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1.
Viruses-Basel ; 14(4):10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1820405

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) clinical manifestations include the involvement of the gastrointestinal tract, affecting around 10% of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected children. In the present work, the consequence of a short time of viral absorption (5, 15, 30 and 60 min) was tested on the Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cell line. Our findings show that Caco-2 cells are highly permissive to SARS-CoV-2 infection, even after 5 min of viral inoculation at a multiplicity of infection of 0.1. No cytopathic effect was evident during the subsequent 7 days of monitoring;nevertheless, the immunofluorescence staining for the viral nucleocapsid confirmed the presence of intracellular SARS-CoV-2. Our findings highlight the very short time during which SARS-CoV-2 is able to infect these cells in vitro.

2.
Diagnostics ; 12(4):17, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1820197

ABSTRACT

We assessed the viability of self-sampled gargle water direct RT-LAMP (LAMP) for detecting SARS-CoV-2 infections by estimating its sensitivity with respect to the gold standard indirect RT-PCR of paired oro-nasopharyngeal swab samples. We also assessed the impact of symptom onset to test time (STT)-i.e., symptom days at sampling, on LAMP. In addition, we appraised the viability of gargle water self-sampling versus oro-nasopharyngeal swab sampling, by comparing paired indirect RT-PCR results. 202 oro-nasopharyngeal swab and paired self-sampled gargle water samples were collected from hospital patients with COVID-19 associated symptoms. LAMP, indirect and direct RT-PCR were performed on all gargle water samples, and indirect RT-PCR was performed on all oro-nasopharyngeal samples. LAMP presented a sensitivity of 80.8% (95% CI: 70.8-90.8%) for sample pairs with sub-25 Ct oro-nasopharyngeal indirect RT-PCR results, and 77.6% (66.2-89.1%) sensitivity for sub-30 Ct samples with STT <= 7 days. STT, independently of Ct value, correlated negatively with LAMP performance. 80.7% agreement was observed between gargle water and oro-nasopharyngeal indirect RT-PCR results. In conclusion, LAMP presents an acceptable sensitivity for low Ct and low STT samples. Gargle water may be considered as a viable sampling method, and LAMP as a screening method, especially for symptomatic persons with low STT values.

3.
Current Womens Health Reviews ; 18(4):24, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1820137

ABSTRACT

Background: Pregnant women are a vulnerable group in viral outbreaks, especially in the COVID-19 pandemic. Objective: The aim of this review was to identify maternal and neonatal outcomes in available articles on pregnancies affected by COVID-19. Methods: The articles that had assessed outcomes of pregnancy and perinatal of women with COVID-19 between Oct 2019 and Aug 2020 without language limitation were considered. We searched databases, selected relevant studies and extracted data regarding maternal and neonatal outcomes from each article. Results: Data of 11078 pregnant women with COVID-19 of 23 countries were assessed from 77 articles between December 8, 2019 and Aug 18, 2020. Most pregnant women reported in their third trimester, out of which 6229 (56.22%) cases were symptomatic at the time of admission. Common onset symptoms, abnormal laboratory findings, and chest computed tomography pattern were cough (40.88%%), lymphocytopenia (43.38%), and multiple ground-glass opacities (4.42%), respectively. 51.37% of all deliveries were done through cesarean section. 158 maternal mortality and 4.2% ICU admission were reported. Vertical transmission was not reported, but its possibility was suggested in thirty-two neonates. Ten neonatal deaths, thirteen stillbirths, and nineteen abortions were reported. 60% of newborns were not breastfed. Conclusion: This review showed fewer adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes in pregnant women with COVID-19 in comparison with previous coronavirus outbreak infection in pregnancy. Limited data are available regarding the possibility of virus transmission in utero, during vaginal childbirth and breastfeeding. The effect of COVID-19 on the first and second trimesters and ongoing pregnancy outcomes in infected mothers is still questionable.

