for patients with positive sputum cultures was 20.75 days as compared to 10.75 days for patients with negative sputum cultures (P-Value: 0.01). Average ECMO days for patients with positive sputum cultures was 26 days as compared to 14.4 days for patients with negative sputum cultures (P Value: 0.0003). Amongst the patients with positive sputum cultures, pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin-sensitive staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) were the most isolated organisms (25% of positive cultures), methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Serratia Marcescens were isolated in 20% of positive cultures, Klebsiella aerogenes was isolated in 15% of positive cultures. CONCLUSIONS: Hospital acquired and ventilator associated pulmonary infections are common in patients on ECMO for SARS-CoV2 related ARDS. Longer ECMO days and a longer duration of steroid use were found to be associated with higher rates of bacterial growth in sputum cultures. Common organisms included Pseudomonas, MSSA, and MRSA. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Our analysis describes the most common bacterial organisms isolated on sputum cultures in this study population. It may also serve as a guide for empiric antibiotics choice when bacterial pneumonia is suspected in similar patients while awaiting sputum culture results. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Varun Halani No relevant relationships Added 03/21/2022 by Ghassan Kamel, value=Honoraria Removed 03/21/2022 by Ghassan Kamel No relevant relationships Added 03/22/2022 by Ghassan Kamel, value=Honoraria Removed 03/22/2022 by Ghassan Kamel No relevant relationships by Ahmad Sharayah

15.
Chest ; 162(4):A465, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060602

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Critical Care in Chest Infections Case Report Posters 2 SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 12:15 pm - 01:15 pm INTRODUCTION: Shewanella are gram-negative bacteria that inhabit salt and brackish watery environments, rarely causing skin and soft tissue infections. We report a case of septic shock, bacteremia, and empyema due to Shewanella in a COVID-ARDS survivor who previously received ECMO. CASE PRESENTATION: A 67-year-old man with a medical history of hypertension, diabetes, recent COVID-ARDS illness complicated with STEMI, leading to a VT/VF arrest requiring 21-days of VV-ECMO support presented three weeks after discharge due to worsening oxygen needs. The patient was hypotensive, febrile, tachycardic, tachypneic, with SatO2 92% on HFNC> 50%FIO2. Labs showed leukocytosis, lactic acidosis, and acute kidney injury. Chest x-ray showed a loculated left pleural effusion. Broad spectrum antibiotics were started. Blood cultures grew Shewanella species in aerobic and anaerobic bottles. A CT of the chest is shown (Figure 1). Thoracentesis was performed with findings consistent with empyema (Table 1). The empyema was managed with pigtail catheters and TPAse-DNAse. Pleural fluid cultures had no growth. The patient improved and was discharged on 6-week course of IV ceftazidime. DISCUSSION: Shewanella is a rare cause of skin and soft tissue infections, following traumatic injuries in association with exposure to salt or brackish water. It has also been associated with pneumonia, in the setting of near drownings, in both fresh and saltwater. Individuals with underlying liver disease and immunocompromising conditions are at the highest risk of contracting the pathogen and manifesting illness. Shewanella algae and putrefaciens may manifest as deep ulcers with hemorrhagic bullae, bacteremia, endocarditis, and meningitis (1). In addition, biliary tract infections and peritonitis can occur (2). Our patient had no epidemiologic risk factors for Shewanella infection. Although nosocomial transmission is possible, we are not aware of any previous reports of such exposure in association with this infection. Given negative pleural fluid culture with positive blood culture, we hypothesize our patient's empyema is due to Shewanella given no other apparent infectious etiology. Studies have shown that approximately 40% of pleural infection are culture negative. It is possible that antibiotic therapy started before fluid collection lowered the diagnostic yield of thoracentesis. The prevalence of bloodstream infections during ECMO ranges from 3 to 18%, with coagulase-negative staphylococcus as the most frequent cause, followed by Candida spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp. (3) with no known reports of Shewanella per the ELSO registry. CONCLUSIONS: This case may confer possible healthcare-related acquirement of Shewanella. Our case adds awareness to clinicians about potential routes of inoculation, predisposing factors, and the wide clinical manifestations of Shewanellosis. Reference #1: Weiss TJ, Barranco-Trabi JJ, Brown A, Oommen TT, Mank V, Ryan C. Case Report: Shewanella Algae Pneumonia and Bacteremia in an Elderly Male Living at a Long-Term Care Facility. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021;106(1):60-61. Published 2021 Nov 15. doi:10.4269/ajtmh.21-0614 Reference #2: Savini V, Marrollo R, Nigro R, Fazii P. Chapter 6-Skin and Soft Tissue Infections Following Marine Injuries. In: The Microbiology of Skin, Soft Tissue, Bone and Joint Infections. Vol 2.;2017:93-103. Reference #3: S. Biffi et al. / International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 50 (2017) 9–16 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Akram Alkrekshi No relevant relationships by Robert Kalayjian No relevant relationships by Ismini Kourouni No relevant relationships by Srinivasa Potla No relevant relationships by Zahra Zia

