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1.
J Assoc Med Microbiol Infect Dis Can ; 5(2): 98-103, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109663

ABSTRACT

As the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to evolve globally and within our Canadian borders, hospitals will begin to see an increasing number of confirmed or suspected cases at their doors. Although many patients can be managed at home, a reasonable proportion will experience progression of disease requiring hospitalization and potentially mechanical ventilation and intensive care. Herein, we report the presentation of the first case of COVID-19 admitted to hospital in Alberta. While The patient's course was mild, this case highlights a number of key points-namely the importance of widespread testing in the community to help inform emergency services (ambulance) workers and receiving front-line health care staff. Other important points include in-hospital monitoring and pharmacologic treatment.


Avec l'évolution de la pandémie de maladie à coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) dans le monde et à l'intérieur des frontières du Canada, les hôpitaux verront un nombre croissant de patients au diagnostic confirmé ou présumé. De nombreux cas bénins peuvent être traités à la maison, mais dans une proportion raisonnable de cas, la maladie exigera une hospitalisation et peut-être une ventilation mécanique et une admission aux soins intensifs. Les auteurs rendent compte de la présentation du premier cas de COVID-19 hospitalisé en Alberta. Même si la maladie était bénigne, plusieurs éléments fondamentaux en sont ressortis, notamment l'importance de tests généralisés dans la population pour renseigner les services d'urgence (ambulance) et les travailleurs de la santé de première ligne. Le monitorage à l'hôpital et le traitement pharmacologique font partie des autres éléments importants.

2.
EBioMedicine ; 85: 104295, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2104816

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A comparison of pneumonias due to SARS-CoV-2 and influenza, in terms of clinical course and predictors of outcomes, might inform prognosis and resource management. We aimed to compare clinical course and outcome predictors in SARS-CoV-2 and influenza pneumonia using multi-state modelling and supervised machine learning on clinical data among hospitalised patients. METHODS: This multicenter retrospective cohort study of patients hospitalised with SARS-CoV-2 (March-December 2020) or influenza (Jan 2015-March 2020) pneumonia had the composite of hospital mortality and hospice discharge as the primary outcome. Multi-state models compared differences in oxygenation/ventilatory utilisation between pneumonias longitudinally throughout hospitalisation. Differences in predictors of outcome were modelled using supervised machine learning classifiers. FINDINGS: Among 2,529 hospitalisations with SARS-CoV-2 and 2,256 with influenza pneumonia, the primary outcome occurred in 21% and 9%, respectively. Multi-state models differentiated oxygen requirement progression between viruses, with SARS-CoV-2 manifesting rapidly-escalating early hypoxemia. Highly contributory classifier variables for the primary outcome differed substantially between viruses. INTERPRETATION: SARS-CoV-2 and influenza pneumonia differ in presentation, hospital course, and outcome predictors. These pathogen-specific differential responses in viral pneumonias suggest distinct management approaches should be investigated. FUNDING: This project was supported by NIH/NCATS UL1 TR002345, NIH/NCATS KL2 TR002346 (PGL), the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation grant 2015215 (PGL), NIH/NHLBI R35 HL140026 (CSC), and a Big Ideas Award from the BJC HealthCare and Washington University School of Medicine Healthcare Innovation Lab and NIH/NIGMS R35 GM142992 (PS).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Pneumonia, Viral , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Hospitals
3.
4.
Ter Arkh ; 94(5): 668-674, 2022 Jun 17.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091500

