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1.
Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities ; 30(2):835-857, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1965200

ABSTRACT

This paper explores informal settlements’ innovations in the water, sanitation, and hygiene sector during the COVID-19 pandemic. Water, sanitation, and hygiene are important aspects that can reduce the spread of COVID-19. However, the water and sanitation conditions in densely populated informal settlements tend to be sub-standard, and residents must often rely on shared facilities. Previous research has generally explored innovation on a macro scale, whereas this research is local. This paper explores four elements of innovation: form, actor, conflict, and regulation, to study social innovations in six urban villages in Bandung City, Indonesia. This study found that innovations during the COVID-19 pandemic have generally been in the form of arrangements for using shared facilities and providing handwashing facilities. A mix of actors comprised the community, village/sub-district officers, the COVID-19 task force, and other community organizations, highlighting the importance of combining a bottom-up and top-down approach to social innovations. However, a lack of rules and the institutionalization of innovations, perceived getting better conditions, scheduling, and funding prevented the long-term success of the innovations. The paper develops policy recommendations for the water, sanitation, and hygiene sector based on these findings. © Universiti Putra Malaysia Press

2.
Webology ; 19(1):2164-2169, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1964720

ABSTRACT

Tourism in protected areas generates noise pollution, air pollution, water pollution and litter which can adversely affect human health, social well-being and destination sustainability. These pollutants should be checked and kept under controlled. The quality of lifestyle of the host community will potentially be degraded due to these pollutants which will lead to causing social tension. In this paper, we evaluate the perception of the host community regarding the pollution caused by tourism in Sunderbans Tiger Reserve by conducting a questionnaire survey. The data is collected from Bali islands of Sunderbans Tiger Reserve which is a popular island for tiger-man conflicts, hence has received lots of attention from tourism. Results show that there is an increase in water pollution and litter in the study area due to tourism.

3.
Atmosphere ; 13(7):1042, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1963693

ABSTRACT

Previous studies have determined biomass burning as a major source of air pollutants in the ambient air in Thailand. To analyse the impacts of meteorological parameters on the variation of carbonaceous aerosols and water-soluble ionic species (WSIS), numerous statistical models, including a source apportionment analysis with the assistance of principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), and artificial neural networks (ANNs), were employed in this study. A total of 191 sets of PM2.5 samples were collected from the three monitoring stations in Chiang-Mai, Bangkok, and Phuket from July 2020 to June 2021. Hotspot numbers and other meteorological parameters were obtained using NOAA-20 weather satellites coupled with the Global Land Data Assimilation System. Although PCA revealed that crop residue burning and wildfires are the two main sources of PM2.5, ANNs highlighted the importance of wet deposition as the main depletion mechanism of particulate WSIS and carbonaceous aerosols. Additionally, Mg2+ and Ca2+ were deeply connected with albedo, plausibly owing to their strong hygroscopicity as the CCNs responsible for cloud formation.

4.
Agriculture ; 12(7):913, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1963661

ABSTRACT

This study assessed problems associated with irrigation water provisions and the potential barriers to the adaptation of the interventions (soil moisture sensors, on-farm water storage facilities and the drip method) under rotational canal water distribution in Punjab, Pakistan. Three groups of stakeholders were individually surveyed during September–December 2020: (i) 72 farmers, (ii) 15 officials, and (iii) 14 academicians. We used descriptive statistical analysis, cross-tabulation and the Fisher test to explore the pattern of responses across the groups. The main problems in the canal water distribution system were expressed by the farmers as limited water allocation, while academicians were concerned mostly with inflexibility and officials indicated discussion among neighbors. According to the farmers’ responses, the conventional depth/interval of irrigation is flooding the field with water and observing the plants, indicating over-irrigation behavior. Moreover, the most important barriers in the adaptation of the interventions that were highly rated by the three groups were low awareness, lack of training and financial resources. Additionally, farmers’ education revealed a statistically significant influence on awareness of soil moisture sensors and water storage facilities, while large farm holders showed a positive relationship to conducting a joint experiment with scientists and farmers’ associations on part of their land to improve water use efficiency.

