Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 14 de 14
Filter
1.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 03 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792421

ABSTRACT

Focusing on the transmembrane domains (TMDs) of viral fusion and channel-forming proteins (VCPs), experimentally available and newly generated peptides in an ideal conformation of the S and E proteins of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and SARS-CoV, gp41 and Vpu, both of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), haemagglutinin and M2 of influenza A, as well as gB of herpes simplex virus (HSV), are embedded in a fully hydrated lipid bilayer and used in multi-nanosecond molecular dynamics simulations. It is aimed to identify differences in the dynamics of the individual TMDs of the two types of viral membrane proteins. The assumption is made that the dynamics of the individual TMDs are decoupled from their extra-membrane domains, and that the mechanics of the TMDs are distinct from each other due to the different mechanism of function of the two types of proteins. The diffusivity coefficient (DC) of the translational and rotational diffusion is decreased in the oligomeric state of the TMDs compared to those values when calculated from simulations in their monomeric state. When comparing the calculations for two different lengths of the TMD, a longer full peptide and a shorter purely TMD stretch, (i) the difference of the calculated DCs begins to level out when the difference exceeds approximately 15 amino acids per peptide chain, and (ii) the channel protein rotational DC is the most affected diffusion parameter. The rotational dynamics of the individual amino acids within the middle section of the TMDs of the fusion peptides remain high upon oligomerization, but decrease for the channel peptides, with an increasing number of monomers forming the oligomeric state, suggesting an entropic penalty on oligomerization for the latter.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ion Channels , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Viral Fusion Proteins , Amino Acids , Humans , Ion Channels/ultrastructure , Peptides/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Fusion Proteins/ultrastructure
2.
J Virol ; 96(7): e0010022, 2022 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1728835

ABSTRACT

Understanding how animal influenza A viruses (IAVs) acquire airborne transmissibility in humans and ferrets is needed to prepare for and respond to pandemics. Here, we investigated in ferrets the replication and transmission of swine H1N1 isolates P4 and G15, whose majority population had decreased polymerase activity and poor hemagglutinin (HA) stability, respectively. For both isolates, a minor variant was selected and transmitted in ferrets. Polymerase-enhancing variant PA-S321 airborne-transmitted and propagated in one ferret. HA-stabilizing variant HA1-S210 was selected in all G15-inoculated ferrets and was transmitted by contact and airborne routes. With an efficient polymerase and a stable HA, the purified minor variant G15-HA1-S210 had earlier and higher peak titers in inoculated ferrets and was recovered at a higher frequency after airborne transmission than P4 and G15. Overall, HA stabilization played a more prominent role than polymerase enhancement in the replication and transmission of these viruses in ferrets. The results suggest pandemic risk-assessment studies may benefit from deep sequencing to identify minor variants with human-adapted traits. IMPORTANCE Diverse IAVs circulate in animals, yet few acquire the viral traits needed to start a human pandemic. A stabilized HA and mammalian-adapted polymerase have been shown to promote the adaptation of IAVs to humans and ferrets (the gold-standard model for IAV replication, pathogenicity, and transmissibility). Here, we used swine IAV isolates of the gamma lineage as a model to investigate the importance of HA stability and polymerase activity in promoting replication and transmission in ferrets. These are emerging viruses that bind to both α-2,6- and α-2,3-linked receptors. Using isolates containing mixed populations, a stabilized HA was selected within days in inoculated ferrets. An enhanced polymerase was also selected and propagated after airborne transmission to a ferret. Thus, HA stabilization was a stricter requirement, yet both traits promoted transmissibility. Knowing the viral traits needed for pandemic potential, and the relative importance of each, will help identify emerging viruses of greatest concern.