ABSTRACT

AIM: To study the effect of levilimab or baricitinib in combination with standard therapy (ST) on the incidence of severe viral pneumonia associated with a new coronavirus infection COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multicenter, open-label observational study of the efficacy and safety of levilimab in combination with ST (group 1, n=100), baricitinib in combination with ST (group 2, n=139), or in comparison with ST (group 3, n=200) in outpatients with verified CT-1 pneumonia. RESULTS: According to the results of laboratory tests, patients treated with levilimab in combination with ST had the best dynamics of changes in CRP from reliably the highest level (mg/L) to the lowest in comparison with other groups. In the group of patients with ST, in contrast to the other groups, no dynamics of CRP was observed by day 5 of therapy. In group of hospitalized patients initially receiving levilimab in addition to ST, the rate of transfer to the intensive care unit (2 patients, 9.52%) and length of stay (4 days) was significantly lower compared to the values in patients in both the baricitinib group in combination with ST (7 patients, 15.56%; 5 days [interquartile range 36.5]) and in patients receiving ST alone (7 patients, 15.56%; 5 days [interquartile range 36.5]). Also in hospitalized patients we observed no statistically significant intergroup differences in the incidence of infectious complications and thromboembolic events, which confirms the safety of including levilimab or baricitinib in COVID-19 pathogenetic therapy regimens. Observational results support the hypothesis that the initial inclusion of levilimab or baricitinib in addition to ST is accompanied by a reduced risk of viral pneumonia progression. CONCLUSION: The addition of levilimab or baricitinib to the therapy regimen for coronavirus infection during the outpatient phase has demonstrated a preemptive anti-inflammatory effect and reduced the probability of lung tissue damage progression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia, Viral , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , Outpatients , SARS-CoV-2 , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
5.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 20(12): 1537-1550, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062697

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Although viruses are an underestimated cause of community-acquired pneumonias (CAP) and hospital-acquired pneumonias (HAP)/ventilator-associated pneumonias (VAP) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, they have an impact on morbidity and mortality. AREAS COVERED: In this perspective article, we discuss the available data regarding the management of severe influenza CAP and herpesviridae HAP/VAP. We review diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in order to give clear messages and address unsolved questions. EXPERT OPINION: Influenza CAP affects yearly thousands of people; however, robust data regarding antiviral treatment in the most critical forms are scarce. While efficacy of oseltamivir has been investigated in randomized controlled trials (RCT) in uncomplicated influenza, only observational data are available in ICU patients. Herpesviridae are an underestimated cause of HAP/VAP in ICU patients. Whilst incidence of herpesviridae identification in samples from lower respiratory tract of ICU patients is relatively high (from 20% to 50%), efforts should be made to differentiate local reactivation from true lung infection. Only few randomized controlled trials evaluated the efficacy of antiviral treatment in herpesviridae reactivation/infection in ICU patients and all were exploratory or negative. Further studies are needed to evaluate the impact of such treatment in specific populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community-Acquired Infections , Healthcare-Associated Pneumonia , Influenza, Human , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated , Virus Diseases , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use
6.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; 28(19):34-41, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2056461

ABSTRACT

Objective:To determine the therapeutic effect of Gegentang granules on a disease-syndrome mouse model combining human coronavirus 229E(hCoV-229E)pneumonia with Hanshi Yidu Xifei syndrome in vivo. Method: Mice were randomly divided into normal group,infection group,cold-dampness group,model group,chloroquine phosphate group(0.18 g·kg-1),interferon-α2b(IFN-α2b)group(1.83×106 U·kg-1), Gegentang granules high-dose and low-dose groups(6.6,3.3 g·kg-1)with 10 mice in each group. Cold-dampness environment and hCoV-229E infection were used for modeling,and the general status and lung index of mice in each group were observed. The viral load in lung tissue was detected by real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction(Real-time PCR),the pathological changes in lung tissue were evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin(HE)staining,the levels of serum gastrointestinal hormones and inflammatory factors in lung tissue were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA),and the percentage of peripheral blood lymphocytes was detected by flow cytometry. Result:Comparing with model group,Gegentang granules could significantly alleviate the physical signs of Hanshi Yidu Xifei syndrome,including listlessness,weakness of limbs,sticky stool,etc. Comparing with model group,Gegentang granules high-dose group significantly reduced lung index,histopathological score of interstitial lung and bronchus,and the level of serum motilin(P< 0.05,P<0.01),two doses of Gegentang granules could significantly increase the level of serum gastrin(P< 0.05,P<0.01),the percentage of CD4+ ,CD8+ T lymphocytes in peripheral blood(P<0.05,P<0.01),and the level of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α)in lung tissue was significantly decreased(P<0.01),and the level of interleukin-6(IL-6)showed decreasing tendency. Conclusion: Gegentang granules has therapeutic effect on model mice. It can improve the appearance and behavior characterization,regulate the level of gastrointestinal hormones,decrease lung index and histopathological score,and possibly play an immunomodulatory role by inhibiting the expression of inflammatory cytokines in lung tissue and restoring the percentage of peripheral blood lymphocytes. © 2022, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences Institute of Chinese Materia Medica. All rights reserved.

