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1.
Particle & Particle Systems Characterization ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2030989

ABSTRACT

Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are promising radiosensitizers for cancer radiotherapy. Moreover, they can be used in the same way for radiation processing and sterilization. Such application of GNPs is of practical interest since it may significantly reduce the dose load and expand the application of radiation treatment. In the present study, the high radiosensitization effect of GNPs in relation to viral particles is demonstrated for the first time. The preparations of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) are used as an experimental model, insofar as this virus has the same properties as animal and human ones but is safe for humans. Irradiation with 45 kVp X-ray to the doses of 4 and 7 kGy leads to a decrease in the infectious activity of TMV virions up to 1.92- and 2.70-fold, respectively. At the same time, irradiation in the presence of 0.4 mg mL(-1) of 12 nm spherical GNPs increases the efficiency of virus inactivation up to 15- and 22-fold. The GNPs enhance both the damage to capsid protein due to the enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species and genome RNA due to the emission of secondary radiation. These results show the great prospects of the application of high-Z nanoparticles in radiation treatment.

2.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 81:1689, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009070

ABSTRACT

Background: Several trials have reported lower seroconversion rates in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases than in healthy patients. In Argentina, the vaccines that were available during the development of this study were: Sputnik V (Gam-COVID-Vac), AstraZeneca (ChAdOx1 nCov-19), Sinopharm (BBIBP-CorV) and Moderna (mRNA-1273). Limited information is available about vaccines against SARS-CoV2 with inactivated virus or viral vector in autoimmune patients. Objectives: To evaluate the humoral immune response to vaccines against SARS-CoV2 in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases;to compare the humoral response among patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) and other autoimmune diseases and to analyse the variables associated. Methods: We included patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases (Rheumatology Unit of Padilla Hospital, Tucumán, Argentina), who received vaccination against SARS-CoV2 from June 2021. Sociodemographic, comorbidities, related to rheumatic disease, vaccination and SARS-CoV2 infection were the variables recorded. To evaluate the humoral immune response, the neutralizing anti-S-RBD IgG antibody titres were determined by ELISA 'In House' test with a cut-off titre of 200 (IMMCA). The times established for the serological determinations were: T0 or baseline: 1st vaccine dose, T1: 14 ± 2 days after the 1st dose, T2: 2nd dose, T3: 21-45 days after the 2nd dose, T4: 30 days after the 3rd dose, T5: 6 months and T6: 12 months after the 3rd dose. Results: 66 patients were included, 91% women and 92.4% Amerindians. The mean age was 40.7 ± 11.4 years;53% with SLE, 15.2% Rheumatoid Arthritis, 7.6% Systemic Sclerosis, 7.6% Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis, 7.6% Systemic Vasculitis and 9% other diagnoses;mean disease duration was 12.05 ± 7. 5 years;63.6% had at least one comorbidity (57% HBP, 31% overweight or obesity). At baseline, the treatments received were: corticoster-oids (37.9%, prednisone mean dose 4.12 ± 8 mg/day), cDMARDs (75.7%), bDMARDs (18.2%): Rituximab (58.3%) and anti TNF (25%). Sixteen patients (24.2%) had previous COVID19 (75% mild symptoms). The vaccines applied were: AstraZeneca 38.2%, Sinopharm 31.7%, Sputnik V 19%, and combined schedule Sputnik V/Moderna in 11%. At baseline, 28.8% had detectable anti-S-RBD IgG antibodies. This frequency increased to 48.4% at 1st dose and 70.2% at 2nd dose. The variables that were associated with lower sero-conversion rates and lower antibody titre were vaccination with Sinopharm (p 0.028) and treatment with bDMARDs (p 0.02), none of the 5 patients with Rituximab showed seroconversion. There were no significant differences in the levels of anti-S-RBD IgG antibodies between patients with SLE and the other rheumatic diseases. Patients who had SARS-CoV2 infection prior to vaccination had higher antibody titres in both T1 (p 0.006) and T2 (p 0.002) but after the two doses this difference was not significant (p 0.67). In the regression analysis, the variables that were independently associated with seroconversion were the type of vaccine applied at the 1st dose and the hypertensive disease. The chance of responding to vaccination was 13 and 9 times higher for those who received Sputnik V (OR 12.78;95% CI 1.46-315.9) or AstraZeneca (OR 8.61;95% CI 1.63-72.5) respectively, than Sinopharm in the 1st dose. The chance of being a responder was 88% lower for hypertensive patients (OR 0.12;95% CI 0.02-0.58). Conclusion: In this preliminary analysis, a seroconversion rate of 70.2% was associated with two-dose vaccination for SARS-CoV2 in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases. There were no differences in the serological response between patients with SLE and other rheumatic diseases. The humoral immune response was lower in patients with bDMARDs and null in those who received Rituximab. Seroconversion and antibody titres levels were associated with the type of vaccine applied, being Sinopharm who presented the lowest response. The follow-up will provide more knowledge about the behaviour of the humoral response in our patients.

