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1.
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine ; 36(6):2497-2498, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2192999

ABSTRACT

Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) caused by feline coronavirus (FCoV) is a fatal disease if untreated. A recent prospective controlled treatment trial in field cats with confirmed FIP demonstrated excellent efficacy of GS-441524. The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of GS-441524 treatment on fecal FCoV RNA shedding and presence of FCoV spike (S-) gene mutations in different body compartments in treated FIP cats as well as in 12 companion cats cohabitating with the FIP cats. Eighteen cats with confirmed FIP were treated with oral GS-441524 for 84 days. Viral loads in feces, blood, and effusion were determined by RT-qPCR. In the first three days of treatment, 11/18 treated FIP cats (61%) shed FCoV RNA in feces, but all of them tested negative by day six. In one of them, fecal shedding reoccurred on day 83. Two cats initially negative in feces were transiently positive 1-4 weeks into the treatment. FCoV RNA loads in feces decreased in all treated FIP cats with time, comparable with those in blood and effusion. Sgene mutations linked to systemic FCoV spread were consistently found in blood and effusion from treated FIP cats, but not in feces from treated or companion cats. Phylogenetic analyses of the S-gene revealed a clustering of fecal samples of the companion cats with the corresponding FIP cats. Oral treatment with GS-441524 effectively decreased viral RNA loads in feces, blood, and effusion in cats with FIP. Nonetheless, reshedding can occur, most likely if cats are re-exposed to FCoV.

2.
Gaceta Medica De Mexico ; 158(5):320-326, 2022.
Article in Spanish | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2170026

ABSTRACT

Introduction: There are aspects of COVID-19 pathogenesis that are still unknown. Objective: To determine the relationship between severity, mortality and viral replication in patients with COVID-19. Methods: Clinical characteristics, severity and mortality of 203 patients hospitalized for COVID-19 were analyzed and correlated with viral load (VL) and threshold cycle (TC) at admission;nasopharyngeal swab was obtained. Results: Mean VLs in surviving patients with mild to moderate, moderate to severe and severe disease were the following: 6.8 x 10(6), 7.6 x 10(7) and 1.0 x 10(9), respectively;and in patients with critical disease who died, VL was 1.70 x 10(9). TCs were 26.06, 24.07, 22.66 and 21.78 for the same groups. In those who died, a higher mean VL was observed at admission in comparison with those who survived (1.7 x 10(9) vs 9.84 x 10(6);p < 0.001). A significant correlation was observed between VL, severity and death (r = 0.254, p < 0.045 and r = 0.21, p < 0.015). High VL was associated with increased in-hospital mortality in comparison with low VL (OR = 2.926, p < 0.017). Conclusion: SARS-CoV-2 VL determined at hospital admission might classify risk simultaneously with other factors described in COVID-19.

3.
Biochimica Clinica ; 46(3):S18, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2169371

ABSTRACT

One of the most interesting aspects of the COVID-19 pandemic is that a variable percentage of patients (from 2% to 69%) could have a repeated positivity following hospital discharge or even several weeks after clinical recovery (1). There are multiple reasons why a positive result to SARS-CoV-2, usually ascertained by RT-PCR, may be detected again, including reinfection, disease reactivation, prolonged viral shedding or false positive results (1-2). Since the beginning of the pandemic, several authors have reported the possibility of reinfection by SARS-CoV-2 or reactivation of a latent infection, calling for urgent attention from researchers, as well as public health policymakers. In our study we estimate incidence rate of 3.5% of reinfection in the Province of Modena in the first 6 months of 2021. Reinfection rates according to vaccinated or non-vaccinated subjects were 0.6% vs 1.1% (p<0.0001). Multiple questions regarding reinfection associated with SARS-CoV-2 are still ongoing. What is the pathophysiological mechanism for reinfection? Who are the subjects with a higher risk of reinfection? What is the clinical burden for reinfected patients? Reinfection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus can be mainly attributed to two phenomena: decay of the immune response and viral mutations that favor the appearance of new variants (3-5). Currently, there are discordant rates of reinfection reported in SRs (ranging from 0-50%), which could partially be explained by the heterogeneous adopted definitions of reinfection. Today, there is still no universal agreement on the determination of the correct time period between positive results for SARS-CoV-2 for the definition of reinfection, although the definition provided by CDC is the most accredited (https://www.cdc.gov/ coronavirus/2019-ncov/php/invest-criteria.html). It has been pointed out that the severity of reinfection depends on the individual immune response, as well as both the viral load and the SARS-CoV-2 variants causing the reinfection. New virus variants could evade immune responses acquired in subjects with infections from previous variants or reduce the capacity for neutralization by polyclonal antibodies (4). This issue suggests the need to increase the current knowledge about the degree of protection provided against SARS-CoV-2, leading the development of vaccines and the creation and implementation of appropriate interventional strategies. Because COVID-19 is a relatively new disease, several aspects of its progression and long-term health effects are unknown, one of the aspects that have become more relevant as time goes by is the impact that reinfections. There is a real, albeit rare risk of SARS-CoV-2 reinfection. Nevertheless, a standardized approach to identify and report reinfection cases should be developed.