8.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 2022 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2052708

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The presence of treatment limitations in patients with frailty at intensive care unit (ICU) admission is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the presence and predictors of treatment limitations in patients with and without COVID-19 pneumonitis in those admitted to Australian and New Zealand ICUs. METHODS: This registry-based multicenter, retrospective cohort study included all frail adults (≥16 years) with documented clinical frailty scale (CFS) scores, admitted to ICUs with admission diagnostic codes for viral pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) over 2 years between January 01, 2020 and December 31, 2021. Frail patients (CFS ≥5) coded as having viral pneumonitis or ARDS due to COVID-19 were compared to those with other causes of viral pneumonitis or ARDS for documented treatment limitations. RESULTS: 884 frail patients were included in the final analysis from 129 public and private ICUs. 369 patients (41.7%) had confirmed COVID-19. There were more male patients in COVID-19 (55.3% vs 47.0%; p = 0.015). There were no differences in age or APACHE-III scores between the two groups. Overall, 36.0% (318/884) had treatment limitations, but similar between the two groups (35.8% [132/369] vs 36.1% [186/515]; p = 0.92). After adjusting for confounders, increasing frailty (OR = 1.72; 95%-CI 1.39-2.14), age (OR = 1.05; 95%-CI 1.04-1.06), and presence of chronic respiratory condition (OR = 1.58; 95%-CI 1.10-2.27) increased the likelihood of instituting treatment limitations. However, the presence of COVID-19 by itself did not influence treatment limitations (odds ratio [OR] = 1.39; 95%-CI 0.98-1.96). CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of treatment limitations was similar in patients with frailty with or without COVID-19 pneumonitis at ICU admission.

9.
Expert Syst ; : e13141, 2022 Sep 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2052440

ABSTRACT

Since the first case of COVID-19 was reported in December 2019, many studies have been carried out on artificial intelligence for the rapid diagnosis of the disease to support health services. Therefore, in this study, we present a powerful approach to detect COVID-19 and COVID-19 findings from computed tomography images using pre-trained models using two different datasets. COVID-19, influenza A (H1N1) pneumonia, bacterial pneumonia and healthy lung image classes were used in the first dataset. Consolidation, crazy-paving pattern, ground-glass opacity, ground-glass opacity and consolidation, ground-glass opacity and nodule classes were used in the second dataset. The study consists of four steps. In the first two steps, distinctive features were extracted from the final layers of the pre-trained ShuffleNet, GoogLeNet and MobileNetV2 models trained with the datasets. In the next steps, the most relevant features were selected from the models using the Sine-Cosine optimization algorithm. Then, the hyperparameters of the Support Vector Machines were optimized with the Bayesian optimization algorithm and used to reclassify the feature subset that achieved the highest accuracy in the third step. The overall accuracy obtained for the first and second datasets is 99.46% and 99.82%, respectively. Finally, the performance of the results visualized with Occlusion Sensitivity Maps was compared with Gradient-weighted class activation mapping. The approach proposed in this paper outperformed other methods in detecting COVID-19 from multiclass viral pneumonia. Moreover, detecting the stages of COVID-19 in the lungs was an innovative and successful approach.

10.
J Clin Med ; 11(18)2022 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043800

ABSTRACT

The aims of this study were to describe the characteristics of patients hospitalized with delta SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infection, and to identify factors associated with pneumonia on chest Computed Tomography (CT) and mortality. The clinical records of 229 patients (105 F), with a median age of 81 (interquartile range, IQR, 73-88) years old, hospitalized between June and December 2021 after completion of the primary vaccination cycle, were retrospectively analyzed, retrieving data on comorbidities, Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS), clinical presentation and outcomes. Multimorbidity (91.7% with ≥2 chronic illnesses) and frailty (61.6% with CFS ≥ 5) were highly prevalent. CFS (OR 0.678, 95% CI 0.573-0.803, p < 0.001) and hypertension were independently associated with interstitial pneumonia. Mortality was 25.1% and unrelated with age. PaO2/FiO2 on blood gas analysis performed upon admission (OR 0.986, 95% CI 0.977-0.996, p = 0.005), and CFS (OR 1.723, 95% CI 1.152-2.576, p = 0.008) were independently associated with mortality only in subjects < 85 years old. Conversely, serum PCT levels were associated with mortality in subjects ≥ 85 years old (OR 3.088, 95% CI 1.389-6.8628, p = 0.006). In conclusion, hospitalization for COVID-19 breakthrough infection mainly involved geriatric patients, with those aged ≥ 85 more characterized by decompensation of baseline comorbidities rather than typical COVID-19 respiratory symptoms.

