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1.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(5): 768-777, 2022 May 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879508

ABSTRACT

Despite efforts to contain and manage the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak which was declared a public health emergency of international concern in January 2020 by the World Health Organization (WHO), the COVID-19 pandemic still remains a major global challenge. Patients who display the classical symptoms of the infection are easily identified, tested, isolated and monitored. However, many cases of infected asymptomatic patients have been documented. These patients are not easily identified even though many evidences suggest that they can spread the virus to others. How and why these COVID-19 asymptomatic presentations occur remain unclear. The many theories and views are conjectural, and supporting evidences are still needed. In this review, we described the trend in SARS-CoV-2 viral shedding and susceptibility, providing perspectives on gender differences and asymptomatic patients. We further discussed how genetics, gender, viral inoculum, and pre-existing immunity may influence asymptomatic presentations in COVID-19 infections. We hope that this article improves our understanding of asymptomatic SAR-CoV-2 infection and it sheds light on some salient areas that should be considered as the search for a potent vaccine continues.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Virus Shedding
2.
Environ Res ; 212(Pt E): 113580, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878146

ABSTRACT

Wastewater-based epidemiology is an effective tool for monitoring infectious disease spread or illicit drug use within communities. At the Ohio State University, we conducted a SARS-CoV-2 wastewater surveillance program in the 2020-2021 academic year and compared results with the university-required weekly COVID-19 saliva testing to monitor COVID-19 infection prevalence in the on-campus residential communities. The objectives of the study were to rapidly track trends in the wastewater SARS-CoV-2 gene concentrations, analyze the relationship between case numbers and wastewater signals when adjusted using human fecal viral indicator concentrations (PMMoV, crAssphage) in wastewater, and investigate the relationship of the SARS-CoV-2 gene concentrations with wastewater parameters. SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid and envelope (N1, N2, and E) gene concentrations, determined with reverse transcription droplet digital PCR, were used to track SARS-CoV-2 viral loads in dormitory wastewater once a week at 6 sampling sites across the campus during the fall semester in 2020. During the following spring semester, research was focused on SARS-CoV2 N2 gene concentrations at 5 sites sampled twice a week. Spearman correlations both with and without adjusting using human fecal viral indicators showed a significant correlation (p < 0.05) between human COVID-19 positive case counts and wastewater SARS-CoV-2 gene concentrations. Spearman correlations showed significant relationships between N1 gene concentrations and both TSS and turbidity, and between E gene concentrations and both pH and turbidity. These results suggest that wastewater signal increases with the census of infected individuals, in which the majority are asymptomatic, with a statistically significant (p-value <0.05) temporal correlation. The study design can be utilized as a platform for rapid trend tracking of SARS-CoV-2 variants and other diseases circulating in various communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Universities , Waste Water , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring
3.
World J Pediatr ; 2022 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1877970

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has different manifestations in pediatric cases. It is assumed that they might present more gastrointestinal symptoms with a different viral shedding pattern in gastrointestinal samples. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we aimed to evaluate the viral shedding pattern in gastrointestinal specimens of children with COVID-19. METHODS: We searched all published studies in English language in PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus, up to date as of October 2021. Our search included the term "severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, novel coronavirus, or coronavirus; and shed, excrete, secret, or carriage; and stool or rectal; and children or pediatrics". We included studies evaluating SARS-CoV-2 shedding in gastrointestinal specimens, including rectal swabs and stool samples of children with COVID-19 infection. We excluded duplicated data, case reports, and studies without original data. RESULTS: Twelve studies met the eligibility criteria for the qualitative synthesis, 10 of which were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of gastrointestinal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA in children with COVID-19 was 86% (95% confidence interval 73%-96%, I2 = 62.28%). After respiratory specimen had become negative, 72% (43/60) had persistent shedding in gastrointestinal specimens. The gastrointestinal RNA had a positive test result for more than 70 days after symptoms onset. CONCLUSIONS: Gastrointestinal shedding of SARS-CoV-2 might occur in a substantial portion of children and might persist long after negative respiratory testing. Further research is recommended to find the role of SARS-CoV-2 gastrointestinal shedding in transmission in children.