16.
ASAIO Journal ; 68(Supplement 3):30, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2058627

ABSTRACT

Between 4/2020 and 1/2021 we identified 7 VV ECMO patients (4 IJ, 3 fem/fem) with bloodstream infections due to Enterococcus faecalis. Time from cannulation to first positive blood culture ranged from 8 to 63 days. There was no geographic clustering apparent. A culture of the heater/ cooler water reservoir of an actively infected patient was sterile. Based on our preliminary analysis, we felt that there were likely multiple contributing factors leading to our spike in infections rather than one simple cause. We hypothesized that our nursing focus had shifted during the COVID-19 pandemic to a culture of minimizing spread of COVID-19 to our staff, with less focus on basic patient care and standard patient infection prevention. Knowing that E faecalis can be spread from the patient (it is a common enteric bacteria) to the environment and then back to lines, we began intensive reeducation and focus on basics of ICU patient care emphasizing: (1) Basic hand hygiene/gloving, (2) General room sanitation including disinfecting surfaces daily, (2) Sterility during line and cannula dressing changes, (3) Weekly dressing changes as well as PRN blood or fluid under the dressing, and (5) Diarrhea containment. Since implementing these policies we have had no blood stream infections in our ECMO population. The importance of daily routine care is too easily forgotten. A strategy of teaching and emphasizing basics can produce large and sustained benefits.

17.
ASAIO Journal ; 68(Supplement 3):61, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2058514

ABSTRACT

Objective: The motto Cannulate, Extubate, Ambulate reflects the care ECMO patients receive at West Virginia University Medicine. Early mobility, crucial in our outcomes, especially with the COVID-19 population, is started with a Physical Therapist. This is followed by all team members participating in ECMO mobilization. This project examined the impact of mobilization for our COVID+ population placed on VV ECMO. Method(s): A WVU retrospective review was completed of COVID-19+ patients on ECMO between 3/2020 and 12/2021, determining survival to decannulation and discharge location. Mobility was examined for ECMOday of first active participation, first active transfer out of bed, and first ambulation. Further, PT sessions during cannulation, total PT, staff assist mobility while cannulated, and total number of sessions during admission. All patients who survived to discharge were included in survival rate, but those transferred to outside facilities for ECMO management were excluded from mobility and discharge location analyses. Result(s): Out of 91 patients, 70% successfully decannulated, and 98.4% survived to discharge. Mobilization began day 1 of ECMO, averaging 7.6 sessions/patient during their hospitalization. 88% performed their first active transfers with PT assist. Mobility sessions were also performed by Nursing/ECMO Specialists (3.6 times vs. 2.8 times). Total active mobilizations ranged 2-69 sessions, averaging 13.9 mobilizations during hospitalization. 60% of COVID-19 ECMO survivors were discharged home. Conclusion(s): Physical therapists lead mobility efforts, however, active involvement of nursing and ECMO Specialists is vital to provide continuity and repetition of mobility. Our results suggest teamwork improves patient survival and other important outcomes.