Subject(s)
Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Orthomyxoviridae Infections , Animals , Ferrets , Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/chemistry , Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/metabolism , Humans , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/transmission , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology , Protein Stability , Swine
3.
J Virol ; 94(13)2020 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583223

ABSTRACT

Fusion with, and subsequent entry into, the host cell is one of the critical steps in the life cycle of enveloped viruses. For Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), the spike (S) protein is the main determinant of viral entry. Proteolytic cleavage of the S protein exposes its fusion peptide (FP), which initiates the process of membrane fusion. Previous studies on the related severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) FP have shown that calcium ions (Ca2+) play an important role in fusogenic activity via a Ca2+ binding pocket with conserved glutamic acid (E) and aspartic acid (D) residues. SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV FPs share a high sequence homology, and here, we investigated whether Ca2+ is required for MERS-CoV fusion by screening a mutant array in which E and D residues in the MERS-CoV FP were substituted with neutrally charged alanines (A). Upon verifying mutant cell surface expression and proteolytic cleavage, we tested their ability to mediate pseudoparticle (PP) infection of host cells in modulating Ca2+ environments. Our results demonstrate that intracellular Ca2+ enhances MERS-CoV wild-type (WT) PP infection by approximately 2-fold and that E891 is a crucial residue for Ca2+ interaction. Subsequent electron spin resonance (ESR) experiments revealed that this enhancement could be attributed to Ca2+ increasing MERS-CoV FP fusion-relevant membrane ordering. Intriguingly, isothermal calorimetry showed an approximate 1:1 MERS-CoV FP to Ca2+ ratio, as opposed to an 1:2 SARS-CoV FP to Ca2+ ratio, suggesting significant differences in FP Ca2+ interactions of MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV FP despite their high sequence similarity.IMPORTANCE Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a major emerging infectious disease with zoonotic potential and has reservoirs in dromedary camels and bats. Since its first outbreak in 2012, the virus has repeatedly transmitted from camels to humans, with 2,468 confirmed cases causing 851 deaths. To date, there are no efficacious drugs and vaccines against MERS-CoV, increasing its potential to cause a public health emergency. In order to develop novel drugs and vaccines, it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms that enable the virus to infect host cells. Our data have found that calcium is an important regulator of viral fusion by interacting with negatively charged residues in the MERS-CoV FP region. This information can guide therapeutic solutions to block this calcium interaction and also repurpose already approved drugs for this use for a fast response to MERS-CoV outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Calcium/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Ions/metabolism , Membrane Fusion , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/physiology , Virus Internalization , Amino Acid Sequence , Amino Acid Substitution , Animals , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Protein Binding , Proteolysis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Structure-Activity Relationship , Vero Cells , Virulence , Virus Assembly
4.
Biomedicines ; 9(10)2021 Oct 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463552

ABSTRACT

To rationalize the antiviral actions of plant alkaloids, the ability of 20 compounds to inhibit calcium-mediated fusion of lipid vesicles composed of phosphatidylglycerol and cholesterol was investigated using the calcein release assay and dynamic light scattering. Piperine, tabersonine, hordenine, lupinine, quinine, and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine demonstrated the most potent effects (inhibition index greater than 50%). The introduction of phosphatidylcholine into the phosphatidylglycerol/cholesterol mixture led to significant changes in quinine, hordenine, and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine efficiency. Comparison of the fusion inhibitory ability of the tested alkaloids, and the results of the measurements of alkaloid-induced alterations in the physical properties of model membranes indicated a potent relationship between a decrease in the cooperativity of the phase transition of lipids and the ability of alkaloids to prevent calcium-mediated vesicle fusion. In order to use this knowledge to combat the novel coronavirus pandemic, the ability of the most effective compounds to suppress membrane fusion induced by fragments of MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV/SARS-CoV-2 fusion peptides was studied using the calcein release assay and confocal fluorescence microscopy. Piperine was shown to inhibit vesicle fusion mediated by both coronavirus peptides. Moreover, piperine was shown to significantly reduce the titer of SARS-CoV2 progeny in vitro in Vero cells when used in non-toxic concentrations.