4.
Acta Haematol ; 145(3): 297-309, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874915

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The clinical presentation of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is the result of intricate interactions between the novel coronavirus and the immune system. In patients with hematologic malignancies (HM), these interactions dramatically change the clinical course and outcomes of COVID-19. SUMMARY: Patients with HM and COVID-19 are at an increased risk for prolonged viral shedding, more protracted and severe presentation, and death, even when compared to other immunocompromised hosts. HM (e.g., multiple myeloma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia) and anticancer treatments (e.g., anti-CD20 agents) that impair humoral immunity markedly increase the risk of severe COVID-19 as well as protracted viral shedding and possibly longer infectivity. Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) is an important player in the pathophysiology of severe and fatal COVID-19. Treatments targeting specific cytokines involved in CRS such as interleukin-6 and Janus kinase have proven beneficial in COVID-19 patients but were not assessed specifically in HM patients. Although neutropenia (as well as neutrophilia) was associated with increased COVID-19 mortality, granulocyte colony-stimulating factors were not beneficial in patients with COVID-19 and may have been associated with worse outcomes. Decreased levels of T lymphocytes and especially decreased CD4+ counts, and depletion of CD8+ lymphocytes, are a hallmark of severe COVID-19, and even more so among patients with HM, underlying the important role of T-helper dysfunction in severe COVID-19. In HM patients with intact cellular immunity, robust T-cell responses may compensate for an impaired humoral immune system. Further prospective studies are needed to evaluate the mechanisms of severe COVID-19 among patients with HM and assess the efficacy of new immunomodulating COVID-19 treatments in this population. KEY MESSAGES: Understanding the immunopathology of COVID-19 has greatly benefited from the previous research in patients with HM. So far, no COVID-19 treatments were properly evaluated in patients with HM. Patients with HM should be included in future RCTs assessing treatments for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , Multiple Myeloma , Neutropenia , COVID-19/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Humans , Immunity , Multiple Myeloma/complications , Neutropenia/complications
5.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(6): 628-630, 2022 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873160

ABSTRACT

In the era of SARS-CoV-2 variants and COVID-19 vaccination, the duration of infectious viral shedding and isolation in post vaccine breakthrough infections is challenging and depends on disease severity. The current study described a case of SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant pneumonia requiring hospitalization. The patient received two doses of BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccines, and he had positive SARS-CoV-2 viral cultures 12 days post symptom onset. The time between the second dose of vaccine and the breakthrough infection was 6 months. While immunosuppression is a known risk factor for prolonged infectious viral shedding, age and time between vaccination and breakthrough infection are important risk factors that warrant further studies.

6.
Inflamm Regen ; 42(1): 16, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869111

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The duration of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA positivity will be important to prevent the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted following PRISMA to determine the duration from several parts of the body and clinical characteristics affecting it. MAIN TEXT: PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and CENTRAL were searched for original studies reporting the duration from COVID-19 onset to the disappearance of viral RNA. Of the 1682 studies identified, 100 met the selection criteria and 13,431 patients were included in this study. The duration of SARS-CoV-2 RNA positivity was 18.29 [95% confidence interval: 17.00-19.89] days in the upper respiratory tract samples, 23.79 [20.43-27.16] days in the sputum, 14.60 [12.16-17.05] days in the blood, and 22.38 [18.40-26.35] days in the stool. Sensitivity analysis revealed that the duration was positively correlated with age, comorbidities, severity, and usage of glucocorticoid. Subgroup analysis indicated that the presence or absence of complications had the greatest impact on the difference in DSRP. CONCLUSIONS: The duration of SARS-CoV-2 RNA positivity was 18.29 days in the upper respiratory tract samples. The duration in the sputum and the stool was longer, while that in the blood was shorter. The duration in the upper respiratory tract samples was longer in older, with any comorbidities, severer, and treated with glucocorticoid. These results provide the basic data for the duration of SARS-CoV-2 RNA positivity, and in the future, the effect of vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 and the SARS-CoV-2 variants on the duration of RNA positivity should be assessed.