4.
Biochimica Clinica ; 46(3):S18-S19, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2167992

ABSTRACT

Introduction: NAAT is still the international reference assay for the diagnosis of Covid-19 due to high sensitivity and specificity;it is able to detect the pathogen even at low viral load, nevertheless a positive PCR result demonstrates the presence of nucleic acid in the sample, but not if it contains an infecting virus;the risk of unnecessarily isolate a person who is no longer infectious and a long TAT can preclude a screening utility. Conversely, immunoassays targeted to detect viral antigens have the potential to fit the requirements for a screening population test. In this study, we evaluated the consistency of results obtained by Maglumi SARS-CoV-2 Ag test in comparison with molecular test. Method(s): 79 positive NAAT nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) with Ctthreshold cycle (Ct) between 39 and 13 were selected and analysed with MAGLUMI CLIA assay targeted to nucleocapsid SARS-Cov-2 antigen (M) by Snibe Diagnostic. 37 NPS were also analysed with Liaijson XL (L), DiaSorin s.p.a., which is routinary used in our lab. 5 negative NPS were included in the experiment as negative controls. Result(s): all 5 negative NPS were confirmed negative with both CLIA assays. 33 of 79 (41,8%) positive NPS were confirmed positive on M, all these samples had a Ct < 26. The remaining 46 positive NPS, resulting negative on M, had a Ct > 24. Results for 37 NPS tested both with M and L agreed 100%. Conclusion(s): CLIA test demonstrated to be less sensitive to the viral presence than NAAT, in particular M test seems to be able to detect a positivity to SARS-Cov-2 when the viral load is detected at a CT < 24. The grey area, where NAAT and CLIA were not in perfect agreement, seems to be Ct= 24 / 25. In this area M missclassified 67% of positive NPS, but further investigation with a larger number of samples is necessary to confirm this finding. While PCR positivity may persist for several weeks after the onset of the disease and the disappearance of symptoms, Ag tests reach satisfactory sensitivities when infected people are more likely to be contagious;together with the high throughput of the technology, makes them an extremely useful tool for screening population, especially during the pandemic.

5.
Pharmaceutical Journal ; 308(7961), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2065042
6.
Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery ; 167(1 Supplement):P285, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2064407

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Nasal irrigation is a common treatment used for symptomatic relief during a viral upper raspatory tract infection. It is currently unknown if the regular use of nasal rinses contributes to a reduction in viral load and transmissibility in patients with upper respiratory tract infections, including COVID-19. Method(s): A systematic review was completed in April 2022 with predefined search criteria using keywords related to nasal irrigation and viral illnesses. Common nasal solutions used for irrigation, including saline, corticosteroid and providineiodine were included. Databases included MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane, ClinicalTrials.gov. Data related to the type of nasal rinse, virus studied, effects on symptoms, viral load, and transmission were gathered in a standardized data extraction tool. Result(s): Title and screening was performed for 1267 unique results, where 65 studies received full-text review and 12 were included in data extraction. Eight of these 12 studies looked specifically at COVID-19. Six out of 10 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) used saline, 3 used providine- iodine, and 1 used an intranasal corticosteroid. Eight out of 10 RCTs showed that nasal irrigation reduced upper respiratory tract symptoms. Three trials showed a reduction in viral load. Four studies demonstrated a reduction of viral load in the nasopharynx. Four studies reported data on side effects. The most common was mild nasal irritation. Study methods were heterogeneous. Data on transmission were reported in only 1 study. Conclusion(s): Nasal irrigation is well tolerated in patients with viral upper respiratory tract infections with minimal risk. The data for nasal rinses for the prevention and treatment of viral infection are limited, and there are conflicting results. Saline and providine-iodine rinses may have some efficacy in reducing viral titres. While nasal rinses appear to be beneficial in reducing nasal symptoms of an upper respiratory tract infection, a larger scale study is needed to identify if these rinses impact the viral load, illness severity, and transmissibility in patients with COVID-19.

7.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):1057-1058, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063458

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Describe outcomes of patients (pt) with pre-tx COVID-19. Method(s): Multicenter study of SOT/HCT candidates who had a positive (pos) SARS-CoV-2 PCR pre-tx. Result(s): Pre-tx: Of 208 pt, median age was 56 (range 3-76). 87.8% were SOT candidates (40.5% kidney, 40.5% liver, 9.8% lung, 6.9% heart, 2.3% pancreas) and 13.9% were HCT candidates (54.2% allo, 45.8% auto). Pt underwent a median of 2 tests (range 1 - 14). In 41% of pt, > 1 neg PCR was required by the tx center before reactivation. Neg PCR was documented in 67.4% of pt at a median of 41 days (18-68) after pos PCR. Waitlist mortality was 11.0%;deaths were due to COVID-19 in 60% (12/20). Post-tx (all pt): 78 pt underwent tx at a median of 65.5 days (range 17-324) from COVID-19;71/78 have completed 4-weeks of follow-up. 24/78 (30.7%) pt were still PCR pos at time of tx (details below). 54/78 (69.2%) pt underwent routine PCR testing post-tx;62% were tested regularly for 8 weeks. Only 1 pt, who remained asymptomatic, developed recurrent pos PCR on surveillance testing 18 days post-tx. 1 pt had graft loss. There were no deaths at 4 weeks post-tx. Pt transplanted without a negative PCR: 24 pt with COVID-19 did not have neg PCR at time of tx: 9 (37.5%) kidney, 9 (37.5%) liver, 2 (8.3%) SLK, 1 (4.2%) lung, 1 heart (4.2%), 2 auto-HSCT (8.3%), 2 allo-HSCT (8.3%). Of 24 pt who were reactivated at a median of 21 days (range 8 - 38) from COVID-19 diagnosis, 7 underwent tx emergently (5 liver, 1 lung, 1 heart). 20/24 completed 4-weeks of follow-up;all were alive. PCR Cycle thresholds (Ct) increased over time, suggesting a reduction in SARS-CoV-2 viral loads with time elapsed since COVID-19 diagnosis. Conclusion(s): Short-term outcomes of transplantation in SOT/HCT candidates with prior COVID-19 were promising in this small cohort, even with a positive PCR going into transplant. Whether documentation of a negative PCR should be required for all tx candidates with a history of COVID-19 prior to transplantation should be investigated further, particularly among lung tx candidates. For certain tx candidates with COVID-19, relying time-based strategy instead of a test-based strategy may be safe.