11.
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi ; 42(4): 305-311, 2020 Apr 23.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2033195

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the principles of differential diagnosis of pulmonary infiltrates in cancer patients during the outbreak of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) by analyzing one case of lymphoma who presented pulmonary ground-glass opacities (GGO) after courses of chemotherapy. Methods: Baseline demographics and clinicopathological data of eligible patients were retrieved from medical records. Information of clinical manifestations, history of epidemiology, lab tests and chest CT scan images of visiting patients from February 13 to February 28 were collected. Literatures about pulmonary infiltrates in cancer patients were searched from databases including PUBMED, EMBASE and CNKI. Results: Among the 139 cancer patients who underwent chest CT scans before chemotherapy, pulmonary infiltrates were identified in eight patients (5.8%), five of whom were characterized with GGOs in lungs. 2019-nCoV nuclear acid testing was performed in three patients and the results were negative. One case was a 66-year-old man who was diagnosed with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and underwent CHOP chemotherapy regimen. His chest CT scan image displayed multiple GGOs in lungs and the complete blood count showed decreased lymphocytes. This patient denied any contact with confirmed/suspected cases of 2019-nCoV infection, fever or other respiratory symptoms. Considering the negative result of nuclear acid testing, this patient was presumptively diagnosed with viral pneumonia and an experiential anti-infection treatment had been prescribed for him. Conclusions: The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) complicates the clinical scenario of pulmonary infiltrates in cancer patients. The epidemic history, clinical manifestation, CT scan image and lab test should be taken into combined consideration. The 2019-nCoV nuclear acid testing might be applied in more selected patients. Active anti-infection treatment and surveillance of patient condition should be initiated if infectious disease is considered.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus , Lung Injury/chemically induced , Lung Injury/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Aged , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Diagnosis, Differential , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Male , Neoplasms/pathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
12.
Braz J Psychiatry ; 2022 Aug 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2026800

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coronaviruses that cause respiratory infections in people are known to be neuropathogenic. The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is an association between the severity of viral pneumonia and the anxiety and depression levels of patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). MATERIAL AND METHODS: 165 patients were included in the study prospectively, and 70 patients were intubated at follow-up. According to the intubation status, the patients were divided into two groups: intubated and non-intubated. RESULTS: The GAD-7 score was 10.37±3.75 (p<0.001) in patients who were intubated after the first 7 days. The length of stay in the ICU was 25±22.3/day (p<0.001), and the length of stay in the hospital was 28.28±23.37/day, which was longer than those who were not intubated (p<0.001). APACHE and SOFA scores, as well as GAD-7 and PHQ-9, were found to be positively related to ICU and hospital length of stay (p<0.01). CONCLUSION: The presence and exacerbation of anxiety and depression symptoms can provide information about the aggravation and progression of the underlying disease.

13.
Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult ; 99(4. Vyp. 2): 11-16, 2022.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2025844

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate efficacy and safety of hypoxic-hyperoxic therapy in rehabilitation after SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: There were 44 patients aged 49-75 years in early recovery period after previous SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia (ICD-10 U07.1 and U07.2). Patients were divided into 2 groups depending on treatment strategy: group 1 (n=23) - rehabilitation treatment with therapeutic exercises, massage and physiotherapy; group 2 (n=21) - basic procedures with hypoxic-hyperoxic therapy. RESULTS: At initial evaluation, we found positive tendencies of rehabilitation in both groups. There were no side effects associated with hypoxic-hyperoxic therapy in the second group. Patients positively perceived this method of rehabilitation. There were significant between-group differences in exercise tolerance (p<0.05). These data indicate more favorable physical recovery in the second group and similar improvement of psycho-emotional status in both groups. CONCLUSION: Hypoxic-hyperoxic therapy is effective and safe approach in rehabilitation of patients with previous SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. It is necessary to continue searching for effective methods of rehabilitation and develop accurate rehabilitation methods for various groups of patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Exercise Therapy/methods , Humans
14.
Front Immunol ; 13: 941663, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022720