7.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0050322, 2022 May 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861587

ABSTRACT

Determination of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infectivity is important in guiding the infection control and differentiating between reinfection and persistent viral RNA. Although viral culture is the gold standard to determine viral infectivity, the method is not practical. We studied the kinetics of SARS-CoV-2 total RNAs and subgenomic RNAs (sgRNAs) and their potential role as surrogate markers of viral infectivity. The kinetics of SARS-CoV-2 sgRNAs compared to those of the culture and total RNA shedding in a prospective cohort of patients diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were investigated. A total of 260 nasopharyngeal swabs from 36 patients were collected every other day after entering the study until the day of viral total RNA clearance, as measured by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Time to cessation of viral shedding was in order from shortest to longest: by viral culture, sgRNA RT-PCR, and total RNA RT-PCR. The median time (interquartile range) to negativity of viral culture, subgenomic N transcript, and N gene were 7 (5 to 9), 11 (9 to 16), and 18 (13 to 21) days, respectively (P < 0.001). Further analysis identified the receipt of steroid as the factors associated with longer duration of viral infectivity (hazard ratio, 3.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 10.61; P = 0.047). We propose the potential role of the detection of SARS-CoV-2 subgenomic RNA as the surrogate marker of viral infectivity. Patients with negative subgenomic N RNA RT-PCR could be considered for ending isolation. IMPORTANCE Our study, combined with existing evidence, suggests the feasibility of the use of subgenomic RNA RT-PCR as a surrogate marker for SARS-CoV-2 infectivity. The kinetics of SARS-CoV-2 subgenomic RNA should be further investigated in immunocompromised patients.

8.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(5): ofac124, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860893

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines have yielded definitive prevention and major reductions in morbidity and mortality from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, even in the context of emerging and persistent variants of concern. Newer variants have revealed less vaccine protection against infection and attenuation of vaccine effects on transmission. COVID-19 vaccines still likely reduce transmission compared with not being vaccinated at all, even with variants of concern; however, determining the magnitude of transmission reduction is constrained by the challenges of performing these studies, requiring accurate linkage of infections to vaccine status and timing thereof, particularly within households. In this review, we synthesize the currently available data on the impact of COVID-19 vaccines on infection, serious illness, and transmission; we also identify the challenges and opportunities associated with policy development based on this data.

9.
J R Soc Interface ; 19(190): 20220006, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1853312

ABSTRACT

Environmental pathogen surveillance is a sensitive tool that can detect early-stage outbreaks, and it is being used to track poliovirus and other pathogens. However, interpretation of longitudinal environmental surveillance signals is difficult because the relationship between infection incidence and viral load in wastewater depends on time-varying shedding intensity. We developed a mathematical model of time-varying poliovirus shedding intensity consistent with expert opinion across a range of immunization states. Incorporating this shedding model into an infectious disease transmission model, we analysed quantitative, polymerase chain reaction data from seven sites during the 2013 Israeli poliovirus outbreak. Compared to a constant shedding model, our time-varying shedding model estimated a slower peak (four weeks later), with more of the population reached by a vaccination campaign before infection and a lower cumulative incidence. We also estimated the population shed virus for an average of 29 days (95% CI 28-31), longer than expert opinion had suggested for a population that was purported to have received three or more inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) doses. One explanation is that IPV may not substantially affect shedding duration. Using realistic models of time-varying shedding coupled with longitudinal environmental surveillance may improve our understanding of outbreak dynamics of poliovirus, SARS-CoV-2, or other pathogens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Poliomyelitis , Poliovirus , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Infant , Israel/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated , Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Shedding
10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852999