8.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):1069, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063450

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Increasing mismatch between kidneys available for transplant and the number of patients on the transplant wait list has led to research into novel sources of organs. One such source is kidneys from hepatitis C NAT positive deceased donors. This was previously deemed unforbidden territory due to the risk of disease transmission;however, with the development of direct-acting antiviral agents for effective treatment of Hepatitis C, this organ pool is now usable. Method(s): A retrospective analysis of outcomes of Hepatitis C NAT positive kidney transplants into Hepatitis C seronegative recipients was conducted at newly opened Appalachian transplant center. Due to insurance constraints, the criteria to initiate hepatitis C therapy was seroconversion to positive Hepatitis C PCR. Outcomes examined include median creatinine, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), liver function tests, recipient Hepatitis C seroconversion, concomitant Ebstein Barr virus (EBV), Cytomegalovirus (CMV) or polyoma hominis (BK) activation, morbidities and mortality. Result(s): Six transplants (of 15 total kidney transplants) from Hepatitis C NAT positive donors were performed in the first year of establishment. Male to female ratio was 2:1 and median patient age was 55.7 years (Range 42-73 years). Median follow-up was 10 months (Range 2-12 months). Diabetes and hypertensive nephrosclerosis were the most common causes of end stage renal disease at 40%. The average time on dialysis was 2.9 years (Range 1-6 years), the most common type being hemodialysis (67%) followed by peritoneal dialysis (33%). Average time on transplant waitlist was 5.57 months (Range 1.2-13.2 months). All patients seroconverted but with treatment, by 24 weeks all patients maintained undetectable viral loads. Patient survival rate was 83% with a death censored graft survival rate of 100%. One patient died due to respiratory failure from COVID-19 infection. Median creatinine and GFr were 1.96 mg/dL (Range 1.8 - 2.6 mg/dL) and 41.3 (Range 35.3 - 50) respectively. One case each of acute antibody and T cell mediated rejection was seen (6.7%), which were treated successfully. CMV, BK and EBV virus reactivation were seen in one patient each (6.7%). The most common complication was COVID-19 infection (50%) followed by neutropenia (33%). Conclusion(s): With the development of direct-acting antiviral agents offering complete cure of Hepatitis C, kidneys from Hepatitis C positive donors can be used for transplantation with excellent outcomes.

9.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):908-909, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063435

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To determine if Apadenoson or Regadenoson has a therapeutic effect in attenuating hyper-inflammation and improving survival rate in K18-hACE2mice or Syrian hamsters infected with SARS-CoV-2. Method(s): 6-8 weeks old male K18-hACE2mice were divided into Control group that received vehicle;Test group 1 that received the drug (Apadenoson or Regadenoson) 24hrs prior to challenge with SARS-CoV-2;and Test Group 2 (Drug-delay), that received the drug with a 5 hr delay post-viral infection (n=6/grp). Viral dose was 1250 PfuHong Kong/VM20001061/2020 delivered via intranasal route. Drug was delivered subcutaneously using 1007D ALZET pumps. 6 weeks old Syrian hamsters were divided into Control group that received Vehicle and Virus (n=4) and 2 test groups (n=5/group) that received Apadenoson+Virus and Regadenoson+Virus. Drugs were delivered by 2ML2 ALZET pumps (4ug/kg/hr). Hamsters were inoculated intratracheally with 750PFU SARS-CoV-2 WA1 strain prior to treatment. Mice were weighed and clinical scores recorded daily. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum were collected along with lungs. Plethysmography was done on days 0, 2, 4 and 7. Result(s): Apadenoson administered post-infection was efficacious in decreasing weight loss, improving clinical score, and increasing the survival rate in K18-hACE2 mice, i.e. 50% survival was observed at Day 5 and at Day 7 post-infection for drug given before or after infection respectively. Apadenoson given post-infection improved the histopathology that was observed in the vehicle control group, decreased pro-inflammatory IL-6, IFN-gamma, MCCP-1, MIP-1beta, IP-10, and Rantes in serum, increased anti-inflammatory Ang1-7 levels, and decreased monocytes in BALF. 42% of mice that received Regadenoson pre-challenge survived infection compared to 6.25% in the vehicle or Drug delay (drug given post-infection) groups. Viral titers in the lungs of Regadenoson-treated mice were found decreased. Treatment also significantly decreased CD4+, CD8+T cells, eosinophils, and neutrophils in BALF. Plethysmography, in hamsters, showed significant improvement of pulmonary function parameters, Rpef and PenH, following treatment with Apadenoson given post-infection. Apadenoson cleared the virus from BALF and maintained Ang1-7 levels. Both drugs decreased plasma IFN-gamma levels. Conclusion(s): Treatment with Apadenoson attenuated inflammation, improved pulmonary function, decreased weight loss, and enhanced survival rate following infection with SARS-CoV-2 virus. The results demonstrate the translational significance of Apadenoson in the treatment of COVID-19.

10.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):702, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063424

ABSTRACT

Purpose: In contrast to high morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 infection (COVIDi) in adult kidney transplant (KT) recipients, these sequelae appear to be muted in the pediatric KT population. Long-term effects of COVIDi in pediatric KT recipients (pKTR), specifically those with absent or mild symptoms, have not been characterized. Thus, we aimed to investigate the impact of subclinical COVIDi on allograft outcomes, specifically allosensitization, and viremias in pKTR. Method(s): This retrospective 1:1 case-control study investigated COVIDi in pKTR transplanted between January 2016 to November 2021 at our center. Each pKTR with COVIDi, was matched with a control patient (by time of KT). Using laboratory values between March 1, 2020 and December 1, 2021, data was collected following COVIDi to baseline include donor specific antibodies (DSA), panel reactive antibodies (PRA), allograft rejection, and development or intensification of viremias. Descriptive statistics were utilized as well as two-sample t-tests, chi square, and logistic regression for tests of significance. Result(s): 22 patients in our cohort of 135 pKTR experienced subclinical COVIDi. 4 patients (18%) had an increase in BK viremia after COVIDi. Of these cases, 75% resulted in a >100-fold increase in BK viral load, compared to controls experiencing no more than a 5-fold increase. Following COVIDi, the proportion of pKTR with PRA>0 significantly increased compared to controls (p=0.03). Additionally, 2 patients with COVIDi developed de novo DSA versus none in the controls (p=0.078). Conclusion(s): Fortunately, acute morbidity and mortality associated with COVIDi in pKTR is muted compared to adults. However, COVIDi has long-term consequences for the pKTR with marked BK viremia and sensitization, potentially compromising allograft function. Pronounced BK viremia combined with increased risk for sensitization requires delicate adjustments of immunosuppression and anti-viral therapies to optimize patient and graft outcomes. The importance of avoiding these complications of COVIDi could lend additional support to vaccination before and after transplant in the pKTR population. (Table Presented).