3.
Journal of Virological Methods ; 309:114610, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2007918

ABSTRACT

Inactivation of human respiratory viruses in air and on surfaces is important to control their spread. Exposure to germicidal ultraviolet (UV-C) light damages viral nucleic acid rendering them non-infectious. Most of the recent viral inactivation studies have not considered potential artifacts caused by interactions between UV-C light and culture media used to suspend and deposit virus on surfaces. We show that the reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) form when commonly used virus culture media is exposed to 265 nm irradiation from light emitting diodes (LEDs) at UV-C doses (4 or 40 mJ/cm2) commonly considered to achieve multiple log-inactivation of virus. Surface viral inactivation values were enhanced from 0.49 to 2.92 log10 of viruses in DMEM, EMEM or EMEM-F as compared to absence of culture media (only suspended in Tris-buffer). The mechanisms responsible for the enhanced surface inactivate is hypothesized to involve photo-activation of vitamins and dyes present in the culture media, deposited with the virus on surfaces to be disinfected, which produce ROS and RNS. Given the rapidly growing research and commercial markets for UV-C disinfecting devices, there is a need to establish surface disinfecting protocols that avoid viral inactivation enhancement artifacts associated with selection and use of common cell culture media in the presence of UV-C light. This study addresses this weak link in the literature and highlights that inadequate selection of virus suspension media may cause a bias (i.e., over-estimation) for the UV-C dosages required for virus inactivation on surfaces.

4.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; : 1-4, 2022.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-2007181

ABSTRACT

Under conditions of COVID-19 pandemic, considerable amounts of SARS-CoV-2 contained in household, municipal, and medical wastewaters inevitably reach natural water bodies. Possible preservation of virus infectivity in liquid environment is of a paramount epidemiological importance. Experiments demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 is resistant to multiple freezing/thawing cycles and retains its infectivity in tap and river water for up to 2 days at 20 degrees C and 7 days at 4 degrees C. In natural milk, its viability is preserved in a refrigerator for 6 days. The exposure of aquarium fish to the virus-containing water fails to cause any infection.

5.
Hong Kong Journal of Paediatrics ; 27(1):67, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2003052

ABSTRACT

Vaccines that elicit mucosal immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 could potent ially be of exceptional importance in providing first line defence at the site of viral entry. In order to understand the mucosal immune response profiles of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, we examined both the mucosal and systemic responses of subjects vaccinated by two different vaccination platforms: mRNA (Comirnaty) and inactivated virus (CoronaVac). Nasal epithelial lining fluid (NELF) and peripheral blood samples were collected in subjects who had received two doses of CoronaVac or Comirnaty. We quantified IgA and IgG specific to SARS-CoV-2 S1 protein, neutralisation antibody by ELISA in NELF and plasma samples. Only Comirnaty induced nasal S1-specific IgA and IgG responses, which were evident as early as on 14±2 days after the first dose. The NELF samples of 72% of subjects became IgA+IgG+, while in 62.5% of subjects the samples were neutralising by 7±2 days after the second dose. In 45% of the subjects their NELF remained neutralising 50 days after the booster. In plasma, 91% and 100% Comirnaty subjects possessed S1-specific IgA+IgG+ on 14±2 days after the first dose and 7±2 days after booster, respectively. The plasma collected on 7±2 days after booster was 100% neutralising. The induction of S1-specific antibody by CoronaVac was IgG dominant, and 70% of the subjects possessed specific IgG by 7±2 days after booster and were all neutralising. This study reveals that Comirnaty is able to induce S1-specific IgA and IgG r esponse with neutralising activity in the nasal mucosa in addition to a consistent systemic response.