5.
Frontiers in Water ; 4, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1963649

ABSTRACT

Hydroinformatics and water data science topics are increasingly common in university graduate settings through dedicated courses and programs as well as incorporation into traditional water science courses. The technical tools and techniques emphasized by hydroinformatics and water data science involve distinctive instructional styles, which may be facilitated by online formats and materials. In the broader hydrologic sciences, there has been a simultaneous push for instructors to develop, share, and reuse content and instructional modules, particularly as the COVID-19 pandemic necessitated a wide scale pivot to online instruction. The experiences of hydroinformatics and water data science instructors in the effectiveness of content formats, instructional tools and techniques, and key topics can inform educational practice not only for those subjects, but for water science generally. This paper reports the results of surveys and interviews with hydroinformatics and water data science instructors. We address the effectiveness of instructional tools, impacts of the pandemic on education, important hydroinformatics topics, and challenges and gaps in hydroinformatics education. Guided by lessons learned from the surveys and interviews and a review of existing online learning platforms, we developed four educational modules designed to address shared topics of interest and to demonstrate the effectiveness of available tools to help overcome identified challenges. The modules are community resources that can be incorporated into courses and modified to address specific class and institutional needs or different geographic locations. Our experience with module implementation can inform development of online educational resources, which will advance and enhance instruction for hydroinformatics and broader hydrologic sciences for which students increasingly need informatics experience and technical skills. Copyright © 2022 Jones, Horsburgh, Bastidas Pacheco, Flint and Lane.

6.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Health ; 12(3):141-143, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1963343

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic started in late December 2019 and is still progressing globally. The easy spreading nature of the Covid-19 causative virus made most countries implement complete lockdown. The lockdown measure taken by most countries to combat the disease has not only assisted in decreasing the rate of spread but also the pollution of the workplace and of the environment as a whole. In the absence of most human and industrial activities that cause pollution, nature is on its way to purifying itself. Without human intervention, the pollution-free environment and its interaction with the ecosystem are bouncing back at a faster pace. The article explained the impact of lockdown measures on the reduction of environmental pollution in a global scenario. This journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial 4.0 International License.

7.
5th International Conference on Energy Production and Management: The Quest for Sustainable Energy, EPM 2022 ; 255:105-114, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1963317

ABSTRACT

Climate change poses significant challenges, and the global community is not on track to meet sustainable development goals or the Paris Agreement to mitigate climate change. The COVID-19 pandemic and necessary government measures to curb the spread of the virus has put climate action on hold and shut down economies. The need for improved ventilation as an important mitigating factor against the risk of COVID-19 transmission has additional implications for costs and emissions for businesses. Leisure centres, as large users of water and energy, account for significant emissions and operational costs. However, there is scope for significant reductions in water and water-related energy demands and associated emissions and costs without impacting service quality and delivery. These reductions can be a promising response to the current challenges of climate change and post-COVID-19 economic recovery, particularly given current UK energy crises and inflation trends. We have been working with leisure centres to support them in improving energy efficiency through water-use efficiency as part of the cross-border, interdisciplinary Interreg Dwr Uisce research project on improving the energy performance and long-term sustainability of the water sectors in Ireland and Wales. In this paper, we discuss the potential of energy efficiency gains based on the framework on water management hierarchy which prioritises management actions in order of preference of implementation, where the next hierarchy should only be considered once all potential savings from the hierarchy above have been exhausted. We also discuss how these interventions are not one-size-fits-all – although leisure centres typically have the same water-use types, they differ significantly in age, size, location, building types and materials, functionality, and efficiency;and why therefore, interventions must be considered on a site-specific and case-by-case basis. © 2022 WITPress. All rights reserved.