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data on the clinical and virological characteristics of the delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 are limited. This prospective cohort study compared the characteristics of the delta variant to other variants. METHODS: Adult patients with mild COVID-19 who agreed to daily saliva sampling at a community isolation facility in South Korea between July and August 2021 were enrolled. Scores of 28 COVID-19-related symptoms were recorded daily. The genomic RNA and subgenomic RNA from saliva samples were measured by real-time reverse-transcriptase-PCR. Cell cultures were performed on saliva samples with positive genomic RNA results. RESULTS: A total of 141 patients (delta group, n = 108 [77%]; non-delta group, n = 33 [23%]) were enrolled. Myalgia was more common in the delta group than in the non-delta group (52% vs. 27%, P = .03). Total symptom scores were significantly higher in the delta group between days 3 to 10 after symptom onset. Initial genomic RNA titers were similar between the two groups; however, during the late course of disease, genomic RNA titers were higher in the delta group. Negative conversion of subgenomic RNA was slower in the delta group (median 9 vs. 5 days; P < .001). The duration of viral shedding in terms of positive viral culture was also longer in the delta group (median 5 vs. 3 days; P = .002). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients infected with the delta variant exhibited prolonged viable viral shedding with more severe symptoms than those infected with non-delta variants.

11.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(7): 912-917, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1828880

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: New treatment methods, such as REGN-CoV2, have been approved for patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, the effect of the drug on the duration of infectious viral shedding and viral mutations is unknown. In this study, we investigated the clinical efficacy of REGN-CoV2 treatment in patients with mild to moderate disease and compared its antiviral effects against different strains of SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: Viral culture and PCR testing were performed on the pharyngeal swabs collected from 28 patients with COVID-19 who were admitted and treated at Hiroshima University Hospital during the study period. Of these, 23 patients were treated with REGN-CoV2. The patients were classified into the REGN-CoV2(+) and REGN-CoV2(-) groups, and the clinical course was compared between the groups. The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of REGN-CoV2 against the isolated virus strains were determined. RESULTS: After treatment with REGN-CoV2, the virus culture positivity rate was greatly reduced. The time to negative viral culture was significantly shorter in the REGN-CoV2(+) group than in the REGN-CoV2(-) group. In vitro evaluation of REGN-CoV2 against isolated virus strains also showed efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: REGN-CoV2 treatment was effective in patients with mild COVID-19 and could shorten the period of infectious viral shedding. This may be an important factor in preventing the spread of infection. It may be possible to revise the isolation period for patients with mild disease treated with REGN-CoV2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Combinations , Humans , RNA, Viral , Virus Shedding
12.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(7): 971-974, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1828865

ABSTRACT

Corticosteroids are widely used to treat severe COVID-19, but in immunocompromised individuals, who are susceptible to persistent infection, long term corticosteroid use may delay viral clearance. We present a case of prolonged SARS-CoV-2 infection in a man with significantly impaired B-cell immunity due to non-Hodgkin lymphoma which had been treated with rituximab. SARS-CoV-2 shedding persisted, despite treatment with remdesivir. Viral sequencing confirmed the persistence of the same viral strain, ruling out the possibility of reinfection. Although SARS-CoV-2 IgG, IgA and IgM remained negative throughout the treatment period, after reduction of the corticosteroid dose, PCR became negative. Long-term corticosteroid treatment, especially in immunocompromised individuals, may result in suppression of cell-mediated immunity and prolonged SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Male , Rituximab/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(6): 810-813, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1828862