11.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):775, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063408

ABSTRACT

Purpose: We aimed to investigate the mortality from SARS-CoV-2 in kidney transplant recipients in the Bronx, New York since the beginning of the pandemic Methods: Between March 16, 2020 and November 5, 2021, 453 patients were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection. 316 were diagnosed by RT-PCR while the remaining 137 tested positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid IgG and did not have significant symptoms and had not been previously tested by RT-PCR Results: Of the 316 patients diagnosed by RT-PCR, 214 patients were hospitalized while 102 patients were managed at home as outpatient. 194 (61.3%) were male, median age 61 years old (IQR: 48-69), predominantly Hispanic (56.2%) and African American (29.5%). 75% received a deceased-donor renal transplant, 58% received anti-thymocyte induction. Most patients were on triple immunosuppression (95% on calcineurin inhibitors, 87% on anti-metabolite, and 97% on prednisone). Hypertension was the most common comorbidity followed by diabetes mellitus, heart disease and lung disease. A total of 65 patients (20.5%) died. The mortality rate was 37 % (47/128) in patients diagnosed between March 16 and April 30, 2020. From May 1, 2020 to end of December 2020 mortality rate has significantly decreased to 11% (7/61). Since the beginning of 2021 till November 5, 2021 the mortality rate is 7.7% (10/129). Twenty-seven patients were diagnosed with COVID-19 despite being partially of fully vaccinated (25 fully vaccinated, 2 after one dose of vaccine). 13/27 (48%) were managed at home while 14/27 (52%) were hospitalized and 2 (7%) of them died. Twenty-eight patients received treatment with casirivimab and imdevimab post diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 starting 2021 and none of those patients have died. Conclusion(s): In summary, mortality from SARS-CoV-2 infection in kidney transplant recipients was higher earlier at the pandemic and has significantly decreased over time. This could be explained by initial exposure of the patients with higher viral load due to lack of personal protection and social distancing. However, since the judicious use of monoclonal antibodies and vaccination, in addition to social distancing protocols and use of facemask, the mortality in kidney transplant recipients has decreased over time.

12.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):598-599, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063361

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Therapies for COVID-19 in immunocompromised (IC) patients (pts), including transplant (tx) pts, are limited. We describe our experience with ALVR109, an allogeneic, partially HLA-matched T-cell product, given through emergency investigational new drug (eIND) application to 4 consecutive IC pts with protracted COVID-19. Method(s): To measure SARS-CoV-2 viral loads, SARS-2 RNA was quantified by RT-PCR (N gene) in plasma and saliva. ALVR109 was manufactured for Allovir at Baylor College of Medicine. Result(s): Between May and October 2021, ALVR109 was given to 4 IC pts with COVID-19 (details in Table 1). 2 pts had lymphoma (1 post auto-tx) and 2 had lung tx. All pts had SARS-CoV-2 RNA detected in plasma (viremia) in the weeks leading up to ALVR109 administration. Infusions (20-40 million cells (MC) per dose) were well-tolerated with no adverse events. Prior to ALVR109, pts 1 and 3 had progressive COVID-19 and ongoing SARS-CoV-2 viremia despite monoclonal antibodies (mABs) and remdesivir. Following ALVR109 administration both patients had a decrease in viremia with marked clinical improvement in pt 1, but both eventually died from their underlying disease. Viral loads (plasma/saliva) and functional scores for pt 1 are shown in the figure. Autopsy of pt 3 showed no evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection by lung in-situ hybridization (ISH). Pts 2 and 4 received ALVR109 as adjunctive therapy to mABs and remdesivir;viremia continued to decline following ALVR109 and both pts survived and were discharged home. Conclusion(s): This initial experience suggests a potential role of ALVR109 in the treatment of IC and tx pts with COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cells appear to be safe and may control viremia in IC pts. Larger studies are needed to confirm this observation, define the best candidates for ALVR109, and determine optimal timing of administration. (Table Presented).