18.
ASAIO Journal ; 68(Supplement 3):19, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2058406

ABSTRACT

Background: Hemorrhagic stroke (HS) is a devastating complication during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), but markers for risk stratification are unknown. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a readily available biomarker of global tissue injury and permeability. We sought to determine whether an elevated LDH at baseline is related to eventual HS during ECMO for COVID-19. Method(s): A multicenter, retrospective study was conducted. Adult patients with COVID-19 requiring ECMO between March 2020 and February 2022 were included. LDH values prior to ECMO were captured. Patients were categorized into high (>750 U/L) or low (<=750 U/L) LDH groups. Result(s): There were 520 patients (47+/-11 years old) that underwent ECMO placement in 17 centers and 384 had an available LDH. In this cohort, 122 (32%) had a high LDH. Forty (10%) patients required venoarterial ECMO, while the remaining 344 (90%) received venovenous support only. Twenty-one out of 122 (17%) patients with a high LDH had a HS in comparison to 21 out of 262 (8%) with a low LDH. At 100 days, the probability of a HS was 40% in the high LDH group and 23% in those with a low LDH, p=0.002. After adjustment for age, sex and antecedent cardiopulmonary resuscitation, high LDH was associated with subsequent HS (aHR: 2.73, 95% CI 1.46-5.12). Findings were similar when restricting to patients supported by venovenous ECMO only. Conclusion(s): Elevated LDH prior to ECMO is associated with a HS during device support. LDH can risk stratify cases for impending cerebral bleeding during ECMO.

19.
ASAIO Journal ; 68(Supplement 3):6, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2058350

ABSTRACT

Background: Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) was increasingly used during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. COVID-19 has been associated with bradycardia however, causative mechanisms are unclear. We aimed to assess the incidence and impact of bradycardia in COVID-19 patients whilst on VV-ECMO. Method(s): Retrospective, single centre cohort study including 173 patients on VV-ECMO due to COVID 19 from Mach 2020 to March 2022. Patients with HR<60bpm were compared with non-bradycardic patients. Furthermore, bradycardic patients were divided into 3 subgroups. Groups 1 and 2 had a HR 40-60bpm, but only Group 2 received management for bradycardia;Group 3 had life-threatening bradycardia (HR<=40). Patient characteristics, clinical and laboratory findings, and patient outcomes were collected and analysed. Result(s): 88.5% of patients developed bradycardia during VV-ECMO, of which 43% developed life-threatening bradycardia. Bradycardic patients had significantly longer ECMO runs (29 (17-46) vs 12 (7-17) days, p<0.0001) and length of hospital stay (LOHS) (47 (30-67) vs 29 (22-36) days, p=0.0007). There was no difference in mortality (p=0.7973). Counterintuitively, the non-bradycardic population were more often treated with bradycardia-inducing medications, such as beta-blockers (p=0.0220). Patients in Group 3 had significantly longer ECMO duration (37 (23- 59) days, p=0.0004) and subsequently a longer LOHS (55 (37-73) days, p=0.0033) but showed no difference in mortality (p=0.3091) compared to other subgroups. Conclusion(s): Bradycardia was associated with increased ECMO duration and LOHS, especially in the case of life-threatening bradycardia. The underlying mechanisms behind the bradycardia remain unclear, however it seems unlikely bradycardia was precipitated by bradycardia-inducing medications.

20.
ASAIO Journal ; 68(Supplement 3):28, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2058289

ABSTRACT

Introduction: During the pandemic, various guidelines were developed for the utilization of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for COVID-19 ARDS. However, once patients were cannulated for ECMO, the timeframe for lung recovery and referral for lung transplantation was less clear. To date, there are few reported cases of successful long-term (>28 days) ECMO as a bridge to lung recovery. Method(s): We present three patients who were referred for lung transplantation for severe COVID-19 associated respiratory failure and ultimately achieved successful lung recovery following long-term venovenous ECMO support. Patients presented at different stages of the pandemic, were of different ethnicities, aged 35-54 years old, average BMI of 27.6 and two were male. Prior to cannulation, all patients failed mechanical ventilation, prone positioning, neuromuscular blockade and pulmonary vasodilators. Patients were cannulated within 7 days of intubation, underwent early tracheostomy and participated in ambulatory physical therapy. Complications during ECMO included acute renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy, pneumothorax, right ventricular dysfunction and concomitant bacterial pneumonia with bacteremia. The median duration of ECMO was 104 days (range 84-142 days). Radiographic imaging reported end stage restrictive changes in all patients. Survival to hospital discharge was 100%. All patients had complete renal recovery, resolution of RV dysfunction and functional independence without oxygen. Radiographic changes and pulmonary function continued to improve after decannulation. Conclusion(s): Long-term ECMO is an effective strategy for lung recovery in severe COVID-19 ARDS. Duration of ECMO support and radiographic findings should not be used alone to determine recoverability or need for lung transplantation.

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