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA is detectable in nasopharyngeal specimens for up to 12-20 days regardless of the presence of chronic diseases in patients. We report a case of prolonged SARS-CoV-2 infection that lasted for more than eight weeks. The patient had persistent lymphopenia after receiving six cycles of bendamustine and rituximab (BR) therapy for follicular lymphoma; the last chemotherapy session was completed nine months before admission. The first nasopharyngeal specimen (NPS) for the SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction assay tested positive for the N501Y variant five weeks before admission. The patient's general and respiratory conditions gradually worsened; therefore, he was admitted to our hospital, and the same SARS-CoV-2 variant was subsequently identified on admission. Treatment for coronavirus disease was initiated, and the patient's condition improved; however, the NPS tested positive on day 15. The patient was discharged on day 28 and was instructed to isolate at home for a month. Hence, possible prolonged SARS-CoV-2 shedding should be considered in patients who receive BR therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Bendamustine Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Male , RNA, Viral , Rituximab/adverse effects , Virus Shedding
14.
Geroscience ; 44(3): 1241-1254, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1826851

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Persistent viral RNA shedding of SARS-CoV-2 following COVID-19 has increasingly been recognized, with limited understanding of its implications on outcomes in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We retrospectively assessed for persistent viral shedding across Northwestern Medicine Healthcare (NMHC) patients between March and August 2020. We assessed for predictors of persistent viral shedding, in-hospital delirium, and six-month mortality using binary logistic regression. RESULTS: Of the 2,518 hospitalized patients with an RT-PCR-confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19, 959 underwent repeat SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR at least fourteen days from initial positive testing. Of those, 405 (42.2%) patients were found to have persistent viral shedding. Persistent viral shedding was associated with male sex, increased BMI, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and exposure to corticosteroids during initial COVID-19 hospitalization. Persistent viral shedding was independently associated with incidence of in-hospital delirium after adjusting for factors including severity of respiratory dysfunction (OR 2.45; 95% CI 1.75, 3.45). Even after adjusting for age, severity of respiratory dysfunction, and occurrence of in-hospital delirium, persistent viral shedding remained significantly associated with increased six-month mortality (OR 2.43; 95% CI 1.42, 4.29). CONCLUSIONS: Persistent viral shedding occurs frequently in hospitalized COVID-19 patients and is associated with in-hospital delirium and increased six-month mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delirium , Delirium/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Male , RNA, Viral/analysis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Shedding
15.
J Clin Immunol ; 2022 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1802997

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 manifestations range from asymptomatic to life-threatening infections. The outcome in different inborn errors of immunity (IEI) is still a matter of debate. In this retrospective study, we describe the experience of the of the Italian Primary Immunodeficiencies Network (IPINet). Sixteen reference centers for adult or pediatric IEI were involved. One hundred fourteen patients were enrolled including 35 pediatric and 79 adult patients. Median age was 32 years, and male-to-female ratio was 1.5:1. The most common IEI were 22q11.2 deletion syndrome in children (26%) and common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) in adults (65%). Ninety-one patients did not require hospital admission, and among these, 33 were asymptomatic. Hospitalization rate was 20.17%. Older age (p 0.004) and chronic lung disease (p 0.0008) represented risk factors for hospitalization. Hospitalized patients mainly included adults suffering from humoral immunodeficiencies requiring immunoglobulin replacement therapy and as expected had lower B cell counts compared to non-hospitalized patients. Infection fatality rate in the whole cohort was 3.5%. Seroconversion was observed is 86.6% of the patients evaluated and in 83.3% of CVID patients. 16.85% of the patients reported long-lasting COVID symptoms. All but one patient with prolonged symptoms were under IgRT. The fatality rate observed in IEI was slightly similar to the general population. The age of the patients who did not survive was lower compared to the general population, and the age stratified mortality in the 50-60 age range considerable exceeded the mortality from 50 to 60 age group of the Italian population (14.3 vs 0.6%; p < 0.0001). We hypothesize that this is due to the fact that comorbidities in IEI patients are very common and usually appear early in life.