13.
Chest ; 162(4):A1578, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060843

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Rare Pulmonary Infections SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 01:35 pm - 02:35 pm INTRODUCTION: Pneumatoceles are air-filled cavitary lesions that are rarely seen in the lung after infection, trauma, or as part of a more diffuse cystic disease process. Several infectious agents have been associated with pneumatoceles, one of them being Pneumocystis Jirovecii, a potentially life-threatening fungus commonly seen as an opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients. We present a case of bilateral extensive pneumatocele in a newly diagnosed HIV patient found to be positive for Pneumocystis pneumonia CASE PRESENTATION: A 52-year-old female presented to the emergency room for 2 months of shortness of breath, body aches, and chills. She was saturating at 86% on room air on arrival. Initial chest x-ray showed bilateral airspace disease. Had additional history of daily smoking, polysubstance abuse, and poor follow-up with doctors’ appointments due to social issues. She was started on oxygen support, steroids, antibiotics, and IV fluids. Labs were notable for normal overall WBC count but low lymphocyte count of 0.4. A CT Angiogram of the chest showed moderate to severe diffuse bilateral gas-filled cystic structures throughout the lungs, consistent with pneumatoceles. Infectious workup performed: COVID PCR, Influenza A/B antigen, legionella antigen, strep. pneumoniae antigen, B-D-glucan assay, histoplasma and blastomyces antigens, and HIV antibody. HIV antibody, strep pneumo antigen, and B-D-glucan assay came positive. She did not have a known diagnosis of HIV prior to this admission. Antibiotic regimen was changed to ceftriaxone, azithromycin, Bactrim, and fluconazole. Bronchoscopy with lavage was performed. Lavage samples were sent for cytology and found to be positive for Pneumocystis on GMS stain HIV viral load was checked and found to be at 1.4 million copies. CD4 count was less than 25 Patient was started on antiretroviral therapy in addition to prolonged course of Bactrim. She was ultimately discharged from the hospital in stable condition with pulmonary and infectious disease follow-up. At this time her pneumatoceles have improved on follow-up imaging. DISCUSSION: Pneumatoceles can rarely present as a complication of PCP pneumonia and can be a marker of more advanced disease. In our patient, pneumatoceles were identified first followed by diagnosis of HIV and PCP pneumonia. Overall incidence of post-infectious pneumatoceles is low at 2-8%. Prompt treatment and careful monitoring is needed due to risk of mortality from underlying infection and progression to pneumothorax. CONCLUSIONS: HIV with PCP infection complicated by pneumatocele formation is much less common due to improvements in HIV detection and screening for opportunistic infection, but should remain an important consideration in patients with unexplained cystic lung disease patterns, especially in patients without established outpatient follow-up or who don't see medical providers often. Reference #1: Thomas CF Jr, Limper AH: Pneumocystis pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 2004;350: pp. 2487-2498. Reference #2: Albitar, Hasan and Saleh, Omar M. Pneumocystis Pneumonia Complicated by Extensive Diffuse Pneumatoceles. Am J Med. 2019 May;132(5):e562-e563. Epub 2019 Jan 16. Reference #3: Ryu, Jay et al. Diffuse Cystic Lung Diseases. Frontiers of Medicine volume 7, pages 316–327 (2013) DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Clifford Hecht

14.
Chest ; 162(4):A901, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060721

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Cases of Overdose, OTC, and Illegal Drug Critical Cases Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 12:15 pm - 01:15 pm INTRODUCTION: Anchoring bias is a cognitive bias where one relies too heavily on initial information early on in the decision making process, affecting subsequent decisions due to future arguments being discussed in relation to the "anchor. Overemphasis on COVID-19 due to the pandemic has impacted the timely diagnosis and treatment of other diseases. CASE PRESENTATION: A 39-year-old man with a past medical history of COVID 19 in 12/2020 presents to the ED with increasing weakness, chest pain, recurrent fevers, diarrhea, and cough. CXR revealed bilateral infiltrates suggestive of pneumonia/pulmonary edema. Patient was empirically started on ceftriaxone. CT chest was suspicious of COVID-19;however repeat testing was negative. Diarrhea did not improve. Patient later admitted to recent travel to Jamaica. Ova and parasite, C-difficile, and stool culture were negative. On hospital day 8, the patient was intubated and placed on mechanical ventilation for worsening hypoxic respiratory failure Infectious disease was consulted for recurrent fevers of unknown origin and diarrhea with recent travel. Testing for typhoid fever, hantavirus, malaria, HIV, zika virus, chikungunya, dengue, and yellow fever were performed. Consent was obtained for HIV testing. HIV antibody tests were positive, CD4 count of 7, and viral load greater than 900k. Since a new diagnosis of AIDS with a CD4 count of 7 was obtained, the patient was subsequently tested for opportunistic infections such as TB. TB sputum PCR testing was positive but AFB smear was negative for TB. Antiretroviral and tuberculosis treatments were initiated. DISCUSSION: Anchoring bias can delay critical diagnoses and impede patient care if it is not recognized. According to Watson et. al, one way physicians circumvent the thought of pretest probability when ordering tests based on patient history and the subsequent list of differential diagnoses is anchoring bias. Bypassing the pretest probability also alters the sensitivity and specificity of testing because results that do not confirm or rule out a top differential diagnosis are thought to be inaccurate and are then repeated attributing the initial result to a bad specimen or an improper collection of the specimen. CONCLUSIONS: The case presented exemplifies clearly the concept of anchoring bias. Upon initial presentation, the patient had nonspecific symptoms such as weakness, chest pain, recurrent fevers, diarrhea, and cough, all of which can be symptoms of COVID 19 in the setting of a global pandemic. It is clear that the initial diagnosis based on these symptoms was COVID 19. When initial testing was negative, anchoring bias still played a role in the decision to test the patient once again, despite the first negative test. Repeat testing still did not support the diagnosis of COVID 19, which expanded the differential diagnosis and ultimately led to the correct diagnosis of AIDS with concomitant TB infection. Reference #1: Saposnik, et. Al. Cognitive Biases Associated with Medical Decisions: A Systematic Review. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2016 Nov. 3. PMID: 27809908 Reference #2: Harada, et. al. COVID Blindness: Delayed Diagnosis of Aseptic Meningitis in the COVID-19 Era. Eur J Case Rep Intern Med. 2020 Oct 23. PMID: 33194872. Reference #3: Singh, et. al. The Global Burden of Diagnostic Errors in Primary Care. BMJ Qual Saf. 2016 Aug 16. PMID: 27530239. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Sagar Bhula