ABSTRACT

Background: Chemerin is an extracellular protein with chemotactic activities and its expression is increased in various diseases such as metabolic syndrome and inflammatory conditions. Its role in lung pathology has not yet been extensively studied but both known pro- and anti-inflammatory properties have been observed. The aim of our study was to evaluate the involvement of the chemerin/ChemR23 system in the physiopathology of COVID-19 with a particular focus on its prognostic value. Methods: Blood samples from confirmed COVID-19 patients were collected at day 1, 5 and 14 from admission to Erasme Hospital (Brussels - Belgium). Chemerin concentrations and inflammatory biomarkers were analyzed in the plasma. Blood cells subtypes and their expression of ChemR23 were determined by flow cytometry. The expression of chemerin and ChemR23 was evaluated on lung tissue from autopsied COVID-19 patients by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results: 21 healthy controls (HC) and 88 COVID-19 patients, including 40 in intensive care unit (ICU) were included. Plasma chemerin concentration were significantly higher in ICU patients than in HC at all time-points analyzed (p<0.0001). Moreover, they were higher in deceased patients compared to survivors (p<0.05). Logistic univariate regression and multivariate analysis demonstrated that chemerin level at day 14 of admission was an independent risk factor for death. Accordingly, chemerin levels correlated with inflammatory biomarkers such as C-reactive protein and tumor necrosis factor α. Finally, IHC analysis revealed a strong expression of ChemR23 on smooth muscle cells and chemerin on myofibroblasts in advanced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Discussion: Increased plasma chemerin levels are a marker of severity and may predict death of COVID-19 patients. However, multicentric studies are needed, before chemerin can be considered as a biomarker of severity and death used in daily clinical practice. Further studies are also necessary to identify the precise mechanisms of the chemerin/ChemR23 system in ARDS secondary to viral pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Chemokines , Humans , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Receptors, Chemokine , Risk Factors
15.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(9): ofac423, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2018042

ABSTRACT

Background: Mid-regional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) is a biomarker released following endothelial damage. Studies have shown a correlation in predicting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes with MR-proADM levels. Our study aimed to investigate baseline MR-proADM as a predictor of a wider range of clinical outcomes of varying severity in patients admitted with COVID-19, and to compare to other biomarkers. Methods: Data from the Boston Area COVID-19 Consortium (BACC) Bay Tocilizumab Trial was used in this study. Patients with biomarker determinations, and not admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) on admission, were included. MR-proADM cutoff of 0.87 nmol/L was assessed in predicting clinical outcomes. Results: Of 182 patients, 11.0% were mechanically ventilated or dead within 28 days. Of patients with MR-proADM >0.87 nmol/L, 21.1% were mechanically ventilated or dead within 28 days, compared with 4.5% of those with MR-proADM ≤0.87 nmol/L (P < .001). The sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value of MR-proADM cutoff of 0.87 nmol/L in predicting mechanical ventilation or death were 75%, 65%, 95%, and 21%, respectively, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.76. On multivariable logistic regression analysis, MR-proADM >0.87 nmol/L was independently associated with mechanical ventilation or death, ICU admission, prolonged hospitalization beyond day 4, and day 4 COVID-19 ordinal scale equal to or worse than day 1. Conclusions: MR-proADM functions as a valuable biomarker for the early risk stratification and detection of severe disease progression of patients with COVID-19. In the prediction of death, MR-proADM performed better compared to many other commonly used biomarkers.