5.
Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr ; 1863(11): 183697, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316392

ABSTRACT

Fusion peptides (FP) are prominent hydrophobic segments of viral fusion proteins that play critical roles in viral entry. FPs interact with and insert into the host lipid membranes, triggering conformational changes in the viral protein that leads to the viral-cell fusion. Multiple membrane-active domains from the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (CoV) spike protein have been reported to act as the functional fusion peptide such as the peptide sequence located between the S1/S2 and S2' cleavage sites (FP1), the S2'-adjacent fusion peptide domain (FP2), and the internal FP sequence (cIFP). Using a combined biophysical approach, we demonstrated that the α-helical coiled-coil-forming internal cIFP displayed the highest membrane fusion and permeabilizing activities along with membrane ordering effect in phosphatidylcholine (PC)/phosphatidylglycerol (PG) unilamellar vesicles compared to the other two N-proximal fusion peptide counterparts. While the FP1 sequence displayed intermediate membranotropic activities, the well-conserved FP2 peptide was substantially less effective in promoting fusion, leakage, and membrane ordering in PC/PG model membranes. Furthermore, Ca2+ did not enhance the FP2-induced lipid mixing activity in PC/phosphatidylserine/cholesterol lipid membranes, despite its strong erythrocyte membrane perturbation. Nonetheless, we found that the three putative SARS-CoV membrane-active fusion peptide sequences here studied altered the physical properties of model and erythrocyte membranes to different extents. The importance of the distinct membranotropic and biological activities of all SARS-CoV fusion peptide domains and the pronounced effect of the internal fusion peptide sequence to the whole spike-mediated membrane fusion process are discussed.


Subject(s)
Erythrocyte Membrane/metabolism , Phospholipids/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Calcium/chemistry , Calcium/metabolism , Erythrocyte Membrane/chemistry , Humans , Phospholipids/chemistry , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation, alpha-Helical , Protein Domains , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Unilamellar Liposomes/chemistry , Unilamellar Liposomes/metabolism
6.
mBio ; 12(2)2021 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1160040

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) have caused severe diseases in humans and animals. Endocytic pathways, such as clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) and caveolae-mediated endocytosis (CavME), play an important role for CoVs to penetrate the cell membrane barrier. In this study, a novel CoV entry manner is unraveled in which clathrin and caveolae can cooperatively mediate endocytosis of porcine epidemic diarrhea coronavirus (PEDV). Using multicolor live-cell imaging, the dynamics of the fluorescently labeled clathrin structures, caveolae structures, and PEDV were dissected. During CavME of PEDV, we found that clathrin structures can fuse with caveolae near the cell plasma membrane, and the average time of PEDV penetrating the cell membrane was within ∼3 min, exhibiting a rapid course of PEDV entry. Moreover, based on the dynamic recruitment of clathrin and caveolae structures and viral motility, the direct evidence also shows that about 20% of PEDVs can undergo an abortive entry via CME and CavME. Additionally, the dynamic trafficking of PEDV from clathrin and caveolae structures to early endosomes, and from early endosomes to late endosomes, and viral fusion were directly dissected, and PEDV fusion mainly occurred in late endosomes within ∼6.8 min after the transport of PEDV to late endosomes. Collectively, this work systematically unravels the early steps of PEDV infection, which expands our understanding of the mechanism of CoV infection.IMPORTANCE Emerging and re-emerging coronaviruses cause serious human and animal epidemics worldwide. For many enveloped viruses, including coronavirus, it is evident that breaking the plasma membrane barrier is a pivotal and complex process, which contains multiple dynamic steps. Although great efforts have been made to understand the mechanisms of coronavirus endocytic pathways, the direct real-time imaging of individual porcine epidemic diarrhea coronavirus (PEDV) internalization has not been achieved yet. In this study, we not only dissected the kinetics of PEDV entry via clathrin-mediated endocytosis and caveolae-mediated endocytosis and the kinetics of endosome trafficking and viral fusion but also found a novel productive coronavirus entry manner in which clathrin and caveolae can cooperatively mediate endocytosis of PEDV. Moreover, we uncovered the existence of PEDV abortive endocytosis. In summary, the productive PEDV entry via the cooperation between clathrin and caveolae structures and the abortive endocytosis of PEDV provide new insights into coronavirus penetrating the plasma membrane barrier.