15.
Chest ; 162(4):A679, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060667

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Acute COVID-19 and Beyond: from Hospital to Homebound SESSION TYPE: Original Investigations PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 02:45 pm - 03:45 pm PURPOSE: Minimally-biased clustering (MBC) has identified hypoinflammatory (hypo-I) and hyperinflammatory (hyper-I) subphenotypes in ARDS. The hyper-I type exhibits higher inflammatory markers, clinical severity, and mortality. Similar subphenotypes were recently identified in COVID-19-related ARDS. Lower PCR cycle threshold was associated with higher mortality in the hypo-I type, implying an association between viral load (VL) and clinical outcomes in patients with dampened inflammatory responses. In a recent randomized clinical trial (RCT), convalescent plasma (CP) improved survival in severe COVID-19. We hypothesized that the anti-viral effect of CP would more significantly benefit patients without acute hyperinflammation, for whom VL may be associated with mortality. METHODS: From 4/2020-11/2020, 223 adults >18 years of age in New York and Rio de Janeiro with laboratory-confirmed severe COVID-19 were enrolled in a double-blind RCT evaluating the efficacy of CP. 150 patients received CP;73 received control plasma. Hierarchical clustering (HC) of clinical and laboratory data was used to identify sub-groups in the study population. Primary and secondary outcomes were clinical status at 28 days by modified WHO ordinal score (higher scores indicating worse status) and 28-day mortality. Welch’s t-tests, chi-squared tests, and Fisher’s exact tests were used to compare clinical and laboratory data across clusters. Proportional odds and logistic regression were used to assess the association between cluster-derived subgroups and outcome and the interaction between subgroups and randomized treatment assignment. RESULTS: HC identified two clusters (C1;N=156 and C2;N=67) in the population. Patients in C2 had significantly higher markers of inflammation (sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6), coagulation (D-dimer), and cardiac injury (cardiac troponin) as well as relative lymphopenia, hypoalbuminemia, and lower bicarbonate. At 28 days, patients in C2 had significantly worse clinical status (OR of 1-pt ordinal score increase 3.10, 95% CI 1.72-5.60, p=0.0002) and higher mortality (28.4% vs. 11.5%, OR 3.03, 95% CI 1.47-6.26, p=0.003). There was no significant between-cluster heterogeneity of CP treatment effect on either ordinal score (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.16-1.95, p=0.36) or mortality (OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.12-2.30, p=0.38). CONCLUSIONS: C2 exhibited elevated inflammatory markers and lymphopenia indicative of an acute hyperinflammatory response. C2 exhibited poorer clinical status and higher mortality at 28 days. There was no evidence of significant heterogeneity of CP treatment effect on 28-day clinical outcomes. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: The previously shown mortality benefit of CP in severe COVID may not differ based on inflammatory state. Using MBC methods on larger samples, e.g., patient data from a meta-analysis of CP trials, may reveal a significant impact of inflammatory state on CP effect. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Matthew Cummings Received a grant sub-award from Amazon relationship with Amazon Please note: 4/2020 -12/2020 Added 03/10/2022 by Max O'Donnell, value=Grant/Research Support No relevant relationships by Tejus Satish No relevant relationships by Allison Wolf

16.
Chest ; 162(4):A507, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060615

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: COVID-19 Case Report Posters 2 SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic spawned the use and study of novel therapeutics, re-purposed drugs, and interventions– all with limited success. Seraph® 100 Microbind Affinity Blood Filter® [Seraph®] is an investigational device that was given Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) by the Food and Drug Administration in 2019 to treat severe coronavirus disease. Higher viremia is correlated with higher mortality. Seraph® uses extracorporeal filtration to aid the innate immune system by reducing viral load and mitigating downstream effects of inflammation. CASE PRESENTATION: A forty-eight year old gentleman presented to the emergency room with coughs and fever of 101° F. He tested positive via polymerase chain reaction [PCR] testing for SARS-CoV-19 pneumonia. A computed-tomography angiogram [CTA] of the chest was negative for pulmonary embolism, but demonstrated significant bilateral ground-glass opacities consistent with viral pneumonia. Vitals were notable for an oxygen saturation of 69% on room air that improved to 96% on 6 liters/minute [L/min] of supplemental oxygen via nasal cannula. He was initiated on both dexamethasone and remdesivir. Within hours, the patient's oxygen requirements escalated to 15 L/min via non-rebreather to high flow humidified nasal cannula with a flow rate of 40 L/min and 60% FiO2. On day three, he was transferred to the ICU for treatment with Seraph®. After one treatment, the patient was weaned from high flow humidified nasal cannula to room air. On day five, after a second treatment, he transferred to the floor. He was discharged on day six, on room air, having completed his course of remdesivir, with an additional 5 days of oral steroids. DISCUSSION: Preliminary data regarding Seraph® remain limited with only select eligible patients undergoing therapy. Cases like our patient demonstrate dramatic improvements with even one or two treatments which correlate well with data that show up to 99% reduction in the bloodstream of targeted pathogens per pass. While database collection data have revealed trends towards improved outcomes, further investigation into populations most likely to benefit from treatment is needed. Timing, immunocompromised status and other comorbidities that raise or lower the chances of successful hemofiltration need to be considered. CONCLUSIONS: Studies in the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic augment ongoing research as filtration devices are used to target bacterial infections, cytokines and inflammatory markers. Since the invention of antibiotics, multi-drug resistant organisms have increased in prevalence. Novel interventions such as Seraph® warrant investigation to prevent infectious diseases from becoming unmanageable threats. Reference #1: Kielstein JT, Borchina DN, Fühner T, Hwang S, Mattoon D, Ball AJ. Hemofiltration with the Seraph® 100 Microbind® Affinity filter decreases SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein in critically ill COVID-19 patients. Crit Care. 2021;25(1):190. Published 2021 Jun 1. doi:10.1186/s13054-021-03597-3 Reference #2: Pape A, Kielstein JT, Krüger T, Fühner T, Brunkhorst R. Treatment of a Critically Ill COVID-19 Patient with the Seraph 100 Microbind Affinity Filter. TH Open. 2021;5(2):e134-e138. Published 2021 Apr 14. doi:10.1055/s-0041-1727121 Reference #3: Schmidt JJ, Borchina DN, van T Klooster M, et al. Interim-analysis of the COSA (COVID-19 patients treated with the Seraph® 100 Microbind® Affinity filter) registry [published online ahead of print, 2021 Dec 7]. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2021;gfab347. doi:10.1093/ndt/gfab347 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Aneesa Afroze No relevant relationships by Lydia Meece No relevant relationships by Angela Park