4.
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases ; n/a(n/a), 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1819932

ABSTRACT

Surveillance of genetic diversity of the SARS-CoV-2 is extremely important to detect the emergence of more infectious and deadly strains of the virus. In this study, we evaluated mutational events in the SARS-CoV-2 genomes through whole genome sequencing. The samples were collected from COVID-19 patients in different major cities of Pakistan during the four waves of the pandemic (May 2020 to July 2021) and subjected to whole genome sequencing. Using in silico and machine learning tools, the viral mutational events were analyzed, and variants of concern and of interest were identified during each of the four waves. The overall mutation frequency (mutations per genome) increased during the course of the pandemic from 12.19, to 23.63, 31.03, and 41.22 in the first, second, third, and fourth waves, respectively. We determined the viral strains rose to higher frequencies in local transmission. The first wave had three most common strains B.1.36, B.1.160, and B.1.255, the second wave comprised of B.1.36, and B.1.247 strains, the third wave had B.1.1.7 (Alpha variant) and B.1.36 strains, and the fourth waves comprised of B.1.617.2 (Delta). Intriguingly, the B.1.36 variants were found in all the waves of the infection indicating their survival fitness. Through phylogenetic analysis, the probable routes of transmission of various strains in the country were determined. Collectively, our study provided an insight into the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 lineages in the spatio-temporal local transmission during different waves of the pandemic, which aided the state institutions in implementing adequate preventive measures. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

5.
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases ; n/a(n/a), 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1819931

ABSTRACT

Due to their geographical isolation and small populations, insular bats may not be able to maintain acute immunising viruses that rely on a large population for viral maintenance. Instead, endemic transmission may rely on viruses establishing persistent infections within hosts or inducing only short-lived neutralizing immunity. Therefore, studies on insular populations are valuable for developing broader understanding of viral maintenance in bats. The Christmas Island flying-fox (CIFF;Pteropus natalis) is endemic on Christmas Island, a remote Australian territory, and is an ideal model species to understand viral maintenance in small, geographically isolated bat populations. Serum or plasma (n = 190), oral swabs (n = 199), faeces (n = 31), urine (n = 32) and urine swabs (n = 25) were collected from 228 CIFFs. Samples were tested using multiplex serological and molecular assays, and attempts at virus isolation to determine the presence of paramyxoviruses, betacoronaviruses, and Australian bat lyssavirus. Analysis of serological data provide evidence that the species is maintaining a pararubulavirus and a betacoronavirus. There was little serological evidence supporting the presence of active circulation of the other viruses assessed in the present study. No viral nucleic acid was detected and no viruses were isolated. Age-seropositivity results support the hypothesis that geographically isolated bat populations can maintain some paramyxoviruses and coronaviruses. Further studies are required to elucidate infection dynamics and characterise viruses in the CIFF. Lastly, apparent absence of some pathogens could have implications for the conservation of the CIFF if a novel disease were introduced into the population through human carriage or an invasive species. Adopting increased biosecurity protocols for ships porting on Christmas Island and for researchers and bat carers working with flying-foxes are recommended to decrease the risk of pathogen introduction and contribute to the health and conservation of the species. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

6.
International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications ; : 18, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1819797

ABSTRACT

Purpose Coronavirus disease 2019 is one of the novel diseases formed by a dreadful virus called Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2. Various countries are affected by this viral disease, and many countries declare a lockdown with several rules and conditions. To prevent this rapid viral transmission, various researchers have introduced different mobile applications. This paper aims to study issues like viral transmission, mortality rates, vaccination rates, etc. and also provides suitable solutions based on the statistical analysis with the assistance of the Six-Sigma Define-Measure-Analyse-Improve-Control (DMAIC) concept. Design/methodology/approach Statistical analysis is done for different countries, and the required solutions are provided by using the DMAIC procedure. This application has the ability to represent the current risk status of the user and notify them to secure themselves. Findings The proposed work suggests the Aarogya Setu application to prevent large viral transmission by affording many preventive measures. This application also issues the current risk status of each individual user. Hence, it gives improved results in avoiding high viral transmission. Originality/value The proposed six-sigma DMAIC concept also affords the control measures to prevent viral transmission. Hence, the suggested application has the highest chance of avoiding the rapid viral transmission.