Subject(s)
Caveolae/metabolism , Clathrin/metabolism , Endocytosis/physiology , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Animals , Cell Line , Cell Membrane/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections , Swine , Swine Diseases/virology , Vero Cells
7.
J Biol Chem ; 296: 100135, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-955836

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has already caused over a million deaths worldwide, and this death toll will be much higher before effective treatments and vaccines are available. The causative agent of the disease, the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, shows important similarities with the previously emerged SARS-CoV-1, but also striking differences. First, SARS-CoV-2 possesses a significantly higher transmission rate and infectivity than SARS-CoV-1 and has infected in a few months over 60 million people. Moreover, COVID-19 has a systemic character, as in addition to the lungs, it also affects the heart, liver, and kidneys among other organs of the patients and causes frequent thrombotic and neurological complications. In fact, the term "viral sepsis" has been recently coined to describe the clinical observations. Here I review current structure-function information on the viral spike proteins and the membrane fusion process to provide plausible explanations for these observations. I hypothesize that several membrane-associated serine proteinases (MASPs), in synergy with or in place of TMPRSS2, contribute to activate the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Relative concentrations of the attachment receptor, ACE2, MASPs, their endogenous inhibitors (the Kunitz-type transmembrane inhibitors, HAI-1/SPINT1 and HAI-2/SPINT2, as well as major circulating serpins) would determine the infection rate of host cells. The exclusive or predominant expression of major MASPs in specific human organs suggests a direct role of these proteinases in e.g., heart infection and myocardial injury, liver dysfunction, kidney damage, as well as neurological complications. Thorough consideration of these factors could have a positive impact on the control of the current COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Gene Expression Regulation , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Isoenzymes/genetics , Isoenzymes/metabolism , Kidney/metabolism , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/virology , Liver/metabolism , Liver/pathology , Liver/virology , Membrane Fusion/genetics , Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics , Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , Myocardium/metabolism , Myocardium/pathology , Proteinase Inhibitory Proteins, Secretory/genetics , Proteinase Inhibitory Proteins, Secretory/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/chemistry , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Serine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
8.
In Silico Pharmacol ; 8(1): 3, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917173

ABSTRACT

Outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a great challenge for scientific community globally. Virus enters cell through spike glycoprotein fusion with ACE2 (Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2) human receptor. Hence, spike glycoprotein of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a potential target for diagnostics, vaccines, and antibodies. Also, virus entry can be prevented by blocking ACE2 thus, ACE2 can be considered potential target for therapeutics. As being highly specific, safe and efficacious, peptides hold their place in therapeutics. In present study, we retrieved sequence of 70 peptides from Antiviral Peptide Database (AVPdb), modelled them using 3D structure predicting web tool and docked them with receptor binding domain (RBD) of spike protein and human host receptor ACE2 using peptide-protein docking. It was observed that peptides have more affinity towards ACE2 in comparison with spike RBD. Interestingly it was noticed that most of the peptides bind to RBM (residue binding motif) which is responsible for ACE2 binding at the interface of RBD while, for ACE2, peptides prefer to bind the core cavity rather than RBD binding interface. To further investigate how peptides at the interface of RBD or ACE2 alter the binding between RBD and ACE2, protein-protein docking of RBD and ACE2 with and without peptides was performed. Peptides, AVP0671 at RBD and AVP1244 at ACE2 interfaces significantly reduce the binding affinity and change the orientation of RBD and ACE2 binding. This finding suggests that peptides can be used as a drug to inhibit virus entry in cells to stop COVID-19 pandemic in the future after experimental evidences.