17.
Chest ; 162(4):A480, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060605

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: COVID-19 Case Report Posters 3 SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Exposure to anti-CD20 treatment affects B cell functions involved in anti-COVID immunity and impacts the clinical course of infection. We present two patients with persistent respiratory symptoms and persistent SARS-COv-2 PCR positivity months after initial infection. The aim of presenting these cases is to highlight how exposure to Rituximab can result in patients having significantly prolonged SARS-CoV-2 infections that may require special treatment compared to immunocompetent patients. CASE PRESENTATION: Patient A is a 46-year-old man with a history of marginal zone lymphoma, who was treated with six cycles of bendamustine with rituximab and monthly maintenance rituximab. He has been hypoxic for 7 months after COVID infection with ground glass opacities on imaging, elevated CRP of 58.4, positive PCR, undetectable CD3/CD4 and low cycle threshold of 28, suggesting rapid active viral replication. COVID IGG was negative. T cell subsets counts were undetectable. IgG 351, IgA 59, IgM less than 10. He was treated with a 10-day course of Remdesevir and steroids. Given lack of humoral immunity, he was given convalescent plasma. At discharge he developed positive COVID IgG and remained COVID positive by PCR. He had complete resolution of hypoxia. Patient B is a 68-year-old man with a history of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, who was treated with six years of rituximab maintenance therapy, last rituximab was three years ago. He was diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 three months prior to admission with worsening hypoxia. He remained PCR positive with persistent respiratory symptoms. At readmission his imaging showed ground glass opacities, CRP 6.6 and cycle threshold was 27.8. The follow studies were abnormally low:IgG 541, IgA 25, IgM 14, absolute CD3 171, absolute CD4 68. He was treated with remdesivir, steroids, granulocyte colony stimulating factor and sotrovimab. Despite these therapies, his hypoxia worsened, and he pursued comfort care. DISCUSSION: There are reports of patients receiving B cell depleting therapy who have persistent shedding of viable SARS-CoV. Persistent viral infection may be suspected in patients with relapsing symptoms, elevated CRP, D-dimer and active ground glass changes imaging. Low T cell subsets and low immunoglobulin levels indicate a CD20 related impairment of adaptive immunity. Time to viral clearance appears to be prolonged compared to general population in immunocompromised patients. There is some published experience using convalescent plasma in this setting. SARS-CoV-2 viremia has been demonstrated to predict adverse outcomes. Median cycle threshold has been shown to be lower, reflecting a high viral load comparable with acute infectious phase of COVID. CONCLUSIONS: To achieve stable clinical responses this subset of patients may benefit from early administration of combination regimens, including both passive immunotherapy and prolonged antiviral treatment. Reference #1: Furlan A, Forner G, Cipriani L, Vian E, Rigoli R, Gherlinzoni F, Scotton P. COVID-19 in B Cell-Depleted Patients After Rituximab: A Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenge. Front Immunol. 2021 Nov 3;12:763412. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2021.763412. PMID: 34804051;PMCID: PMC8595333. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Cheryl Augenstein Primary Investigator relationship with Boehringer Ingelheim Please note: 2/2022-2/2024 Added 04/01/2022 by A. Thanushi Wynn, value=Grant/Research Support