7.
Heliyon ; : e09371, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1819499

ABSTRACT

Background Neopterin (NP) is a biomarker for activated cellular immunity and is elevated in diseases including viral and bacterial infections, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. However, the clinical assessment of neopterin has not been used for these disorders because the physiological significance of measuring NP is obscure. It would be important to compare the NP profiles with those of other inflammation markers especially in relatively early phase of patients to reveal the significance of NP measurements in pathological states. Methods Plasma NP, biopterin, CRP, and IL-6 levels were measured in 46 patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and 23 patients with non-COVID-19 disorders. The correlations between these markers were analyzed in the COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients independently. Results The NP levels were significantly higher in the COVID-19 patients than in the non-COVID-19 patients, while biopterin, CRP and IL-6 were not changed significantly. The NP levels were found to show a weak negative correlation against the days after onset in the COVID-19 patients (rs = –0.348, p = 0.0192), suggesting that the elevation of NP would be an early event of viral infection. Correlations between NP and CRP, or between NP and IL-6 in COVID-19 patients were weaker than that between CRP and IL-6. Conclusions The elevation of NP levels was supposed to be distinct from those of CRP and IL-6 in relatively early and mild COVID-19 patients. Our data suggest that NP is produced at the early phase of infection by different signaling pathways and/or cells from those of CRP and IL-6. Further study on the signaling pathway to induce NP is expected.

8.
Pulmonary Circulation ; n/a(n/a), 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1819392

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS CoV-2), was the third leading cause of death in the US in 2020 and has caused more than 6 million deaths worldwide in the last two years This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

9.
Angewandte Chemie International Edition ; n/a(n/a), 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1819337

ABSTRACT

The development of versatile and sensitive biotools to quantify specific SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulins in SARS-CoV-2 infected and non-infected individuals, built-on the surface of magnetic microbeads functionalized with nucleocapsid (N) and in-house expressed recombinant spike (S) proteins is reported. Amperometric interrogation of captured N- and S-specific circulating total or individual immunoglobulin (Ig) isotypes (IgG, IgM, and IgA), subsequently labelled with HRP-conjugated secondary antibodies, was performed at disposable single or multiplexed (8x) screen-printed electrodes using the HQ/HRP/H 2 O 2  system. The obtained results using N and in-house expressed S ectodomains of five SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (including the latest Delta and Omicron) allow identification of vulnerable populations from those with natural or acquired immunity, monitoring of infection, evaluation of vaccine efficiency and even identification of the variant responsible for the infection.

10.
Kuwait Journal of Science ; : 12, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1819170

ABSTRACT

The world is under siege from a global pandemic caused by a novel class of coronaviruses called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS CoV-2). These viruses cause severe respiratory illness leading to death. Molecular studies reveal that SARS CoV-2 proteases are involved in the processing of viral polyproteins. This study was conducted to obtain antiviral agents for SARS CoV-2 proteases. An extensive library of antiviral medicinal compounds was scrutinized to determine the probable interaction with both main and 3-chymotrypsin like proteases. Six antiviral compounds (Abietic Acid, Gallic Acid, Piceatannol, Piperine, Sinomenine, and Triptolide) were capable of establishing hydrogen bonds with the active pocket residues of the viral proteases, with appreciable binding energy. These compounds were subjected to root mean square analysis and tested not only for acute toxicity, but also for absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity properties. Results were favourable for use in the treatment of SARS COV-2 infection.