8.
Engenharia Sanitaria e Ambiental ; 27(2):335-346, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1963167

ABSTRACT

Access to water and sanitation is essential to combat the transmission of COVID-19. In this context, the objective of the study was to evaluate the conditions of water supply, collection and sewage treatment in the municipalities with the highest number of COVID-19 cases in Brazil, also considering the role of regulation and the challenge of reaching the goals of the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6. It is justified by the unprecedented nature of knowledge promotion through data among these factors. Initially, the work correlated SDG 6 with water supply and sanitation using indicators from the National Sanitation Information System (Sistema Nacional de Informacoes sobre Saneamento - SNIS), crossing the data with the municipalities with the most cases of COVID-19 to assess performance and the role of regulation. Thus, looking at the cities with the highest number of confirmed cases of COVID-19, the link between the pandemic and the ranking of the worst water and sanitation indicators became evident. The lack of these services alone does not promote the disease, but it is one of the factors that makes preventive measures difficult and may favor their dispersion and indicate the fragility of health conditions in these places. The percentages achieved were 45% for SDG 6.1, 25% for SDG 6.2 and 6.3 and 0% for SDG 6.4, mainly affecting disadvantaged communities with the highest proportion of confirmed cases of COVID-19. Therefore, regulatory agencies need to transform the indicators of continuity of water and sewage supply in Brazil, a condition applicable to developing countries.

9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(12)2022 06 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963959

ABSTRACT

Being aware of global pandemics, this research focused on the potential infection routes in building drainage systems. Case studies have found that dysfunctional building drainage systems not only failed to block contaminants but also potentially became a route for the spreading of viruses. Several fluid simulations in pipelines were conducted in this research using COMSOL Multiphysics. In particular, virus transmission from one patient's room to other uninfected residential units through pipelines was visualized. A 12-story building, which is commonly seen in the local area, was designed as a simulation model to visualize the transmission and analyze its hazards. Furthermore, five environmental factors were filtered out for discussion: distance, time span, pressure, initial concentration, and environment temperature. By manipulating these factors, the relationship between the factors and the behavior of the contaminant could be explored. In addition, a simulation with a different pipeline arrangement was included to observe the virus diffusion behavior under different scenarios. The visualized simulation concluded that the contaminant would spread through the drainage system and arrive at the neighboring four floors within an hour under the circumstances of a 12-story building with broken seals and constant pressure and contaminant supply on the seventh floor. Meanwhile, the whole building would be exposed to infection risks by the continuous virus spreading through a drainage system. Distance, time span, and pressure were considered critical factors that affected indoor contamination in the system. On the other hand, initial concentration and environmental temperature did not have significant roles. Visualizing the behavior of viruses provides a glimpse of what happens behind walls, paving the way for recognizing the importance of maintaining functional drainage systems for individuals' health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Computer Simulation , Humans , Pandemics
10.
Front Public Health ; 10: 808523, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963572

ABSTRACT

India suffered from a devastating 2021 spring outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), surpassing any other outbreaks before. However, the reason for the acceleration of the outbreak in India is still unknown. We describe the statistical characteristics of infected patients from the first case in India to June 2021, and trace the causes of the two outbreaks in a complete way, combined with data on natural disasters, environmental pollution and population movements etc. We found that water-to-human transmission accelerates COVID-19 spreading. The transmission rate is 382% higher than the human-to-human transmission rate during the 2020 summer outbreak in India. When syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) enters the human body directly through the water-oral transmission pathway, virus particles and nitrogen salt in the water accelerate viral infection and mutation rates in the gastrointestinal tract. Based on the results of the attribution analysis, without the current effective interventions, India could have experienced a third outbreak during the monsoon season this year, which would have increased the severity of the disaster and led to a South Asian economic crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , India/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Water
11.
IOP Conference Series. Earth and Environmental Science ; 1062(1):011001, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1960953