9.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 603509, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-904723

ABSTRACT

With steady increase of new COVID-19 cases around the world, especially in the United States, health care resources in areas with the disease outbreak are quickly exhausted by overwhelming numbers of COVID-19 patients. Therefore, strategies that can effectively and quickly predict the disease progression and stratify patients for appropriate health care arrangements are urgently needed. We explored the features and evolutionary difference of viral gene expression in the SARS-CoV-2 infected cells from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of patients with moderate and severe COVID-19 using both single cell and bulk tissue transcriptome data. We found SARS-CoV-2 sequences were detectable in 8 types of immune related cells, including macrophages, T cells, and NK cells. We first reported that the SARS-CoV-2 ORF10 gene was differentially expressed in the severe vs. moderate samples. Specifically, ORF10 was abundantly expressed in infected cells of severe cases, while it was barely detectable in the infected cells of moderate cases. Consequently, the expression ratio of ORF10 to nucleocapsid (N) was significantly higher in severe than moderate cases (p = 0.0062). Moreover, we found transcription regulatory sequences (TRSs) of the viral leader sequence-independent fusions with a 5' joint point at position 1073 of SARS-CoV-2 genome were detected mainly in the patients with death outcome, suggesting its potential indication of clinical outcome. Finally, we identified the motifs in TRS of the viral leader sequence-dependent fusion events of SARS-CoV-2 and compared with that in SARS-CoV, suggesting its evolutionary trajectory. These results implicated potential roles and predictive features of viral transcripts in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 moderate and severe patients. Such features and evolutionary patterns require more data to validate in future.

10.
EMBO J ; 39(21): e106057, 2020 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-846583

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by SARS-CoV-2 and has spread across the globe. SARS-CoV-2 is a highly infectious virus with no vaccine or antiviral therapy available to control the pandemic; therefore, it is crucial to understand the mechanisms of viral pathogenesis and the host immune responses to SARS-CoV-2. SARS-CoV-2 is a new member of the betacoronavirus genus like other closely related viruses including SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Both SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV have caused serious outbreaks and epidemics in the past eighteen years. Here, we report that one of the interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), cholesterol 25-hydroxylase (CH25H), is induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro and in COVID-19-infected patients. CH25H converts cholesterol to 25-hydrocholesterol (25HC) and 25HC shows broad anti-coronavirus activity by blocking membrane fusion. Furthermore, 25HC inhibits USA-WA1/2020 SARS-CoV-2 infection in lung epithelial cells and viral entry in human lung organoids. Mechanistically, 25HC inhibits viral membrane fusion by activating the ER-localized acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) which leads to the depletion of accessible cholesterol from the plasma membrane. Altogether, our results shed light on a potentially broad antiviral mechanism by 25HC through depleting accessible cholesterol on the plasma membrane to suppress virus-cell fusion. Since 25HC is a natural product with no known toxicity at effective concentrations, it provides a potential therapeutic candidate for COVID-19 and emerging viral diseases in the future.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Cholesterol/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Respiratory Mucosa/virology , Steroid Hydroxylases/pharmacology , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Acetyl-CoA C-Acetyltransferase/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Cell Membrane/drug effects , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Chlorocebus aethiops , Enzyme Activation/drug effects , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Organoids/virology , Pandemics , Respiratory Mucosa/drug effects , SARS Virus/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Vero Cells
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(15)2020 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-669635