11.
Klimik Dergisi ; 35(1):26-29, 2022.
Article in Turkish | GIM | ID: covidwho-1819128

ABSTRACT

Objective: Healthcare professionals taking care of COVID-19 patients are considered to be at high risk for acquiring infection, and the protection of healthcare professionals is one of the top priorities. Inadequate knowledge of the disease by healthcare professionals and their inability to access or use personal protective equipment (PPE) required for protection may cause rapidly spreading of infection. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the knowledge levels of healthcare professionals regarding COVID-19 and PPE use.

12.
Klimik Dergisi ; 35(1):14-20, 2022.
Article in Turkish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1819127

ABSTRACT

Objective: The study aims to contribute to the literature by sharing the treatment process and results of patients who develop pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, and subcutaneous emphysema, which are rarely seen in COVID-19 pneumonia, and to reveal the possible high mortality situation.

13.
Klimik Dergisi ; 35(1):54-57, 2022.
Article in Turkish | GIM | ID: covidwho-1819126

ABSTRACT

Although PCR is the most reliable test for the diagnosis of Covid-19 infection, false negative and positive results can also occur. Our case is a 32-year-old laboratory technician who applied with headache and malaise and her first Covid-19 PCR test was negative. It was repeated two days later, and the result was positive. Additional tests were also performed, and Parvovirus IgM antibody was also found to be positive. Four weeks later, while Covid-19 IgM and IgG test results were negative, the Parvovirus B19 IgG and IgM test results were positive. The Covid-19 PCR test was evaluated as false positive. We aimed to emphasize the need to consider other viral infections in the differential diagnosis even under pandemic conditions.

14.
Klimik Dergisi/Klimik Journal ; 35(1):30-35, 2022.
Article in Turkish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1819125

ABSTRACT

Objective: Healthcare professionals will be key to the success of COVID-19 vaccination programs because they are in the primary vaccination group. This study aims to measure and evaluate the acceptance, attitudes, and behaviors of healthcare professionals towards the COVID-19 vaccine.

15.
Klimik Dergisi/Klimik Journal ; 35(1):21-25, 2022.
Article in Turkish | GIM | ID: covidwho-1819124

ABSTRACT

Objective: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a global health emergency. Physicians are at high risk for COVID-19 due to their occupational exposure to infected patients. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the opinions of physicians, who are at the forefront of the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic, on prophylaxis and probable vaccination for SARS-CoV-2 infection through a questionnaire.

16.
Klimik Dergisi/Klimik Journal ; 35(1):49-53, 2022.
Article in Turkish | GIM | ID: covidwho-1819123

ABSTRACT

Bilateral multilobar ground-glass opacities are characteristic features of COVID-19 pneumonia. However, the differential diagnosis of ground-glass opacities is challenging. The aim of this paper was to share our experiences with other colleagues. The first patient presented with anosmia and loss of taste. Legionella antigen in urine was positive. The second patient had bilateral ground-glass opacities, which predominantly involved the upper lung zones and lymphopenia. Radiological findings were the same with the radiological control of 8 months ago, and she had a diagnosis of sarcoidosis. The third patient complained of dyspnoea. The inspection of national health system records showed a histological diagnosis of nonspecific interstitial/organizing pneumonia. The fourth patient had findings suggestive of congestive heart failure such as bilateral pleural effusion, peribronchial cuffing, and interlobular septa thickening. The co-existence of multiple ill-defined centrilobular ground-glass opacities suggested a concomitant disease but lesions disappeared with furosemid infusion within 5 days. The fifth patient presented with only right upper lobe consolidation. The opacities did not exceed the horizontal fissure. The intact fissure suggested a bacterial aetiology, but PCR tests of the nasopharyngeal samples were positive for COVID-19. This finding suggested that pulmonary infiltrate of COVID-19 was inflammatory rather than infective in nature. In conclusion, old imaging studies were more useful in the differential diagnosis.