16.
J Clin Med ; 11(16)2022 Aug 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1997679

ABSTRACT

For the acutely dyspneic patient, discerning bedside between acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) and COVID-19 is crucial. A lung ultrasound (LUS) is sensitive for detecting these conditions, but not in distinguishing between them; both have bilateral B-lines. The Blue protocol uses pleural sliding to differentiate decreased pneumonia; however, this is not the case in ADHF. Nonetheless, this pleural sliding has never been quantified. Speckled tracking is a technology utilized in the echocardiography field that quantifies the motion of tissues by examining the movement of ultrasound speckles. We conducted a retrospective study of LUS performed in emergency room patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Speckled tracking of the pleura by applying software to the B-mode of pleura was compared between COVID-19 patients, ADHF patients, and patients with no respiratory complaints. A significant difference was found between the patient groups on speckled tracking both in respect of displacement and velocity. ADHF had the highest displacement, followed by COVID-19, and then non-respiratory patients: 1.63 ± 1.89, 0.59 ± 0.71, and 0.24 ± 0.45, respectively (p < 0.01). A similar trend was seen in velocity with ADHF having the highest velocity 0.34 ± 0.37, followed by COVID-19 0.14 ± 0.71, and non-respiratory patients 0.02 ± 0.09 (p <0.01). Speckled tracking of the pleura is a potential tool for discerning between different causes of dyspnea.

17.
Infect Genet Evol ; 102: 105310, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1977647

ABSTRACT

Nipah virus (NiV), a zoonotic virus, engenders severe infections with noticeable complications and deaths in humans and animals. Since its emergence, it is frightening, this virus has been causing regular outbreaks in various countries, particularly in Bangladesh, India, and Malaysia. Unfortunately, no efficient vaccine or drug is available now to combat this baneful virus. NiV employs its nucleocapsid protein for genetic material packaging, which is crucial for viral replication inside the host cells. The small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) can play a central role in inhibiting the expression of disease-causing viral genes by hybridization and subsequent inactivation of the complementary target viral mRNAs through the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. Therefore, potential siRNAs as molecular therapeutics against the nucleocapsid protein gene of NiV were designed in this study. First, ten prospective siRNAs were identified using the conserved nucleocapsid gene sequences among all available NiV strains collected from various countries. After that, off-target binding, GC (guanine-cytosine) content, secondary structure, binding affinity with the target, melting temperature, efficacy analysis, and binding capacity with the human argonaute protein 2 (AGO2) of these siRNAs were evaluated to predict their suitability. These designed siRNA molecules bear promise in silencing the NiV gene encoding the nucleocapsid protein and thus can alleviate the severity of this dangerous virus. Further in vivo experiments are recommended before using these designed siRNAs as alternative and effective molecular therapeutic agents against NiV.


Subject(s)
Henipavirus Infections , Nipah Virus , Animals , Nipah Virus/genetics , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Prospective Studies , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics
18.
6th International Conference on Computer Vision and Image Processing, CVIP 2021 ; 1567 CCIS:328-339, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1971572

ABSTRACT

Automated screening and classification of various lesions in medical images can assist clinicians in the treatment and management of many systemic and localized diseases. Manual inspection of medical images is often expensive and time-consuming. Automatic image-analysis employing computers can alleviate the difficulties of manual methods for screening a large amount of generated images. Inspired by the great success of deep learning, we propose a diagnostic system that can classify various lung diseases from chest X-ray images. In this work, chest X-ray images are applied to a deep-learning algorithm for classifying images into pneumothorax, viral pneumonia, COVID-19 pneumonia and healthy cases. The proposed system is trained with a set of 4731 chest X-ray images, and obtained an overall classification accuracy of 99% in images taken from two publicly available data sets. The promising results demonstrate the proposed system’s effectiveness as a diagnostic tool to assist health care professionals for categorizing images in any of the four classes. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

19.
Med Clin (Engl Ed) ; 158(11): 509-518, 2022 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1946013

ABSTRACT

Background: Modulation of the immune system to prevent lung injury is being widely used against the new coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The primary endpoint was mortality at 7 days after tocilizumab administration. Secondary endpoints were admission to the intensive care unit, development of ARDS and respiratory insufficiency among others. Methods: We report the preliminary results from the Vall d'Hebron cohort study at Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, in Barcelona (Spain), including all consecutive patients who had a confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and who were treated with tocilizumab until March 25th. Results: 82 patients with COVID-19 received at least one dose of tocilizumab. The mean (± SD) age was 59.1 (19.8) years, 63% were male, 22% were of non-Spanish ancestry, and the median (IQR) age-adjusted Charlson index at baseline was 3 (1-4) points. Respiratory failure and ARDS developed in 62 (75.6%) and 45 (54.9%) patients, respectively. Median time from symptom onset to ARDS development was 8 (5-11) days. Mortality at 7 days was 26.8%. Hazard ratio for mortality was 3.3; 95% CI, 1.3-8.5 (age-adjusted hazard ratio for mortality 2.1; 95% CI, 0.8-5.8) if tocilizumab was administered after the onset of ARDS. Conclusion: Early administration of tocilizumab in patients needing oxygen supplementation may be critical to patient recovery. Our preliminary data could inform bedside decisions until more data regarding the precise timing in of initiation of the treatment with tocilizumab.