16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 366, 2022 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785145

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 infection can cause life-threatening respiratory disease. This study aimed to fully characterize the clinical features associated with postponed viral shedding time and disease progression, then develop and validate two prognostic discriminant models. METHODS: This study included 125 hospitalized patients with COVID-19, for whom 44 parameters were recorded, including age, gender, underlying comorbidities, epidemiological features, laboratory indexes, imaging characteristics and therapeutic regimen, et al. Fisher's exact test and Mann-Whitney test were used for feature selection. All models were developed with fourfold cross-validation, and the final performances of each model were compared by the Area Under Receiving Operating Curve (AUROC). After optimizing the parameters via L2 regularization, prognostic discriminant models were built to predict postponed viral shedding time and disease progression of COVID-19 infection. The test set was then used to detect the predictive values via assessing models' sensitivity and specificity. RESULTS: Sixty-nine patients had a postponed viral shedding time (> 14 days), and 28 of 125 patients progressed into severe cases. Six and eleven demographic, clinical features and therapeutic regimen were significantly associated with postponed viral shedding time and disease progressing, respectively (p < 0.05). The optimal discriminant models are: y1 (postponed viral shedding time) = - 0.244 + 0.2829x1 (the interval from the onset of symptoms to antiviral treatment) + 0.2306x4 (age) + 0.234x28 (Urea) - 0.2847x34 (Dual-antiviral therapy) + 0.3084x38 (Treatment with antibiotics) + 0.3025x21 (Treatment with Methylprednisolone); y2 (disease progression) = - 0.348-0.099x2 (interval from Jan 1st,2020 to individualized onset of symptoms) + 0.0945x4 (age) + 0.1176x5 (imaging characteristics) + 0.0398x8 (short-term exposure to Wuhan) - 0.1646x19 (lymphocyte counts) + 0.0914x20 (Neutrophil counts) + 0.1254x21 (Neutrphil/lymphocyte ratio) + 0.1397x22 (C-Reactive Protein) + 0.0814x23 (Procalcitonin) + 0.1294x24 (Lactic dehydrogenase) + 0.1099x29 (Creatine kinase).The output ≥ 0 predicted postponed viral shedding time or disease progressing to severe/critical state. These two models yielded the maximum AUROC and faired best in terms of prognostic performance (sensitivity of78.6%, 75%, and specificity of 66.7%, 88.9% for prediction of postponed viral shedding time and disease severity, respectively). CONCLUSION: The two discriminant models could effectively predict the postponed viral shedding time and disease severity and could be used as early-warning tools for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Progression , Humans , Infant , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Shedding
17.
Med (N Y) ; 3(6): 371-387.e9, 2022 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783640

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 manifests with respiratory, systemic, and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms.1 , SARS-CoV-2 RNA is detected in respiratory and fecal samples, and recent reports demonstrate viral replication in both the lung and intestinal tissue.2, 3, 4 Although much is known about early fecal RNA shedding, little is known about long-term shedding, especially in those with mild COVID-19. Furthermore, most reports of fecal RNA shedding do not correlate these findings with GI symptoms.5. Methods: We analyzed the dynamics of fecal RNA shedding up to 10 months after COVID-19 diagnosis in 113 individuals with mild to moderate disease. We also correlated shedding with disease symptoms. Findings: Fecal SARS-CoV-2 RNA is detected in 49.2% [95% confidence interval, 38.2%-60.3%] of participants within the first week after diagnosis. Whereas there was no ongoing oropharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding in subjects at 4 months, 12.7% [8.5%-18.4%] of participants continued to shed SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the feces at 4 months after diagnosis and 3.8% [2.0%-7.3%] shed at 7 months. Finally, we found that GI symptoms (abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting) are associated with fecal shedding of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Conclusions: The extended presence of viral RNA in feces, but not in respiratory samples, along with the association of fecal viral RNA shedding with GI symptoms suggest that SARS-CoV-2 infects the GI tract and that this infection can be prolonged in a subset of individuals with COVID-19. Funding: This research was supported by a Stanford ChemH-IMA grant; fellowships from the AACR and NSF; and NIH R01-AI148623, R01-AI143757, and UL1TR003142.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Gastrointestinal Diseases , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Feces , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Humans , Lung , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
18.
J Stomatol Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 123(3): 287-291, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778330