6.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2004074

ABSTRACT

Plasma medicine is a developing field that utilizes the effects of cold physical plasma on biological substrates for therapeutic purposes. Approved plasma technology is frequently used in clinics to treat chronic wounds and skin infections. One mode of action responsible for beneficial effects in patients is the potent antimicrobial activity of cold plasma systems, which is linked to their unique generation of a plethora of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS). During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, it became increasingly clear that societies need novel ways of passive and active protection from viral airway infections. Plasma technology may be suitable for superficial virus inactivation. Employing an optimized neon-driven micro plasma jet, treatment time-dependent ROS production and cytotoxic effects to different degrees were found in four different human cell lines with respect to their metabolic activity and viability. Using the murine hepatitis virus (MHV), a taxonomic relative of human coronaviruses, plasma exposure drastically reduced the number of infected murine fibroblasts by up to 3000-fold. Direct plasma contact (conductive) with the target maximized ROS production, cytotoxicity, and antiviral activity compared to non-conductive treatment with the remote gas phase only. Strikingly, antioxidant pretreatment reduced but not abrogated conductive plasma exposure effects, pointing to potential non-ROS-related mechanisms of antiviral activity. In summary, an optimized micro plasma jet showed antiviral activity and cytotoxicity in human cells, which was in part ROS-dependent. Further studies using more complex tissue models are needed to identify a safe dose-effect window of antiviral activity at modest toxicity.

7.
Applied Physics Letters ; 121(7):1-6, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2000995

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is still pandemic in the world although it has lasted for more than two years, in situ real-time disinfection of curved surfaces in public places is extremely urgent. A flexible plasma film based on surface dielectric barrier discharge is proposed in this study. In situ disinfection effect and the influence of curvature on the performance are studied. The results showed that the film could in situ inactivate a variety of pathogens. Specifically, 10 min plasma treatment results in a log reduction of 3.10, 3.42, and 3.03 for Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and vesicular stomatitis virus, respectively. The discharge power and disinfection effect of the film are independent of the curvature, which proves that it can be used for in situ disinfection of curved surfaces. It is speculated that the combined effects of a strong electric field and radical etching physical damage as well as the chemical damage of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species to the protein are the main reasons for the inactivation of pathogens. The inhibition of the film to Omicron type SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus is 99.3%, and the killing rate to natural bacteria is 94.3%. The film can run for at least 10 h without significant reduction in disinfection effect. In addition, large-scale and digitalization increase the practical potential of a disinfection film. In conclusion, this film is expected to realize in situ real-time disinfection of curved surfaces such as the buttons of the elevator or instrument and door handles, which is of great significance in blocking the spread of COVID-19. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Applied Physics Letters is the property of American Institute of Physics and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

8.
Biochimica Clinica ; 46(1):16-33, 2022.
Article in Italian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1988757

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has prompted an unprecedented race to find the means to contrast the SARS-CoV-2 infection, resulting in a huge common effort to develop an efficacious vaccine as soon as possible and an exceptional acceleration of the review process to ensure its safety and efficacy. Many technological platforms are currently under investigation or have already been approved, including those based on the inactivated virus, mRNA- or DNA-based vaccines expressing viral antigens, recombinant SARS-CoV-2 proteins and vector-based vaccines exploiting chimeric adenoviruses. The emergence of new viral variants has represented ad additional challenge and has induced the entire scientific community to potentiate the monitoring process of the ongoing vaccination campaigns. In this scenario, laboratory medicine certainly plays a pivotal role not only in the diagnosis of the infection but also in monitoring the immune response to vaccines and in the detection and prevention of clinically significant adverse events, ultimately contributing to the determination of the biological and clinical efficacy of the available vaccines. This review offers an overview of the most recent and updated data on anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and the technological principles behind them as well as on the resources that laboratory medicine can offer to support the vaccination campaigns. All these aspects represent a rapid step forward in the clinical field which transcends the COVID-19 outbreak and that will certainly pave the way for the future scientific research.