Antecedentes: Los tratamientos inmunomoduladores para la prevención del daño pulmonar están siendo ampliamente estudiados contra la COVID-19. El objetivo primario es evaluar la mortalidad a los 7 días después de la administración de tocilizumab. El objetivo secundario es el ingreso en UCI, el desarrollo de distrés respiratorio agudo e insuficiencia respiratoria aguda entre otros. Métodos: Informamos sobre los resultados preliminares de la cohorte del Hospital Universitario Vall d'Hebron en Barcelona (España), que incluye todos los pacientes consecutivos con infección confirmada por SARS-CoV-2 y que recibieron tratamiento con tocilizumab hasta el 25 de marzo 2020. Resultados: Ochenta y dos pacientes con COVID-19 recibieron al menos una dosis de tocilizumab. La edad media (±DE) fue de 59,1 (±19,8) años, el 63% eran hombres, 22% correspondía a paciente nacidos fuera de España, y la mediana (RIC) del índice de Charlson ajustado por edad en el momento basal fue de 3 (1-4) puntos. Sesenta y dos pacientes (75,6%) y 45 pacientes (54,9%) desarrollaron insuficiencia respiratoria y distrés respiratorio agudo respectivamente. La mediana de tiempo desde el inicio de los síntomas hasta el desarrollo de ditrés fue de 8 días (5-11). La mortalidad a los 7 días fue del 26,8% La hazard ratio de mortalidad fue del 3,3; IC 95% 1,3-8,5 (la hazard ratio de mortalidad ajustada por edad fue de 2,1; IC 95% 0,8-5,8) si el tocilizumab se administraba después del inicio del distrés respiratorio. Conclusión: La administración precoz de tocilizumab en pacientes con suplementos de oxígeno podría ser crítica para la recuperación de los pacientes. Nuestros datos podrían ayudar a tomar decisiones clínicas hasta que se disponga de más información sobre el momento adecuado para iniciar el tratamiento con tocilizumab.

20.
Infect Dis (Lond) ; 54(11): 810-818, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937614

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 may trigger an acute hyperinflammatory syndrome characterised by heightened levels of acute phase reactants and is associated with adverse outcomes among hospitalised individuals. The relationship between 48-hour changes in acute phase reactants and adverse outcomes is unclear. This study evaluated the relationship between change in four acute phase reactants (interleukin-6, procalcitonin, ferritin, and C-reactive protein), and the risk for in-hospital death and invasive mechanical ventilation. METHODS: A retrospective cohort among 2,523 adult patients hospitalised with COVID-19 pneumonia was conducted. Changes in IL-6, procalcitonin, ferritin, and CRP from admission to 48 h after admission were recorded. Delta was calculated using the difference in each acute phase reactant at admission and at 48-hours. Delta in acute phase reactants and the risk for in-hospital death and invasive mechanical ventilation was assessed using logistic regression models adjusting for demographics and comorbidities. RESULTS: Patients with both admission and 48-hour measurement for interleukin-6 (IL-6) (n = 541), procalcitonin (n = 828), ferritin (n = 1022), and C-reactive protein (CRP) (n = 1919) were included. Baseline characteristics were similar across all four populations. Increases in ferritin associated with a heightened risk of in-hospital death (OR 1.00032; 95%CI 1.00007- 1.00056; p < .001) and invasive mechanical ventilation (OR 1.00035; 95%CI 1.00014- 1.00055; p = .001). Therefore, for every 100 ng/mL increase in ferritin, the odds for in-hospital death and invasive mechanical ventilation increase by 3.2% and 3.5%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Delta in ferritin is associated with in-hospital death and invasive mechanical ventilation. Other acute phase reactants were not associated with these outcomes among COVID-19 inpatients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , C-Reactive Protein , COVID-19/therapy , Ferritins , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Procalcitonin , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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