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Our aim was to measure and compare prolonged viral shedding (PVS) identified from external splints (ES) and intranasal packings (IP) for isolated nasal fracture (INF) repair in immediately cured asymptomatic vs. mildly symptomatic COVID-19 patients (AS-COVID vs. MS-COVID). METHODS: We designed a retrospective cohort study and enroled a sample of post-AS-COVID and post-MS-COVID patients, whose INF were treated at a German level 1 trauma centre. The primary predictor variable was COVID severity presurgery (AS-COVD vs. MS-COVID). The main outcome variable was PVS detected in ES/IP. Other study variables were separated into demographic, clinical, and operative. Descriptive, bi- and multivariate statistics were computed, and statistical significance was set at P≤ 0.05. RESULTS: The study sample comprised 15 INF patients (53.3% females; 46.7% post-AS-COVID) with a mean age of 42.2 ± 22.7 years (range, 18-85). 13.3% ES and 53.3% IP were contaminated with SARS-CoV-2. However, only IP-contamination between the two cohorts reached statistical significance (P= 0.01; odds ratio, 0.02; 95% confidence interval, 0 to 0.47; Pearson's r= 0.73; post hoc power = 87.4%). Multiple linear regression models refuted the associations between PVS and the other parameters (i.e. age, gender, time to treatment, length of hospital stay, lengths of ES/IP placement). CONCLUSIONS: Despite a relative low sample size, our findings suggest PVS via endonasal materials removed from cured COVID-19 patients, especially those healed from MS-COVID. This PVS may trigger re-infection and surgical site infections and/or transmission to other humans, and thereby, requires further investigations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Splints , Virus Shedding , Young Adult
19.
Infect Dis (Lond) ; 54(7): 529-533, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764477

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The global spread of SARS-CoV-2 has necessitated case isolation, with recommended isolation times based on mean time to viral clearance. CASE STUDY: We present a 28-year-old female living with vertically acquired HIV, undergoing chemotherapy for lymphoma who tested SARS-CoV-2-PCR positive for 164 days. The patient had a history of difficulty taking ARVs, with detectable HIV-RNA and CD4 count below 200 × 106 for the 8 years prior to presentation with symptoms. She stopped ARVs 10 months prior to experiencing fevers, night sweats and loose stool, with a viral load of 354,000 copies/ml and CD4 count of 30 × 106. Following no yield on basic investigations, positron emission tomography scan showed diffuse colonic and oesophageal avidity and a caecal biopsy showed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. She re-started ARVs and underwent five cycles of R-CHOP chemotherapy. Her first positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test was detected through routine asymptomatic screening. She self-isolated due to repeated positive tests on a further 8 swabs for a total of 164 days until a negative PCR test. She reported feeling low in mood and frustrated by repeated positive tests and the associated lack of social contact or ability to work. Her positive tests prevented in-person review by her HIV team, which impacted her ARV adherence leading to an unplanned break in therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Our case highlights the challenges to physical and mental health faced by patients with prolonged SARS-CoV-2 shedding and the need to develop surrogate markers for infectivity to enable prompt medical and psychological support and accurate advice about the need for isolation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse , Adult , Female , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load , Virus Shedding
20.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(7): 998-1000, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763841

ABSTRACT

We describe a case of probable prolonged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Alpha(B.1.1.7) variant shedding for 221 days from the diagnosis, in a healthy 20-year-old Japanese pregnant woman with a normal delivery. To our knowledge, this is the longest duration of SARS-CoV-2 shedding reported in an immunocompetent individual to date.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnant Women , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Shedding , Young Adult
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