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1.
Ptitsevodstvo ; 12:64-68, 2021.
Article in Russian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1841843

ABSTRACT

The antigenicity of three inactivated emulsified associated vaccines against viruses of chicken infectious bronchitis (IB), Newcastle disease (ND), and egg drop syndrome-76 (EDS-76) based on the oil adjuvant ISA-15 (O/W) was comparatively studied: (1) reference vaccine (IB+ND+EDS-76/ISA-15);(2) experimental vaccine (IB+NB+EDS-76/ISA-15-Nano) with a nanoscale-dispersed oil phase obtained by the use of a high-pressure homogenizer;(3) similar nano-scale vaccine (IB+NB+EDS-76+CoAA/ ISA-15-Nano) additionally supplemented with a copolymer of acrylic acid (CoAA). The in vivo tests of the vaccines on the chicks evidenced that both nano-scale vaccines enhanced the immune response in vaccinated chicks as compared to the reference vaccine and that supplementation with CoAA resulted in the highest postvaccinal antibody titers.

2.
Ptitsevodstvo ; 9:50-55, 2021.
Article in Russian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1841842

ABSTRACT

The incidence of infectious bronchitis (IB) in chickens has increased in Russian Federation during 2020- 2021 despite the widespread vaccination of the susceptible poultry. The effectiveness of vaccinations against IB virus and Newcastle disease can be significantly affected by vesicular enteritis (runting stunting syndrome) accompanied by malabsorption. The study presented demonstrated that virally induced malabsorption in broilers is accompanied by the synchronous decreases in the concentrations of magnesium and zinc in blood serum. Evaluation of the effectiveness of vaccination by RT-PCR for the presence of IB viral RNA in the intestine at day 2 after the vaccination indicates a sharp decrease in the PCR prevalence in individuals with vesicular enteritis and allows for the exclusion of possible population-wide decrease in post-vaccination immunity. When considering biochemical parameters as markers of organopathologies the population-based approach to data analysis should be applied.

3.
Annals of Tropical Research ; 43(2):120-133, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1841836

ABSTRACT

The various social restrictions imposed to contain the spread of COVID-19 virus have brought unprecedented disruptions in people's lifestyle. The academic institutions were caught unprepared and had to adjust abruptly. With this, we assessed how working adults in a state university in rural Philippines are coping with the disruptions brought by the pandemic. We conducted a cross-sectional online survey on May 18 to 23, 2020 where 133 working adults from the Visayas State University, Leyte, Philippines responded to the survey. Results show that the top most rank coping mechanism for both men and women is doing household chores. Results further suggest that men are more inclined to surfing the net and use social media while women focus more on praying and gardening. Pets are considered as an important companion to cope better with the pandemic. Our results highlight differences in coping mechanisms between working men and women in dealing with the pandemic. Empirical findings suggest that working adults with diversified activities and engaged more in physical activities such as household chores and gardening tend to cope better during lockdowns. In addition, income and access to internet are significant determinants of coping mechanisms. Policy makers and administrators in state university in Philippines may benefit from understanding gender differences in coping with the pandemic and can tailor approaches that may contribute to wellbeing issues among working adults.

4.
Journal of Veterinary Clinical Pathology ; 15(59), 2021.
Article in Persian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1841817

ABSTRACT

Avian infectious bronchitis (IB) is an acute and highly contagious disease of the upper-respiratory tract caused by the infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). The virus is a member of the Coronaviridae family and has numerous serotypes and strains. Rapid replication combined with high mutation rate and recombination are the main causes of the observed high diversity. Feed conversion and average daily gain are affected in broilers, and infection is often followed by secondary bacterial infections. In layers, IBV causes a reduction in egg production. Today, IB is one of the most economically important diseases in the poultry industry. Transcriptional profiles of trachea tissue of the infected group (IBV) were studied with control group to evaluate changes in transcriptome profile at the early stages of infection. After the challenge of SPF chickens with IBV IS-1494 like (GI-23), the trachea tissue was used for RNA extraction, and changes in the transcriptome were investigated by Illumina RNA-seq technique. Up-regulated and down-regulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the transcriptome of trachea were identified. Gene ontology category, KEGG pathway were analyzed to identify relationships among differentially expressed genes. In general, the numbers of up-regulated genes were higher than of down-regulated genes in experimental group. In the experimental group, a more severe immune response occurred;an important up-regulated genes in this group's was Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, apoptotic pathway, MAPK signaling pathway. Results of this study could provide a general overview of transcriptome changes in the trachea at the early stage of infection with avian infectious bronchitis (IBV) virus.

5.
Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada: Research, Policy and Practice ; 42(3), 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1841793

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted limitations in the current public health data infrastructure, and the need for a comprehensive, real-time, centralized, user-friendly data management system suitable for both disease surveillance and outbreak management. To address these issues, the Canadian Forces Health Services Group developed the web-based Canadian Armed Forces Surveillance and Outbreak Management System (CAF SOMS). This paper details the development of the CAF SOMS, provides formative evaluation results and includes a discussion of the lessons learned and intent to use the CAF SOMS in future to enhance the CAF's disease surveillance and outbreak management capability beyond COVID-19.

6.
Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research ; 23(1):18-23, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1841783

ABSTRACT

Background: Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes severe economic losses worldwide. IBV has a broad tissue distribution with different viral loads in different tissues. Additionally, IBV can induce apoptosis in infected cells. Aims: The present study aimed to evaluate the role of the genetic background of chickens in viral load and the expression level of apoptotic genes in different tissues of two hybrids of commercial broiler chickens (Ross 308 and Cobb 500) challenged with IBV.

7.
Texila International Journal of Public Health ; 9(4), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1841777

ABSTRACT

Patients have developed a well-informed sense of validation concerning maintaining hygiene standards. The pandemic, somehow in disguise, presented the valuable perspective of life reflection and gratitude. The attitude of a majority of patients engaged was immensely that of a deep reflection of the privilege of having access to early diagnosis, treatment, and adequate support. However, the complaints of the past, knowing that they are alive and have hope to keep fighting on with gratitude and sense of acceptance. However, they wished that the experience of the social media - health engagement platform should continue as it provided a good level of the bridge of gap of information. The cost of treatment remains a major concern as it largely translates to possible dropout from treatment courses for most cancer patients who can't afford the current cost. The concerns of the cancer patients and survivors during and after the covid-19 pandemic are similarly a concern to public health professionals worldwide. The need to aid their return to routine health care services is more important and therefore requires an urgent reorganization of cancer management services. An urgent intervention should be focused on patient re-orientation /pandemic control, staff training and retraining, awareness campaign, screening and result accessibility, special pandemic services, amongst others. The outcome reflected a very huge level of poor cancer patient experience in the public cancer treatment centres, while the reverse is the case with the private cancer treatment centres. This can be managed if an urgent intervention as proffered is implemented.

8.
Texila International Journal of Public Health ; 9(4), 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1841776

ABSTRACT

This is a critical appraisal of a manuscript outlining additional indicators used in the United States to augment traditional disease surveillance tools. The article went through the peer-review process. Therefore, it may be considered as objective and unbiased. The structure of the article is coherent, and it was published in a journal for digital medicine, health, and health care in the internet age. The article has contributed to the literature and provides a basis for strengthening existing surveillance systems to improve public health outcomes. However, it is suggested that whenever new indicators are being developed, their essential components must be fully defined.

9.
Texila International Journal of Public Health ; 9(4), 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1841775

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 caused by novel single-stranded RNA enveloped severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS CoV-2) first appeared in Wuhan, China. A lot of focus has been given to pulmonary complications. According to several case reports, cardiovascular associated clinical manifestations include myocarditis, arrhythmias, veno-thromboembolic events, acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and pericarditis. Different modalities in diagnosis like 2D, doppler can help in the early diagnosis of right ventricular function. This study evaluates the cardiac changes in recovered COVID-19 positive patients by 2D echocardiogram and other modalities. In this prospective observational study, 139 participants recently recovered from COVID-19 illness were identified and recruited after obtaining the Informed concerned form (ICF). The patients once enrolled were subjected to 2D echo and ECG as part of routine clinical practice. Out of 139 patients, 89 (64.03%) were males, and the rest were females. Based on the severity scale, 13 (9.35%) participants had suffered a severe form of COVID-19 infection. Right ventricular functional assessment, right ventricular global strain (RVGLS) was abnormal in 72 (51.80%) participants. Arrhythmias were reported in 31 (22.30%) participants;among them, 30 participants had sinus bradycardia. Our study demonstrates the association between COVID-19 and cardiac changes/ incidence of cardiovascular complications in recovered COVID-19 patients. This study provides first-hand evidence of the incidence of abnormal LVGLS and RVGLS in COVID-19 recovered patients. In addition, there was a higher incidence of arrythmias.

10.
Texila International Journal of Public Health ; 9(4), 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1841774

ABSTRACT

The desire to control Covid 19 pandemic has continued to exist in the Mbala district of Zambia, with the latest trend showing a significant increase in a number of people testing positive, with a corresponding increase in vaccines (AZ, JJ) hesitancy resulting in a low (2.8%) vaccination rate in the district. Thus, the need to probe further on covert factors under acceptability (myths, AEFs) and accessibility (vaccines availability, adequacy of vaccination sites) that could be reducing Covid 19 vaccine uptake in Mbala district. The study used a cross-sectional survey, a mixed (quantitative & qualitative) method in eliciting information from data sources covering a period of six months (April - September 2021). In all, 341 research respondents were interviewed through self-administered questionnaires. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression under SPSS v16. Study Findings Provide Sufficient Evidence That High Myth (89.8%) Reduced Acceptability Levels, While A Low Number Of Vaccination Sites (59%) Reduced Accessibility, Resulting In A Low Uptake Rate In Mbala District. Therefore, The Study Recommended;Building Up Of Well-Financed District Covid 19 Task Forces With Educational Aims On Acceptability And Accessibility, Governments To Introduce Specific Funding Lines For Covid 19 Vaccination Campaign And Enshrine It Into Monthly Grants For Routine-Outreach Covid 19 Vaccination Services, And Local Governments Through The Directorate Of Public Health To Introduce By-Laws On Mandatory Covid 19 Vaccination Passports For The Public. With Proper Implementation Of All These Study Recommendations, Covid 19 Vaccination Coverage Rates Can Increase Drastically Across All Districts Of Northern Zambia.

11.
Texila International Journal of Public Health ; 9(3), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1841772

ABSTRACT

Pharmacies are the frontline of the pandemic and critical to maintaining public health. The emergence of COVID-19 brought unprecedented challenges and changes to all nations of the world. In the light of this, this study assessed the challenges of pharmaceutical practices in Nigeria during COVID-19. A descriptive cross-sectional survey design was adopted, and the data were collected from 1,200 respondents through the interview schedule and structured questionnaire using a systematic random sampling technique. A total of 1,118 copies of the questionnaire were retrieved, coded, and analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics aided by the SPSS software version 23. The study discovered different factors that influenced the effective practice of pharmacists during the COVID-19 pandemic. The findings of this study revealed that the majority, 591(52.9%) of the pharmacists, encountered difficulties on the road with security personnel while on essential duty and also found it 'somewhat difficult to work during the pandemic. The results of Factor Analysis grouped the major challenges into material and financial constraints. The results showed two orthogonal factors pharmaceutical practices, which were derived with the total explanation of 65.35% of the variance. Only variables with constraints loadings of 0.70 and above were used in naming the constraints. The material constraint has the greatest impact on effective practices of pharmacists to provide treatment for illnesses during COVID-19 with a 44.16% contribution. There is a need for government and institution supports for better and effective pharmaceutical practices before, during, and after any sort of pandemic, especially in drugs supplies and financial assistance.

12.
Texila International Journal of Public Health ; 9(3), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1841771

ABSTRACT

As the pandemic was sudden and no time was given to prepare for the lockdown measure, pharmaceutical practices were significantly disrupted in the aspects of manufacturing and supplying drugs, sales, and profit-making. Therefore, this study assessed the impacts of COVID-19 crisis on pharmaceutical practices in Nigeria. A descriptive cross-sectional design survey was adopted to draw information from the pharmacists (respondents) among the targeted population. 1,200 professional and practice pharmacists were systematically and randomly selected across the six geopolitical zones in Nigeria, while 1,118 copies of the administered questionnaire were retrieved, coded, and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics aided by the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 23 to run the analyses. The findings showed that COVID-19 had negative impacts on pharmaceutical practices, especially in hospital and community practices. A 25%-49% decrease was highly indicated in sales, purchase orders, and profits, while the majority, 347 (31.04%) of the respondents, indicated that they had a 1%-24% decrease in their workforce. Also, total lockdown as a COVID-19 measure increased the level of insecurity and inflation during the pandemic. 75.13% of the pharmacists who represent the targeted population indicated that their place of work largely enforced COVID-19 basic preventive measures during the pandemic. This study concludes that necessary efforts should be put in place to ease the affairs of the pharmaceutical practices before, during, and after the pandemic.

13.
Texila International Journal of Public Health ; 9(3), 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1841769

ABSTRACT

The patho-physiology of COVID19 is still not clear. This study investigated the status of coagulation, LDH activity, and inflammation in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. One hundred and thirty-four newly diagnosed COVID19 infected patients (age ranged 65-82 years) attending Mullingar Regional Hospital, Mullingar, Republic of Ireland, volunteered to participate in this study. They all presented with a pulmonary disorder, pyrexia, vomiting, body pains, etc. SARS-CoV-2 confirmatory test was done with RT-PCR molecular test using Cepheid Genexpert System. The data of another 121 plasma samples of apparently normal, non-COVID19 infected individuals taken before the emergence of COVID19 served as controls. Levels of blood platelets was determined in the participants using Siemen ADVIA 2120 Haematological System, and plasma D-dimer was determined in the participants using Star Max-Stago-Automatic Coagulation Analyzer LDH activity, plasma ferritin, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were determined in the participants using Beckman AU680-Chemistry Analyser. SARS-CoV-2 -infected patients showed significantly (p< 0.001) higher levels of D-dimer (1522.95+1395.45 ng/ml), CRP (125.3+116.4 mg/l), ferritin (488.5+514.9pg/l), and LDH activity (574.4+446.7iu/l) compared to controls (78.8+18.1 ng/ml, 2.4+1.7 mg/l, 61.3+58.2pg/l, 304.1+76.6iu/l respectively). The blood platelet count did not show significant (p>0.05) change in the COVID19 patients (252.2 x 109+101 x 109) compared to controls (256.4 x 109+63.2 x 109). Elevated LDH activity could indicate tissue breakdown in the SARS-Cov-2 infected patients. Hyper-coagulation and inflammation are imminent in the COVID19 patients. Adjuvant anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory therapies may be useful as part of therapeutic regimen in the SARS-CoV-2 infected patients.

14.
Texila International Journal of Public Health ; 9(1), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1841768

ABSTRACT

Globally, coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a major public health problem due to its high virulence associated with communities spreading with no definitive treatment and untimely death. Various perceptions have been associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. This study assessed the perception of mitigating strategies and its challenges regarding COVID-19 among residents in Ogun State, Nigeria. A descriptive cross-sectional study design using a multi-stage sampling technique was used to solicit information from 2400 respondents in Ogun State, Nigeria. Data were collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire from 4th to 15th October 2020. Descriptive statistics were employed for data analysis. Findings of this study revealed that avoidance of social gathering (23.5%), the use of face masks (23.3%), and cleaning of hands with sanitizer (22.7) were the most common mitigation strategies adopted by the respondents in the study area, although full adherence was low. The most strategies to prevent the transmission of COVID-19 were suggested by the respondents. These strategies included regular quarantining affected person(s), practicing basic measures, and going to the hospital with 21.5%, 20.6%, and 19.7% respectively. The results also showed that going to Churches and Mosques, inconvenient time of using face masks and restriction from social gathering and clubbing during COVID-19 pandemic were the most challenges faced in the study area. This study concludes that there should be more provision of medical supplies and palliatives for individuals, health education, the enforcement of preventive measures, and free testing and treatment should receive much recognition.

15.
Texila International Journal of Public Health ; 9(1), 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1841767

ABSTRACT

Due to unprecedented threat to the economy and the quality of life caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, this study focused on cost-benefit analysis during the lockdown of COVID-19 and the health belief model of COVID-19 pandemic in Ogun State, Nigeria. A total of 2400 copies of the questionnaire were administered to solicit information from the respondents using systematic random sampling technique on the targeted population while 2363 copies were retrieved and analyzed using descriptive statistics. The findings of the study revealed that the lockdown had negative impacts on health, economic, and social impacts. Results showed that 50.7% of the respondents spent no time going to the market and/or work during COVID-19, and this made 81.9% of them unable to gain extra gain during the lockdown as they were completely restricted for activities. The lockdown had impacts on socioeconomic activities as the prices of consumable goods increased due to the low supply. 71.8% of the respondents indicated that the government did not provide palliative measures for the households. The results further showed that everyone could be infected with COVID-19 as 86.0% of respondents indicated. 48% revealed that COVID-19 drugs were unavailable and prayers from religious leaders could not cure COVID-19. Besides, 65.5% were able to follow the basic measures put in place to reduce the spread of COVID-19 in the study area. This study concluded that necessary things should be put in place to ease the affairs of the populace before any other lockdown measure is made.