9.
Heliyon ; : e10280, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1983120

ABSTRACT

Due to the immense societal and economic impact that the COVID-19 pandemic has caused, limiting the spread of SARS-CoV-2 is one of the most important priorities at this time. The global interconnectedness of the food industry makes it one of the biggest concerns for SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks. Although fomites are currently considered a low-risk route of transmission for SARS-CoV-2, new variants of the virus can potentially alter the transmission dynamics. In this study, we compared the survival rate of pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 on plastic with some commonly used food samples (i.e., apple, strawberry, grapes, tomato, cucumber, lettuce, parsley, Brazil nut, almond, cashew, and hazelnut). The porosity level and the chemical composition of different food products affect the virus's stability and infectivity. Our results showed that tomato, cucumber, and apple offer a higher survival rate for the pseudotyped viruses. Next, we explored the effectiveness of ozone in deactivating the SARS-CoV-2 pseudotyped virus on the surface of tomato, cucumber, and apple. We found that the virus was effectively inactivated after being exposed to 15 ppm of ozone for 1 h under ambient conditions. SEM imaging revealed that while ozone exposure altered the wax layer on the surface of produce, it did not seem to damage the cells and their biological structures. The results of our study indicate that ozonated air can likely provide a convenient method of effectively disinfecting bulk food shipments that may harbour the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

10.
Catalysts (2073-4344) ; 12(7):N.PAG-N.PAG, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1974723

ABSTRACT

There is an immense healthcare challenge and financial pressure due to the COVID-19 pandemic caused by a newly identified human coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2. Effective COVID-19 prevention efforts in healthcare, home, and community settings highlight the need for rapid, efficient, and no-contact SARS-CoV-2 inactivation strategies. Here, we examined the photocatalytic and virucidal activity of the MACOMA™ TiO2 photocatalytic film activated by an UVA-LED-12V-367 nm (MA-717836-1) lamp against the HCoV-OC43, a member of the beta coronaviruses family, like SARS-CoV-2, using quantitative RT-qPCR and virus infectivity assays. The UVA radiation-responsive TiO2 film accelerated virus inactivation (decreased viral titer) compared to the uncoated glass surface when placed at a vertical distance of 1.2 feet (~14 inches) from virus samples for 10, 30, and 60 min. UVA-LED exposure for both 10 and 30 min effectively reduced the viral RNA copies and the infectious virus in samples on TiO2-coated surfaces compared to the control surfaces. Importantly, a 60 min exposure of samples on the TiO2 completely eliminated HCoV-OC43. These results confirmed that the MACOMA™ UVA/TiO2-based disinfection system provides a rapid and complete surface inactivation of tested human coronavirus in a human-safe manner and has great potential for limiting the virus spread in poorly ventilated as well as high-traffic public places. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Catalysts (2073-4344) is the property of MDPI and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

11.
Journal of Investigative Dermatology ; 142(8):S105, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956223

ABSTRACT

There is global interest in both the beneficial and detrimental health effects of ultraviolet-C (UVC) radiation in the wavelength range 200-230 nm (known as Far-UVC). Technology using Far-UVC is proposed as a highly effective control measure for reducing the transmission of COVID-19. Far-UVC, and other wavelengths of UVC, are well-known to efficiently inactivate pathogens in air and on surfaces. Although studies have shown irradiation of skin with 254 nm UV results in DNA damage in the epidermal basal layer, irradiation with Far-UVC (222 nm) shows minimal DNA damage and only in the granular layer, which is comprised of non-proliferating keratinocytes. Therefore, accumulation of these DNA photoproducts would not be expected to be associated with cancer risk. It has also been shown that even high doses of Far-UVC exposure to human skin do not induce erythema. However, the effects of Far-UVC on the immune system are, to the best of our knowledge, unknown. It is well-reported that both ultraviolet B (UVB 280-315 nm) and ultraviolet-A (UVA 315-400 nm) have effects on cutaneous Langerhans cells (LC), inducing migration from the epidermis to the draining lymph nodes, thereby suppressing skin immune function. Here we present data generated in a range of skin types (Fitzpatrick II-V) demonstrating little or no impact of Far-UVC on the cutaneous immune system, as assessed by Langerhans cell migration, at doses of up to 3,000 mJ/cm2 (US daily limit is 450 mJ/cm2). These results support the safety of filtered Far-UVC use, which could have a transformative effect on public health, allowing effective virus inactivation and reduction of transmission independent of human behavior. Conflict of interest disclosure: the authors state no conflict of interest. However, MJC and RPH are directors of Ten Bio Ltd, a company focused on developing human skin explant models.