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is being caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). The disease continues to present significant challenges to the health care systems around the world. This is primarily because of the lack of vaccines to protect against the infection and the lack of highly effective therapeutics to prevent and/or treat the illness. Nevertheless, researchers have swiftly responded to the pandemic by advancing old and new potential therapeutics into clinical trials. In this review, we summarize potential anti-COVID-19 therapeutics that block the early stage of the viral life cycle. The review presents the structures, mechanisms, and reported results of clinical trials of potential therapeutics that have been listed in clinicaltrials.gov. Given the fact that some of these therapeutics are multi-acting molecules, other relevant mechanisms will also be described. The reviewed therapeutics include small molecules and macromolecules of sulfated polysaccharides, polypeptides, and monoclonal antibodies. The potential therapeutics target viral and/or host proteins or processes that facilitate the early stage of the viral infection. Frequent targets are the viral spike protein, the host angiotensin converting enzyme 2, the host transmembrane protease serine 2, and clathrin-mediated endocytosis process. Overall, the review aims at presenting update-to-date details, so as to enhance awareness of potential therapeutics, and thus, to catalyze their appropriate use in combating the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , COVID-19 , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Pandemics , Peptides/chemistry , Peptides/pharmacology , Peptides/therapeutic use , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Polysaccharides/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Small Molecule Libraries/chemistry , Small Molecule Libraries/pharmacology , Small Molecule Libraries/therapeutic use , Virus Attachment/drug effects , Virus Internalization/drug effects
12.
Andrology ; 9(1): 48-52, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-638749

ABSTRACT

As COVID-19 infections wreak havoc across the globe, attention has rightly been focused on the vital organ systems (lung, kidney and heart) that are vulnerable to viral attack and contribute to the acute pathology associated with this disease. However, we should not lose sight of the fact that COVID-19 will attack any cell type in the body expressing ACE2 - including human spermatozoa. These cells possess the entire repertoire of receptors (AT1R, AT2R, MAS) and ligand processing enzymes (ACE1 and ACE2) needed to support the angiotensin signalling cascade. The latter not only provides COVID-19 with a foothold on the sperm surface but may also promote integration, given the additional presence of a range of proteases (TMPRSS2, TMPRSS11B, TMPRSS12, furin) capable of promoting viral fusion. This article reviews the roles played by these various cellular constituents in maintaining the vitality of human spermatozoa and their competence for fertilization. The reproductive consequences of a viral attack on these systems, in terms of fertility and the risk of sexual transmission, are currently unknown. However, we should be alive to the possibility that there may be reproductive consequences of COVID-19 infection in young males that go beyond their capacity to survive a viral attack.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Infertility, Male/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral/virology , Spermatozoa/virology , Animals , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Infertility, Male/diagnosis , Infertility, Male/metabolism , Male , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral/diagnosis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral/metabolism , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral/transmission , Spermatozoa/metabolism
13.
Life Sci ; 257: 118056, 2020 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-634858

ABSTRACT

Various human pathogenic viruses employ envelope glycoproteins for host cell receptor recognition and binding, membrane fusion and viral entry. The spike (S) glycoprotein of betacoronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is a homotrimeric class I fusion protein that exists in a metastable conformation for cleavage by host cell proteases furin and TMPRSS2, thereby undergoing substantial structural rearrangement for ACE2 host cell receptor binding and subsequent viral entry by membrane fusion. The S protein is densely decorated with N-linked glycans protruding from the trimer surface that affect S protein folding, processing by host cell proteases and the elicitation of humoral immune response. Deep insight into the sophisticated structure of SARS-CoV-2 S protein may provide a blueprint for vaccination strategies, as reviewed herein.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vaccination/methods , Virus Internalization
14.
Viruses ; 12(4)2020 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-42020

ABSTRACT

Protein-mediated membrane fusion is a highly regulated biological process essential for cellular and organismal functions and infection by enveloped viruses. During viral entry the membrane fusion reaction is catalyzed by specialized protein machinery on the viral surface. These viral fusion proteins undergo a series of dramatic structural changes during membrane fusion where they engage, remodel, and ultimately fuse with the host membrane. The structural and dynamic nature of these conformational changes and their impact on the membranes have long-eluded characterization. Recent advances in structural and biophysical methodologies have enabled researchers to directly observe viral fusion proteins as they carry out their functions during membrane fusion. Here we review the structure and function of type I viral fusion proteins and mechanisms of protein-mediated membrane fusion. We highlight how recent technological advances and new biophysical approaches are providing unprecedented new insight into the membrane fusion reaction.


Subject(s)
Membrane Fusion , Viral Fusion Proteins/chemistry , Viral Fusion Proteins/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Biophysical Phenomena
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL