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1.
Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 26(4): e533-e537, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133785

ABSTRACT

Introduction Olfactory and gustative alterations are frequent in the initial stages of the COVID-19 infection. Vitamin B12 deficiency has been linked to olfactory dysfunction. Objective The present study aimed to assess the relationship between vitamin B12 levels and smell affection in COVID-19 patients. Methods The present study included 201 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients. Smell affection was assessed using self-rated olfactory function. Serum vitamin B12 levels were assessed using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Results According to the smell function assessment, the patients were classified into three categories: normal osmesis ( n = 77), hyposmia ( n = 49), and anosmia ( n = 75) ( Fig. 1 ). Four weeks later, 195 patients (97.0%) had their normal smell function restored. The remainder 6 patients included 4 anosmic and 2 hyposmic patients. Patients with hyposmia or anosmia had significantly lower vitamin B12 levels when compared with patients with normal osmesis (median [IQR]: 363.0 [198.0-539.0] versus 337.0 [175.0-467.0] and 491.0 [364.5-584.5] pg/ml, respectively, p < 0.001). Conclusion Vitamin B12 appears to have some contribution to smell affection in patients with COVID-19 infection.

2.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-26, 2022 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106255

ABSTRACT

The fast spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic and its high mortality were quickly noticed by the health community. B vitamins are essential micronutrients for the body with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immune-regulating properties. The present study can provide a comprehensive picture of the associations between B vitamins and COVID-19 incidence. This study was undertaken on 9189 adult participants of the Yazd Health Study (YaHS) and Taghzieh Mardom-e-Yazd (TAMIZ) study aged 20 to 69 years. Data on dietary intakes were obtained using a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between B vitamins and COVID-19. Our findings indicated that participants in the fourth quartile of vitamin B5 intake compared to the first quartile had a protective effect against COVID-19 (OR: 0. 53 CI: 0.28- 0.99, p- trend =0.02) after adjustment for all possible confounds in model 3. In addition, participants in the third quartile of vitamin B12 intake compared to the first quartile (OR: 0.63, 95% CI 0.40-0.98, P-trend= 0.11) had fewer odds of COVID-19 after full adjustments for confounders. Our findings indicated no significant relationship between dietary intake of vitamin B1, B2, B3, B9, and B-complex and COVID-19. A higher intake of vitamin B5 could reduce the odds of COVID-19 by 47%, and a moderate intake of vitamin B12 had a protective effect on COVID-19. Although our study has promising results, stronger clinical studies are needed.

3.
Progress in Nutrition ; 24(3), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2072413

ABSTRACT

Background and aim: It is important that the immune system is active and strong in protection from the COVID-19 pandemic. Folic acid and vitamin B12 are involved in the initiation, maintenance and regulation of both innate and adaptive immune reactions of the host against infections. In this study, it was aimed to investigate the relationship between serum folic acid and vitamin B12 levels of COVID-19 patients on the prognosis of the disease. Methods: The sample of the study consists of 529 individuals hospitalized in the Pandemic Chest Diseases Intensive Care Unit. General characteristics of the individuals, biochemical parameters checked routinely (white blood cell (WBC), platelet (PLT), lymphocyte, Neutrophil/Lympho-cyte (N/L) rate, C-reactive protein (CRP), oxygen (O2) saturation at the time of admission), serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels, length of stay in intensive care units (ICUs) and hospitalization, and mortality were recorded. Results: The mean age of individuals was 62.8 +/- 15.12 years, and 50.9% were men and 49.1% were women. The mean level of serum folic acid in the subjects was 9.1 +/- 4.91 (ng/mL), and 2.4% had folic acid deficiency and 28.4% had folic acid insufficiency. The mean serum vitamin B12 was 295.6 +/- 229.98 (pg/mL), and vitamin B12 deficiency was observed only in 14.4%. The increase in serum folic acid levels reduces the total length of hospitalization and the risk of mortality (p<0.05). On the other hand, no correlation was found between B12 levels and the length of stay in ICU, hospitalization, and mortality. It was shown that WBC and N/L rates decreased as serum folic acid levels increased, and O2 saturation at the first hospital admission was higher. Conclusions: Folate deficiency and insufficiency are common among hospitalized COVID-19 patients and cause progression to severe disease. Therefore, examining COVID-19 patients in terms of nutritional deficiencies is critical in monitoring the clinical outcomes of the disease.

4.
Materials Express ; 12(3):518-526, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2070648

ABSTRACT

Few works studied the levels of vitamins and minerals in Saudi Arabia among COVID-19 patients, especially in the region of Taif (high altitude). So, this work aims to study the serum vitamin D, vitamin B12, calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium and hemoglobin levels in recovered patients with COVID-19 and compare them to mortalities. The levels of a sample of 100 recovered patients and 93 mortalities were chosen from the Covid 19 patient records between March 2020 and February 2021 in King Faisal Hospital, Taif, Saudi Arabia. Vitamins and Minerals data wereIP: 182.75.distilled for48 10 statisticalOn: Fr, 12 analysis.Aug The2022 results10:57:33reported that vitamin D was the highest in recovered patients compared with coronvirus mortalities, whilt vitamin B12 was the highest in Copyright: American Sc entific Publshers mortalities compared with recovered patients with coronavirus. Calcium, as well as hemoglobin, were relaDelive ed by Ingena tively elevated in recovered patients with coronavirus compared to mortalities with coronavirus. The results indicated that there is a significant difference between recovered patients and mortalities in age, Vitamin B12, Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium and hemoglobin. There is a significant positive correlation between Age and Vitamin B12 and Phosphorous. There is a significant negative correlation between Age and Magnesium and Hemoglobin. On the other hand, there is a significant positive correlation between Vitamin D and Vitamin B12. Finally, there is a significant positive correlation between Calcium and Phosphorous and between Calcium Hemoglobin. As a result, deficiency of vitamin D, calcium, phosphorus and hemoglobin levels may cause a failure in the immune system against COVID-19 and cause a quick transfer to severe disease.

5.
Caring for the Ages ; 23(6):10-20, 2022.
Article in English | CINAHL | ID: covidwho-2014972
6.
International Journal of Early Childhood Special Education ; 14(5):4169-4174, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1979683

ABSTRACT

Plant secondary metabolites are an important source of new drugs, especially flavonoids, were shown to have antioxidant, antiviral, antibacterial, anticancer.. Antioxidant compounds have the potential to improve the prognosis of COVID-19 infections. The antiviral effect of flavonoids, which are secondary plant phenolics, as well as other antioxidants has been explored for their effect on SARS-CoV-2. There are various methods for measuring biological compounds. Qualitative and quantitative techniques of polyphenols measurement include chromatography such as HPLC and GC-MS. These techniques are expensive and time-consuming.In this study, for the first time, the amount of vitamins of vitamin B12, vitamin C and Hawthorn extract flavonoids by plant biosensor that is a new approach was become to a visible rotation, and its amount can be detected through this rotation. For the detection of vitamin B12, vitamin C and Hawthorn extract flavonoids the rotations of them were analyzed by plant bionanosensor in a completely randomized design with three replications by sas9.1 software. It was determined that plant bionanosensor capability of detecting vitamin B12, vitamin C and flavonoids through the rotation is likely to be 99%

7.
Cureus ; 14(4): e24581, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924616

ABSTRACT

Abuse of nitrous oxide leads to irreversible neurologic deficits. Nitrous oxide is commonly abused through the inhalation of whipped cream canisters. These whipped cream chargers, also known as "whippits," are widely available in the United States and their sale is unregulated. There is an increasing prevalence of whippet abuse, and many are unaware of the catastrophic effects. The mechanism of injury is mediated through severe depletion of vitamin B12. Here, we report a case of nitrous oxide abuse leading to thoracic cord myelopathy. The patient has been inhaling approximately 80-100 nitrous oxide canisters daily for three months total. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spinal cord illustrates the lesion within the thoracic cord. Further diagnostic workup with serum vitamin B12 levels was normal. However, elevated levels of methylmalonic acid (MMA) were seen. Despite supplementation of vitamin B12, the patient's neurologic deficits persisted, and he was referred to a rehabilitation center. The abuse of whippets is a serious public health threat and warrants greater regulation of their sale. MMA and holotranscobalamin (holoTC) are improved biomarkers for diagnosing vitamin B12 deficiency.

8.
Medicines (Basel) ; 9(6)2022 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903384

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 disease is still a major global concern because of its morbidity and its mortality in severe disease. Certain biomarkers including Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), vitamins, and trace elements are known to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of the disease. The aim of our study was to evaluate how certain biomarkers, such as ROS, biochemical indicators, trace elements in serum blood of 139 COVID-19 hospitalized patients, and 60 non-COVID cases according to age and sex variations, can serve as the predictors for prognosis of COVID-19 outcome. An attempt of correlating these biomarkers with the severity of the disease as well as with each other is represented. All subjects were hospitalized from April 2021 until June 2021. A statistically significant increase of B12 levels (p = 0.0029) and ROS levels (p < 0.0001) as well as a decrease in albumin and Total Protein (T.P.) levels (p < 0.001) was observed especially in the early stage of the disease before CRP and ferritin elevation. Additionally, a statistically significant increase in ferritin (p = 0.007), B12 (p = 0.035, sALT p = 0.069, Glucose p = 0.012 and urea p = 0.096 and a decrease in Ca p = 0.005, T.P p = 0.052 albumin p = 0.046 between stage B (CRP values 6-30 mg/L) and C (CRP values 30-100 mg/L) was evident. Thus, this study concludes that clinicians could successfully employ biomarkers such as vitamin B12, ROS and albumin as possible prognosis tools for an early diagnosis. In addition, the total biochemical profile can assist in the understanding of the severity of COVID-19 disease, and could potentially lead to a better diet or early pharmaceutical treatment to prevent some of the more acute symptoms.

9.
PLoS Global Public Health ; 2(4), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1892274

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected many aspects of daily life worldwide, but the impact may be higher for impoverished populations. The main aim of this study is to describe the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on different aspects of daily life in mothers in Nepal. We included 493 mothers of children aged 54-71 months participating in a randomized controlled trial on vitamin B12 supplementation. Mothers answered questions regarding the exposure and impact of the pandemic on their daily lives, and pandemic-related worries and sleep problems. We examined the extent to which worry, and sleep problems differed between mothers according to their exposure to COVID-19, socioeconomic status, and previous symptoms of depression. The mean age (SD) of the mothers was 32.3 (4.6) years and 54% had education below the secondary level. Of the mothers, 5.4% had either been exposed to someone who had tested positive or who had a family member with COVID-19. One-third of the participants responded that the pandemic had affected their economic situation, employment, and family life to a great deal. Both mothers and fathers with educational levels above 10 years or households with higher socioeconomic status had significantly higher average worry scores (maternal p = 0.020 and paternal p = 0.005). Mothers with a history of symptoms of depression had significantly more worry-related sleep problems during the pandemic (p = 0.020) than those without a history of depressive symptoms. Our study underlines the negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on diverse aspects of everyday life of mothers in Nepal.

10.
Journal of Animal Science ; 99(Supplement_3):70-71, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1831221

ABSTRACT

Beef is an abundant source of all proteinogenic amino acids (AAs;in both adequate amounts and balanced ratios) and physiologically essential nonproteinogenic AAs (taurine and β-alanine). The content and bioavailabilities of proteinogenic AAs in beef are greater than those in plant-sourced foods. Taurine (a potent anti-oxidant) is essential for the integrity and functions of tissues, including eyes, heart, and skeletal muscle, whereas β-alanine is required for the production of antioxidative and neuromodulatory dipeptides. Furthermore, beef contains a large amount of creatine (essential for energy metabolism in tissues, particularly brain and skeletal muscle), anti-oxidative dipeptides (carnosine and anserine), and 4-hydroxyproline (an anti-inflammatory nutrient that maintains intestinal integrity and inhibits colitis). There are myths that plants provide all nutrients that are available in animal-sourced foods. However, taurine, vitamin B12, creatine, carnosine, and anserine are absent from plants, whereas β-alanine and 4-hydroxyproline are low or negligible in plants. Like other animal-sourced foods, beef plays an important role in the optimum growth of children and the prevention of anemia in humans, as well as maintaining muscle mass, delaying ageing, and mitigating sarcopenia in adults, while meeting the high demands of exercising individuals for high-quality protein. Some epidemiological studies raised concern that the consumption of red meat might increase risks for chronic diseases in humans, including obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and cancers. However, findings from many epidemiological and clinical studies do not support these claims. Beef-derived AAs and other nutrients enhance the metabolism (e.g., nitric-oxide and glutathione syntheses) and the functions of monocytes, macrophages, lymphocytes, and other cells of the immune system, thereby helping the human host to kill pathogenic bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses. The latter include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). Therefore, beef is a functional food for optimizing human growth, development, and health.

11.
Inform Med Unlocked ; 30: 100951, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796640

ABSTRACT

The new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2) is the etiological agent of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which becomes an eventual pandemic outbreak. Lack of proper therapeutic management has accelerated the researchers to repurpose existing drugs with known preclinical and toxicity profiles, which can easily enter Phase 3 or 4 or can be used directly in clinical settings. Vitamins are necessary nutrients for cell growth, function, and development. Furthermore, they play an important role in pathogen defence via cell-mediated responses and boost immunity. Using a computational approach, we intend to identify the probable inhibitory effect of all vitamins on the drug targets of COVID-19. The computational analysis demonstrated that vitamin B12 resulted in depicting suitable significant binding with furin, RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), Main proteases (Mpro), ORF3a and ORF7a and Vitamin D3 with spike protein and vitamin B9 with non structural protein 3 (NSP3). A detailed examination of vitamins suggests that vitamin B12 may be the component that reduces virulence by blocking furin which is responsible for entry of virus in the host cell. Details from the Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation study aided in determining vitamin B12 as a possible furin inhibitor.

12.
Natural Volatiles & Essential Oils ; 9(1):1086-1101, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1787334

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a new infectious disease, for which there is currently no treatment. It is therefore necessary to explore biomarkers to determine the extent of lung lesions and disease severity. Objective. The study aimed to assess the usefulness of procalcitonin levels in the COVID-19 and to correlate them with other biomarkers. Methods. the collected the data, prospectively, all COVID-19 cases admitted in lab private (30) cases with COVID-19 pneumonia and (30) control patients had Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) positive. laboratory analysis of inflammatory indices and organ function was accomplished for the sum total of cases and controls measured procalcitonin, CRP, B12, LDH. Result. Procalcitonin,CRP, LDH, D-dimer levels in patients groups the higher than those in the controls highly significant. Conclusion. In the early stage of COVID-19 procalcitonin levels were positively correlated with CRP, D-dimer, ferritin, LDH and negative correlated with B12.

13.
Salud P..blica de M..xico ; 63(3):325-458, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1716676

ABSTRACT

This special issue contains 23 articles that discusses the topic of diseases, nutrition, and malnutrition, especially in Mexico. Topics include the nutritional status of iron, vitamin B12, vitamin A, and anaemia in Mexican children, vitamin D status in Mexican women at reproductive age, prevalence of iron deficiency and anaemia during 2006-2018 in Mexican women 20-49 years of age, the increasing incidence of SARS-CoV- 2 in older adolescents and younger adults during the epidemic in Mexico, stakeholder analysis of the deliberation of an increase to the excise tax on sweetened beverages in Mexico, among others.

14.
J Crit Care ; 67: 66-71, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1565593

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Hydroxocobalamin has been observed to cause transient hypertension in healthy subjects, but rigorous studies examining its efficacy are lacking. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adults in shock who received hydroxocobalamin from 2017 to 2021 were analyzed retrospectively. Hourly hemodynamics from 24 h before and after treatment were collected, and the difference and hourly change of mean arterial pressure (MAP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and norepinephrine-equivalent dose (NED) were examined in mixed-effects models. RESULTS: This study included 3992 hemodynamic data points from 35 patients and is the largest case series to date. In the mixed effects model, there was no difference in MAP 24-h after hydroxocobalamin administration (estimated fixed effect [EFE] -0.2 mmHg, p = 0.89). A two-piecewise mixed model found that the hourly change in MAP was not different from zero in either the pre-administration (EFE 0.0 mmHg/h, p = 0.80) or post-administration segments (EFE 0.0 mmHg/h, p = 0.55). Analysis of the SBP, DBP, and NED also found similar insignificant results. CONCLUSIONS: Although hydroxocobalamin has been observed to cause hypertension in healthy subjects, our results suggest that in patients with shock, hydroxocobalamin may not be effective in improving hemodynamics at 24 h after administration.


Subject(s)
Hydroxocobalamin , Hypotension , Adult , Blood Pressure , Hemodynamics , Humans , Hydroxocobalamin/pharmacology , Hydroxocobalamin/therapeutic use , Hypotension/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies
15.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 141-146, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544333

ABSTRACT

Due to the known anti-inflammatory and antiviral effects of zinc, 25(OH)D, and vitamin B12, in this study, we explored the association between serum levels of these micronutrients in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients at the time of admission and the clinical outcomes. This study was carried out on 293 patients with COVID-19, who were hospitalized at Imam Hassan hospital (Bojnourd, Iran). We collected demographic data, clinical characteristics, values of serum biochemical parameters in the first week of admission, and clinical outcomes from electronic medical records. We also measured serum levels of zinc, 25(OH)D, and vitamin B12 within 3 days of admission. Of the 293 hospitalized, the median age was 53 years, and 147 (50.17%) were female. Thirty-seven patients (12.62%) were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), and forty-two (14.32%) died. We found that the serum levels of zinc, vitamin B12, and 25(OH)D were lower in patients who died than those who were admitted to ICU or non-ICU and survived; however, these differences were not statistically significant for vitamin B12 and 25(OH)D (p > 0.05). The serum concentrations of zinc, vitamin B12, and 25(OH)D at the time of admission did not affect the length of hospital stay in patients with COVID-19. In general, it seems that serum levels of 25(OH)D, vitamin B12, and especially zinc at the time of admission can affect clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/physiopathology , Vitamin B 12/blood , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Vitamin D/blood , Zinc/blood , Adult , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index
16.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(9)2021 Sep 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1411059

ABSTRACT

An increasing number of people are undergoing vaccination for COVID-19 because of the ongoing pandemic. The newly developed, genetically engineered mRNA vaccines are critical for controlling the epidemic disease. However, major adverse effects, including neuroimmunological disorders, are being attributed to this vaccine. For instance, several cases of acute transverse myelitis (ATM) after COVID-19 vaccination have been reported in clinical trials. Here, we report an exceedingly rare case of longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM), a rare subtype of ATM involving three or more vertebral segments, that occurred shortly after vaccination with the Moderna COVID-19 (mRNA-1273) vaccine, with a comorbidity of vitamin B12 deficiency. The findings of subsequent investigations suggest the possibility that autoimmune responses are triggered by the reactions between anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein antibodies and tissue proteins, as well as the interaction between spike proteins and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors.

17.
Pediatr Endocrinol Diabetes Metab ; 27(2): 134-140, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405503

ABSTRACT

Metformin is a widely used biguanide drug recommended as a first-line antidiabetic for type 2 diabetes. Currently, metformin is used not only in the treatment of diabetes but also in other diseases. Some studies have shown that metformin causes weight loss in insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant overweight and obese patients. Metformin is an effective and safe option for women with gestational diabetes and type 2 diabetes in pregnancy, and it may also increase the ovulation rate in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Longer survival times have been observed in cancer patients using metformin. Metformin has been shown to significantly correlate with lower mortality in obese or type 2 diabetic women hospitalized for COVID-19. It also has a protective effect on the development and progression of many types of cancer. The mechanisms of action of metformin are complex and still not fully understood. Metformin has been shown to act through both AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent mechanisms and AMPK-independent mechanisms. This paper presents the benefits of using metformin in the treatment of various diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Metformin , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Metformin/therapeutic use , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
18.
J Neurol ; 269(2): 577-582, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303319

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The recent lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic has been linked to a higher incidence of psychiatric manifestations and substance abuse. The recreative use of nitrous oxide is more and more widespread and neurological complications are frequent. METHODS: We report clinical characteristics and biological findings of five consecutive patients presenting to our tertiary care center between April 2020 and February 2021 with various neurological symptoms occurring after recent nitrous oxide abuse. RESULTS: Our patients presented with subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord (4/5 patients) or with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (1/5 patients). No patient had reduced vitamin B-12 titer, but all had elevated blood levels of homocysteine and methylmalonic acid. This reflects the functional deficit in vitamin B-12 that can be linked to nitrous oxide consumption. After vitamin B-12 supplementation, clinical signs regressed at least partially in all 5 patients. CONCLUSION: We report an elevated incidence of neurological complications of nitrous oxide abuse occurring during the recent COVID-19 lockdown. Nitrous oxide abuse should be tracked down in patients presenting with compatible neurological symptoms and elevated homocysteinemia. Vitamin B-12 should be supplemented as soon as the diagnosis is made.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin B 12 Deficiency , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Nitrous Oxide/adverse effects , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin B 12 , Vitamin B 12 Deficiency/chemically induced , Vitamin B 12 Deficiency/epidemiology
20.
Nutrition ; 79-80: 111017, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087212

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine clinical outcomes of older patients with coronavirus (COVID-19) who received a combination of vitamin D, magnesium, and vitamin B12 (DMB) compared with those who did not. We hypothesized that fewer patients administered this combination would require oxygen therapy, intensive care support, or a combination of both than those who did not. METHODS: This was a cohort observational study of all consecutive hospitalized patients ≥50 y of age with COVID-19 in a tertiary academic hospital. Before April 6, 2020, no patients received the (DMB) combination. After this date, patients were administered 1000 IU/d oral vitamin D3, 150 mg/d oral magnesium, and 500 mcg/d oral vitamin B12 upon admission if they did not require oxygen therapy. Primary outcome was deterioration leading to any form of oxygen therapy, intensive care support, or both. RESULTS: Between January 15 and April 15, 2020, we identified 43 consecutive patients ≥50 y of age with COVID-19. Seventeen patients received DMB before onset of primary outcome and 26 patients did not. Baseline demographic characteristics between the two groups were significantly different by age. In univariate analysis, age and hypertension had a significant influence on outcome. After adjusting for age or hypertension separately in a multivariate analysis, the intervention group retained protective significance. Fewer treated patients than controls required initiation of oxygen therapy during hospitalization (17.6 vs 61.5%, P = 0.006). DMB exposure was associated with odds ratios of 0.13 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.03-0.59) and 0.20 (95% CI, 0.04-0.93) for oxygen therapy, intensive care support, or both on univariate and multivariate analyses, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A vitamin D / magnesium / vitamin B12 combination in older COVID-19 patients was associated with a significant reduction in the proportion of patients with clinical deterioration requiring oxygen support, intensive care support, or both. This study supports further larger randomized controlled trials to ascertain the full benefit of this combination in ameliorating the severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Critical Care , Magnesium/therapeutic use , Micronutrients/therapeutic use , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Vitamin B 12/therapeutic use , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Disease Progression , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Minerals/therapeutic use , Multivariate Analysis , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Vitamins/therapeutic use
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