12.
Pharmakeftiki ; 34(2):39-67, 2022.
Article in Greek | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1955732

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 disease first appeared in 2019 and has spread widely. The SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes it is a member of the coronavirus family and is rapidly transmitted, primarily by droplets. In the disease, there is increased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. There are several diagnostic methods, with RNA-qPCR-based detection being the most important and reliable. Vaccination is required to prevent the disease. COVID-19 Vaccines use viral vectors, the mRNA of the virus, certain subunits of the virus such as spike protein (S), and the inactivated virus itself. Some drugs that have been used for other diseases can be used for treatment, but one promising avenue is the use of monoclonal antibodies. Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies primarily target the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S). Most monoclonal antibodies have been identified to recognize the S1 fragment of SARS-CoV2. The receptor binding domain (RBD) in the S1 subunit is the most important target for SARS-CoV-2 because monoclonal antibodies can block the interaction of RBD and ACE2 of the receptor. If anti-SARSCoV-2 mAbs are used, treatment should be initiated as soon as possible after receiving a positive diagnostic result and within 10 days of symptom onset. Currently, three monoclonal antibody products are approved for COVID-19, namely bamlanivimab/etesevimab, casirivimab/imdevimab, and sotrovimab. Understanding their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics is essential for selecting the right antibody, dose and treatment regimen for the target indication. In this context, this study provides a comprehensive overview of the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and dosing regimens of monoclonal antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 virus.

13.
Tehran University Medical Journal ; 80(2):82-90, 2022.
Article in Persian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1955731

ABSTRACT

Background: Nowadays, the COVID-19 pandemic has become a global problem that new methods must be used to prevent it. The virus is highly contagious and is mainly transmitted through the air. Ozone is a powerful oxidant that can be used to inactivate a wide range of viruses that may be resistant to other disinfectants. The purpose of this study was to review the use and effect of ozone in inactivating indoor viruses. Methods: To conduct this review study, the keywords such as ozone, virus and air were used to search the PubMed and Scopus databases. Articles were searched from 2010 to 2020. As a result of the search, 57 articles in this field were selected and their content and results were used in this review study. Results: This review study showed that ozone has been successfully used to prevent several viral diseases such as COVED-19. In addition, some viruses, such as coronaviruses, contain sulfhydryl functional groups containing cysteine and tryptophan that react better with ozone gas. The infected person's sneezing may result in the formation of 40,000 droplets in the air. The droplets can be transferred to the nearest surface up to approximately 2 meters before falling and also may remain in the air for 30 hours. Conclusion: The use of ozone gas has many potential applications in inactivating viruses in enclosed spaces. Given the importance of virus-containing aerosols in the transmission of COVED-19, ozone can be a promising way to prevent the disease. The degree of inactivation of viruses by ozone gas depends on the gas concentration, contact time, temperature, humidity and type of virus. In general, studies in this field have shown the use of ozone gas in preventing the spread of viral diseases such as COVED-19. Necessary safety measures and precautions are also recommended in using this gas.

14.
ACS Infect Dis ; 8(8): 1563-1581, 2022 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931305

ABSTRACT

Raman spectroscopy uncovered molecular scale markers of the viral structure of the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant and related viral inactivation mechanisms at the biological interface with silicon nitride (Si3N4) bioceramics. A comparison of Raman spectra collected on the TY11-927 variant (lineage B.1.617.2; simply referred to as the Delta variant henceforth) with those of the JPN/TY/WK-521 variant (lineage B.1.617.1; referred to as the Kappa variant or simply as the Japanese isolate henceforth) revealed the occurrence of key mutations of the spike receptor together with profound structural differences in the molecular structure/symmetry of sulfur-containing amino acid and altered hydrophobic interactions of the tyrosine residue. Additionally, different vibrational fractions of RNA purines and pyrimidines and dissimilar protein secondary structures were also recorded. Despite mutations, hydrolytic reactions at the surface of silicon nitride (Si3N4) bioceramics induced instantaneous inactivation of the Delta variant at the same rate as that of the Kappa variant. Contact between virions and micrometric Si3N4 particles yielded post-translational deimination of arginine spike residues, methionine sulfoxidation, tyrosine nitration, and oxidation of RNA purines to form formamidopyrimidines. Si3N4 bioceramics proved to be a safe and effective inorganic compound for instantaneous environmental sanitation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spectrum Analysis, Raman , Ceramics/chemistry , Ceramics/pharmacology , Humans , Purines , RNA , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Silicon Compounds , Tyrosine
15.
J Oral Maxillofac Surg Med Pathol ; 2022 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1920647