16.
Texila International Journal of Public Health ; 9(1), 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1841766

ABSTRACT

Since its outbreak in late 2019, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been ravaging the health system of most countries of the world. Although many preventive and treatment strategies have been proposed and implemented to combat the disease, these efforts seem to be insufficient, and in some cases ineffective. This is evident by the daily rising global incidence and case fatality of the COVID-19 pandemic. A situation if not mitigated early will likely crumble the global economy and tilt the world to an unprecedented global recession. This challenge demands that researchers and clinicians ask more in-depth questions about the novel coronavirus disease. Aside from age that has been confirmed to be linearly associated, what are the other possible socio-demographic and lifestyle-related risk factors that may be associated with COVID-19?What are the possible factors or comorbid conditions that may worsen clinical progression and determine the clinical outcome in confirmed COVID-19 cases? Does the pre-, peri-, or post-morbid lifestyle choices of people have an impact on COVID-19 preventive and treatment efforts? And how can we use the knowledge of the associated risk factors, comorbid conditions, and lifestyle choices of people to improve preventive efforts and clinical management of COVID-19? Answer to these questions may likely serve as an important guide for policymakers and clinicians in their design and implementation of COVID-19 targeted preventive and treatment policies and programs, especially in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs). The purpose of this article is to critically review available literature and provide evidence-based recommendations.

17.
International Journal of Design and Nature and Ecodynamics ; 17(2):311-317, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1841746

ABSTRACT

During the ongoing global COVID-19 pandemic, the number of cases continues to increase and leads to a surge of patients who need treatment. However, many hospitals are not ready to deal with this type of emergency. This study aimed to review previous studies on Hospital preparedness in facing COVID-19 disaster. This is a Systematic Literature Review on articles collected from 4 databases, i.e., PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and Crossref by applying the inclusion criterion of articles published in English and Indonesian on qualitative and quantitative studies related to hospital preparedness. PRISMA Guideline was used for this review. Based on the application of the inclusion criterion, eight articles were considered to be appropriate for the review. Three of these articles presented good hospital preparedness, while the other five demonstrated the presence of gaps in terms of facilities, staff training, and coordination. The instruments used in the study presented in these articles were adapted from CDC and WHO and were modified to adjust them with the local condition. A comprehensive assessment on hospital preparedness is needed. Health care worker training is an important step in hospital preparedness.

18.
Pakistan Journal of Zoology ; 54(2):965-968, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1841740

ABSTRACT

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes an acute, highly contagious viral respiratory disease in poultry with huge economic impact and extremely difficult to control due to its multiple serotypes. The disease could be prevented by rapid diagnosis either molecular or serological test. However, the later test is inexpensive such as heamagglutination inhibition test (HI), but IBV fail to give Heamagglutination (HA) reaction without pretreatment. Therefore, we designed this study for preparation of IBV antigen by treating with different enzymes for HA reaction. IBV local isolates were characterized by SDS-PAGE and RT-PCR. The indigenous isolate HA antigens were treated with different proteolytic enzymes trypsin, neuraminidase and phospholipase C. The prepared antigen were stored at -86oC and used for HA test. All antigen prepared by different enzyme were found to give significant HA titer up to 7 log2 . During stability test antigen prepared by phospholipase C were found most stable up to six month by giving constant 7 log2 HA titer, while neuraminidase induced antigen were stable up to five months (7 log2). Trypsin treated antigen were readily lost its activity from 7 log2 to 2 log2 after two months of incubation. During specificity test all antigens showed specific effect on IBV by eliciting agglutination of RBCs while other avian viruses avian influenza (AI), new castle disease virus (NDV) and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) were not affected by enzymatic inductions. Therefore, the antigen prepared by phospholipase C has been found to be more effective for HI test for rapid diagnosis of IBV during infection.

19.
Canadian Journal of Public Health ; 113(2):204-208, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1841736

ABSTRACT

In 2019, the Canadian Government released a national dementia strategy that identified the need to address the health inequity (e.g., avoidable, unfair, and unjust differences in health outcomes) and improve the human rights of people living with dementia. However, the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is having an inequitable impact on people with dementia in terms of mortality and human rights violations. As the new Omicron COVID-19 variant approaches its peak, our commentary highlights the need for urgent action to support people living with dementia and their care partners. More specifically, we argue that reducing COVID-19 inequities requires addressing underlying population-level factors known as the social determinants of health. Health disparities cannot be rectified merely by looking at mortality rates of people with dementia. Thus, we believe that improving the COVID-19 outcomes of people with dementia requires addressing key determinants such as where people live, their social supports, and having equitable access to healthcare services. Drawing on Canadian-based examples, we conclude that COVID-19 policy responses to the pandemic must be informed by evidence-informed research and collaborative partnerships that embrace the lived experience of diverse people living with dementia and their care partners.

20.
Canadian Journal of Public Health ; 113(2):185-195, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1841735

ABSTRACT

Objective: To estimate the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 in education workers and the factors associated with infection between March 2020 and July 2021.

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