17.
Klimik Dergisi ; 35(1):6-13, 2022.
Article in Turkish | GIM | ID: covidwho-1819122

ABSTRACT

Objective: Immunosuppressive drugs are included in the treatment protocols of severe COVID-19 cases that may present with cytokine storm. In this study, we aimed to examine the characteristics of COVID-19 patients who received immunosuppressive therapy Methods: Patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and followed in the quarantine wards of our hospital between 01.03.2020-24.05.2020 were included in the study. Patient information was obtained retrospectively from patient files and discharge reports, and 263 COVID-19 patients -aged 18 and over- were included in the study.

18.
Carpathian Journal of Food Science and Technology ; 14(1):118-136, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1819110

ABSTRACT

Amorphophallus paeoniifolius is a very common tuber plant having diverse secondary metabolites and palatability levels. Keeping the problems of food shortage & novel infectious diseases throughout the world, an attempt has been made through fieldworks during 2009 to 2020 to gather the information on its ethnobotany, bioactive compounds from lab work and pharmacological properties from secondary sources to make it future nutraceutical against food disorders & novel microbial diseases. The tuber is used as food and medicines, it is rich with primary & secondary metabolites and its extracts are used to treat various infectious diseases. The compounds present in the species have potential to make novel drugs against present health problems throughout the world. The present study highlights the importance of wild tuberous plants in mitigation of food shortage, food disorders, anti-microbial resistance, novel bacterial & viral diseases like MDR-TB and COVID-19.

19.
Spor Bilimleri Araştırmaları Dergisi ; 6(2):521-534, 2021.
Article in Turkish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1819037

ABSTRACT

Covid-19, which first appeared in Wuhan, China, and caused the death of many people, caused the structures within the sports industry to change as well as in all industries. In this period, sports organizations try to use social media tools effectively in order to stay in touch with their fans. Purpose of this research is to analyze the post of the most followed clubs and their fans on Twitter about Covid-19 in the Turkish Football Federation Super League. The study, a total of 2,971 hashtags related to Covid-19 were analyzed. The number of posts and percentages of tweets by fans and football clubs about Covid-19 was also included in the analysis. In this way, the contents of the Twitter posts of both fans and football clubs regarding Covid-19 were determined. The netnography method was used as the working method. The hashtags performed by the fans on Twitter were analyzed by the content analysis method. According to the findings, Fenerbah..e SK and its followers have become the football club that produced the most content (80.46%) regarding the Covid-19 outbreak. Although Galatasaray SC fans have produced the most hashtags, Galatasaray SK (16.5%) has produced the least amount of content about the epidemic. As a result, in the period of the Covid-19 epidemic, while it is seen that football fans unite in a common culture by posting similar hashtags about the Covid-19 epidemic on Twitter, it is seen that football clubs post less place to content related to the epidemic less than fan groups.

20.
Turkish Journal of Agriculture - Food Science and Technology ; 9(sp):2458-2465, 2022.
Article in Turkish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1819027

ABSTRACT

Covid-19, which affects the whole world and is accepted as a pandemic by the world health organization, caused millions of people to die. The elderly are in the group with the highest risk of losing their lives due to the Covid-19 virus. Stricter restrictive / protective measures have been taken for the elderly in Turkey, as in the whole world. With this research, it is aimed to evaluate the sociological and psychological effects of the "elderly", who are one of the health risk groups of the society, in terms of landscape architecture, during the pandemic days when they had to experience various problems after the outbreak. In the study, face-to-face and online questionnaires were applied to individuals aged 50 and over on a voluntary basis. As a result of the study, it was determined that the implementation of curfews and restrictions for the elderly and the formation of an isolated lifestyle from other age groups caused an increase in loneliness and anxiety levels and negative psychological effects. It has been revealed that the activities that individuals will carry out in the green area, their conversations and socializing with their peers, and walks in the open area have a positive psychological and sociological effect for the elderly. It has been determined that the elderly who become lonely and depressed at home with the restrictions imposed under pandemic conditions want to be in green areas. The sociological and psychological positive effects of being in green areas and spending time, and the changes in the behaviour and emotions of the elderly who have pandemic restrictions paralleled the response of the participants to the questionnaire.

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