ABSTRACT

Objective: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the pathogen causing the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic. Recent studies have shown the importance of the throat and salivary glands as sites of virus replication and transmission. The viral host receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), is broadly enriched in epithelial cells of the salivary glands and oral mucosae. Oral care products containing cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) as a bactericidal ingredient are known to exhibit antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. However, the exact mechanism of action remains unknown. Methods: This study examined the antiviral activity of CPC against SARS-CoV-2 and its inhibitory effect on the interaction between the viral spike (S) protein and ACE2 using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: CPC (0.05%, 0.1% and 0.3%) effectively inactivated SARS-CoV-2 within the contact times (20 and 60 s) in directions for use of oral care products in vitro. The binding ability of both the S protein and ACE2 were reduced by CPC. Conclusions: Our results suggest that CPC inhibits the interaction between S protein and ACE2, and thus, reduces infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 and suppresses viral adsorption.

16.
Vox Sanguinis ; 117(SUPPL 1):268-269, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1916291

ABSTRACT

Background: Autoimmnue hemolytic anaemia (AIHA) is characterized by the production of autoantibodies against red cells antigens, leading to hemolysis. AIHA can be primary or secondary to rheumatologic and lymphoproliferative diseases, infections, drugs and vaccines. Several immune phenomena were reported after massive SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, including myocarditis, neurological syndormes, immune thrombocytopenia, among others. Aims: We hereby describe an AIHA case possibly related to SARSCoV- 2 vaccination. Methods: Assessment of the clinical evaluation along with the laboratory and immunohematological tests in a symptomatic patient fwe days after receiving the vaccine. Results: A 72-year-old womwn, previously healthy, rceived her first dose of Coronavac (Sinovac, inactivated virus), in January 2021. After 7 days, she was admitted with fatigue and myalgia. Laboratory results revealed haemoglobin 4.9 g/dl, reticulocyte count 31.7%, total bilirubin 9.15 mg/dl, indirect bilirubin 7.88 mg/dl, haptoglobin<6 mg/dl and lactate dehydrogenase 953 U/L. The peripheral blood smear showed spherocytes and polychromasia. The nasopharyngeal PCR test for Covid-19 was negative. Regarding the immunohematological tests, the patient was group O R1K-k+, polyspecific direct antiglobulin test (DAT) was reactive for IgG and C3d, but the monospecific DAT showed only IgG. The eluate was reactive against all test cells. After all adsorptions performed, no alloantibody was detected and the eluate confirmed only the presence of an autoantibody, with no specificity. The patient was successfully managed with steroids, cyclophosphamide and transfusion support (OR1r, K-, antigens S and JKa negative, according with genotyping). No other causes of AIHA were found in the patient's screening and the patient did not have covid prior to vaccination. Summary/Conclusions: In this case, the temporal relationship between the vaccination and the symptoms of AIHA suggests a possible and rare haematological side effect of the vaccine which are able to activate both cellular and humoral immune systems with an important role in the interactions between dendritic cells, B and T cells, and the self-tolerance system. Since there is the increase of the global number of vaccinated people and few of this reports of this phenomenon have described in the literature, we considered it important to disclose this case in our service.

17.
Chinese Journal of Biologicals ; 34(6):699-703, 2021.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1894085

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the application and safety of apheresis technology in collection of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescent plasma (CP), and to analyze the quality characteristics of the plasma. Methods The general data of COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CP) donors, including gender, age, date of discharge or release from medical isolation, were collected based on informed consent. After physical examination, the CP was collected by apheresis technology with plasma separator, inactivated with methylene blue, and determined for severe acute respiratory symptom Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid and specific antibody (RBD-IgG) against SARS-CoV-2. Results The collection process went well, and no serious adverse events related to plasma collection were reported during or after the collection. The average age of COVID-19 CP donors was 38 years (n = 933). The distributions of blood groups A, B, AB and 0 in RhD (+) COVID-19 CP were 33. 4%, 29. 2%, 10% and 27. 2% respectively. The plasma donation date was 18 d from the discharge date in average. All the test results of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid in CP were negative, while the proportion of plasma samples at SARS-CoV-2 antibody titer of more than 1: 160 was 92. 60%. Conclusion Apheresis technology was safe and reliable. The COVID-19 CP contained high titer antibody. Large-scale collection and preparation of inactivated plasma against SARS-CoV-2 played an important role in the treatment of COVID-19.