18.
Chest ; 162(4):A338-A339, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060568

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: COVID-19 Case Report Posters 1 SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 12:15 pm - 01:15 pm INTRODUCTION: The FDA limits REGEN-COV (Casirivimab/Imdevimab) use to asymptomatic adults at high risk for progression to severe COVID-19 pneumonia or post-exposure prophylaxis. Here, we present a case of compassionate use of REGEN-COV in severe COVID-19 pneumonia. CASE PRESENTATION: A 76-year-old male with a medical history significant for COPD, Rheumatoid arthritis (treated with hydroxychloroquine and low dose steroids), and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) presented with one week of fever, cough, and fatigue. He was febrile to 103 F, with normal oxygen saturation on admission. SARS-CoV-2 rapid molecular PCR was positive. He was started on Levofloxacin, but he did not meet the criteria for administration of dexamethasone, remdesivir, or monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy. On day one of admission, he became hypoxemic and was subsequently started on dexamethasone and remdesivir. He was given convalescent plasma to address inadequate antibody response to COVID-19 immunization secondary to his chronic immunosuppressed/immunodeficient state. His hypoxemia continued to worsen, requiring high-flow nasal cannula oxygen (HFNC). A regimen of tocilizumab was also initiated. CT chest angiography ruled out pulmonary embolism but revealed diffuse bilateral patchy opacities. His oxygen requirements continued to increase with decreasing ROX index and hence was transferred to the Intensive Care Unit. Repeat PCR for SARS-COV-2 was significant for a high viral load. Approval for compassionate use of REGEN-COV was obtained and administered to the patient. Following administration, his symptoms improved significantly with the transition from HFNC to simple nasal cannula oxygen. Repeat PCR for SARS-CoV-2 also showed a remarkable decline of the viral load. He was transferred back to the medical floors and later to the skilled nursing facility once he was clinically more stable. DISCUSSION: In the United States, REGEN-COV (Casirivimab/Imdevimab) treatment has been approved for emergency use since November 2020. The combination of these two neutralizing immunoglobulin gamma 1 (IgG1) mAb attacks the spike protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and has been shown to effectively prevent the progression of symptomatic COVID-19 pneumonia and decrease the high viral load of SARS-CoV-2. It also reduces COVID-19 related hospitalization or death, especially in immunosuppressed patients. Our patient received dexamethasone, remdesivir, tocilizumab, and convalescent plasma as part of conventional COVID-19 treatment with continued worsening of COVID-19 pneumonia. However, the compassionate use of REGEN-COV led to rapid clinical improvement of the patient's symptoms and reduced the SARS-CoV-2 viral load. CONCLUSIONS: Hence, physicians and FDA should consider expanding the use of REGEN-COV mAB therapy to immunosuppressed patients with rapidly worsening COVID-19 pneumonia in adjunct to conventional COVID-19 treatment. Reference #1: Stein D, Oviedo-Orta E, Kampman WA, McGinniss J, Betts G, McDermott M, Holly B, Lancaster JM, Braunstein N, Yancopoulos GD, Weinreich DM. Compassionate Use of REGEN-COV ® in Patients with COVID-19 and Immunodeficiency-Associated Antibody Disorders. Clin Infect Dis. 2021 Dec 31:ciab1059. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciab1059. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34971385;PMCID: PMC8755381. Reference #2: O'Brien MP, Forleo-Neto E, Musser BJ, Isa F, Chan KC, Sarkar N, Bar KJ, Barnabas RV, Barouch DH, Cohen MS, Hurt CB, Burwen DR, Marovich MA, Hou P, Heirman I, Davis JD, Turner KC, Ramesh D, Mahmood A, Hooper AT, Hamilton JD, Kim Y, Purcell LA, Baum A, Kyratsous CA, Krainson J, Perez-Perez R, Mohseni R, Kowal B, DiCioccio AT, Stahl N, Lipsich L, Braunstein N, Herman G, Yancopoulos GD, Weinreich DM;Covid-19 Phase 3 Prevention Trial Team. Subcutaneous REGEN-COV Antibody Combination to Prevent Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2021 Sep 23;385(13):1184-1195. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2109682. Epub 2021 Aug 4. PMID: 34347950;PMCI : PMC8362593. Reference #3: Weinreich DM, Sivapalasingam S, Norton T, Ali S, Gao H, Bhore R, Xiao J, Hooper AT, Hamilton JD, Musser BJ, Rofail D, Hussein M, Im J, Atmodjo DY, Perry C, Pan C, Mahmood A, Hosain R, Davis JD, Turner KC, Baum A, Kyratsous CA, Kim Y, Cook A, Kampman W, Roque-Guerrero L, Acloque G, Aazami H, Cannon K, Simón-Campos JA, Bocchini JA, Kowal B, DiCioccio AT, Soo Y, Geba GP, Stahl N, Lipsich L, Braunstein N, Herman G, Yancopoulos GD;Trial Investigators. REGEN-COV Antibody Combination and Outcomes in Outpatients with Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2021 Dec 2;385(23):e81. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2108163. Epub 2021 Sep 29. PMID: 34587383;PMCID: PMC8522800. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Mubashir Ayaz Ahmed No relevant relationships by Shayet Hossain Eshan No relevant relationships by Sami Hussein No relevant relationships by Khalid Hussein No relevant relationships by Kamalnath Sankaran Rajagopalan No relevant relationships by Chenyu Sun

19.
Swiss Medical Weekly ; 152:9S, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2040960

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic remains a large contributor to the global burden of disease. SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia detection has been connected to higher mortality, but consistent data of solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients have not been analyzed. Aim: To determine and quantify RNAemia at hospital admission and its impact on robust unfavorable clinical outcomes. Methods: From January 6, 2020 to August 13, 2021, we followed a multicenter cohort of 408 immunocompetent and 47 SOT patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Outcome variables were 30-day allcause mortality and invasive mechanical ventilation. Multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed and a propensity score (PS) was calculated. Results: SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia was demonstrated in 104 (22.9%) patients. Those with RNAemia were more frequently transplanted and presented a higher proportion of severe symptoms and signs. Mortality was 29.8% (31/104) and 3.4% (12/351) in RNAemic and non-RNAemic patients (p <0.001). The multivariate analysis adjusted by PS selected CURB-65≥2 (HR, 3.61;95% CI, 1.18-11.01;p = 0.02) and RNAemia (HR, 7.46;95% CI, 2.41-25.38;p = 0.001) as independent predictors of death. In the PS matching, SOT patients showed higher prevalence of RNAemia (57.6% vs. 13.6%) and mortality (HR, 4.56;95% CI, 1.47-7.13;p = 0.01). Conclusions: Positive RNAemia is an independent predictor of unfavorable outcome in immunocompetent and SOT. High viral load was linked to worse prognosis in a univariate analysis. Our findings help elucidate the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 and provide insights for the better management of patients.

20.
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research ; 13(9):3762-3767, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2033426

ABSTRACT

Natural products can be the alternative of synthetic medicine and antiviral drugs can be potential from natural products. An attempt was made to evaluate the antiviral activity from the extract of Desmodium gangeticum (L.) DC. as a phytomedicine (GanjhuVirR) for the treatment of dengue fever associated with thrombocytopenia. The present study was evaluated acute and subacute toxicity in rat as well as clinical trial in treated and without treated patients who admitted in hospital due to dengue fever associated with thrombocytopenia. The rats were grouped into group 1 (control) and 2, 3 and 4 (treated) for toxicity test while 51 patients were included in the clinical trial and 25 were treated and 26 provided only standard management as control. The parameters viz. platelet count, fever profile, average hospitalization period, clinical profiles and viral load reduction were tested for both the group. All the data related to morbidity, mortality and behavioural features were observed similar between exposed and control group. The haematological and biochemicals findings were comparable between the group. The platelet counts were significantly (P<0.001) increased and body temperature and hospital stay were significantly (P<0.001) decreased in the treated group than control group. Moreover, GanjhuVirR is a phytomedicine extracted from studied plant and capable to treat viral activity especially for Dengue virus. This is non-toxic as per animal study and is safe without any adverse events and normalize the clinical findings among patients. Future research is suggested to know the efficacy of mild to moderate Covid-19 Patients.

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