18.
Advances in Terahertz Biomedical Imaging and Spectroscopy 2022 ; 11975, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1891714

ABSTRACT

Currently, aerosol is considered as the major route for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission. A safe sterilization method with an excellent penetration capability and ability to sterilize free spaces is urgently needed. Previously it has been experimentally demonstrated that microwave-based sterilization can effectively inactivate the H3N2 Influenza A virus through the structure-resonant energy transfer (SRET) effect with a radiation field intensity following the IEEE standard. In order to utilize the same mechanism to inactivate the SARS-CoV-2 virus, firstly, the structural resonant frequencies with electromagnetic (EM) waves have to be identified. In this paper we report our design and implementation of a spectrum measurement chip utilizing the coplanar waveguide with pre-printed mask. With the mask, the repeatability of the insertion loss measurement can be well-controlled. Our microwave absorption spectra results revealed that the coplanar-waveguide chip can identify the resonant microwave frequencies of difference viruses, including the SARS-CoV-2 viruses, highlighting the potential applications for not only the virus detection but also the safe and non-thermal sterilization of public spaces. During the presentation, we will also report the resonant EM wave frequencies of various corona viruses monitored by the aforementioned chip. Copyright © 2022 SPIE.

19.
Photonic Instrumentation Engineering IX 2022 ; 12008, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1891712

ABSTRACT

An ultraviolet tunable light source (UV-TLS) is a valuable tool in studying the effectiveness of virus inactivation using UV radiation. UV-TLS can verify effective inactivation UV dosages at different wavelengths to help establish industrial UV safety standards and calibrate UV radiation sources. We developed a high throughput UV-TLS to support research into methods of inactivating coronavirus, including the virus that causes the COVID-19 disease. The light source is powered by a laser-driven light source (LDLS™) with high UV wavelength brightness, superior stability, and a 10,000-hour lifetime. The UV-TLS covers the wavelength range from 200 nm to 770 nm and has a fiber-coupled output. Advanced design features include: (1) all reflective optics for aberrationfree light coupling;(2) a high-efficiency UV grating blazed at 250 nm;(3) fiber-coupled output with a 600 μm core diameter deep-UV fiber for application flexibility. Measured data shows that the UV-TLS achieved an in-band flux of 0.98 mW with an averaged FWHM of 4.3 nm in the 200 nm to 400 nm range, using the 600 μm fiber. The averaged in-band flux reaches 2.9 mW for free-space output with an averaged FWHM of 7.2 nm. Advantages of the newly developed UV-TLS are relatively higher in-band flux, UV light output at any wavelength from 200 nm to 400 nm, and the flexibility of a fiber light delivery. The bandwidth of UV output flux can be adjusted by selecting different monochromator slit sizes. © COPYRIGHT SPIE. Downloading of the is permitted for personal use only.

20.
Bioactive Materials ; 19:569-580, 2023.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1881705

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic caused by the novel comnavirus, SARS-CoV-2, is influencing global health. Moreover, there is a major threat of future coronaviruses affecting the entire world in a similar, or even more dreadful, manner. Therefore, effective and biocompatible therapeutic options against comnaviruses are urgently needed. To address this challenge, medical specialists require a well-informed and safe approach to treating human coronaviruses (HCoVs). Herein, an environmental friendly approach for viral inactivation, based on plasma technology, was considered. A microwave plasma system was employed for the generation of the high amount of gaseous nitric oxide to prepare nitric oxide enriched plasma-activated water (NO-PAW), the effects of which on coronaviruses, have not been reported to date. To determine these effects, alpha-HCoV-229E was used in an experimental model. We found that NO-PAW treatment effectively inhibited comnavirus infection in host lung cells, visualized by evaluating the cytopathic effect and expression level of spike proteins. Interestingly, NO-PAW showed minimal toxicity towards lung host cells, suggesting its potential for therapeutic application. Moreover, this new approach resulted in viral inactivation and greatly improved the gene levels involved in host antiviral responses. Together, our findings provide evidence of an initiation point for further progress toward the clinical development of antiviral treatments, including such comnaviruses.

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