ABSTRACT

The 5th Indonesian Society of Limnology (MLI) Congress and International Conference 2021 is a biannual conference organized by the Indonesian Society of Limnology, with the theme is “Building synergies towards sustainable use of inland waters.” This year due to the COVID-19 pandemic, we hold the event virtually from 2nd to 3rd December. The objectives of this event are to (1) Connect, discuss, share and create a mutual network among communities from different backgrounds who are interested in inland waters ecosystem;(2) Disseminate science & technology and lessen the gap between scientific and common communities through fruitful discussion settings;(3) Underpin sustainable use and management of inland aquatic ecosystems.There were four keynotes speakers, four invited speakers, and 66 general presenters in the conference sessions. In total, 116 participants were registered and joined the conference. The first keynote speaker was Prof. Dr. Gadis Sri Haryani from the Research Center for Limnology and Water Resources, National Research and Innovation Agency of the Republic of Indonesia (BRIN), Indonesia, who presented research about Migratory freshwater fish in Indonesia: Threats and conservation efforts. The second presenter was Dr. Robert Walsh from the Australian Water Life, Australia, who presented research about Discover the world of Micro-invertebrates. The third keynote speaker was Dr. Khamla Inkhavilay from the National University of Laos, Lao PDR, who presented Persistent Organic Pollutants in Wetland of Mekong Basin. The fourth speaker was Dr. Kwanraree Joy Sirikanchana from the Chulabhorn Research Institute, Thailand, who presented Microbial Source Tracking and Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment for Sustainable Water Pollution Management.In addition, the four invited speakers and 66 general presenters split into four rooms for parallel discussions which covered the latest research on inland water ecosystems, including;(1) Biotic resources, biodiversity, and conservation;(2) System Dynamic of inland waters;(3) Applied technology for the management and pollution control;(4) Modelling, system information, decision support tool, disaster risk reduction;(5) Management, policies, regulation, education, social, economy, and culture.We highly appreciate the generous support from Research Centre for Limnology-BRIN (Indonesia), Australian Water Life (Australia), Chulabhorn Research Institute (Thailand), National University of Laos (Lao PDR), Southeast Asian Limnological Network (SEALnet), Advisory Board, Steering and Organizing committee and all presenters and participants.List of Committees, Advisory Board, Steering Committee, Scientific Committee, Organizing Committee, Documentation, all photos are available in this pdf.

12.
Lecture Notes on Data Engineering and Communications Technologies ; 126:833-842, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1958941

ABSTRACT

The medical and healthcare field is more interesting and studied in the era of science and technology development. Hair washing helps remove dirt and healthy hair and reduces the risk of scalp diseases, and according to Vietnamese traditional medicine, massage according to acupressure points is one of the methods of treating pain and fatigue, and it helps to recover from the treatment process, reducing stress, etc. In the stage of the COVID-19 epidemic, the shortage of medical staff occurs in many hospitals that are overloaded with patient care, especially bedridden patients, who need special care and hair washing, and massage head can help them relax and help recover from some diseases. This study proposes an approach to identify acupressure points on the head, and it is used for the hair washes and head massage robot for the patient's head. Hair wash and head massage robot by using water jets is proposed, which avoids the spread of some diseases by direct contact, and it reduces the shortage of medical care workers at hospitals. The study proposes a CNN to recognize the home point of the robot mounted on the face with the accuracy of, combined with signals from sensors, to determine the necessary dimensions of the human head. The ANN is used to predict the massage trajectories for the robot to suit each different patient. The overall results are evaluated with an accuracy of 97.56% with the training dataset and 95.12% with the test data. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

13.
Journal of Clinical Periodontology ; 49:226, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956761

ABSTRACT

Background and Aim: Concerned by the alarming levels of spread and severity, on March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the outbreak of COVID-19 a pandemic. The disease has spread worldwide and there have been 65.8 million reported cases and 1.5 million deaths as of insert date. Dental professionals and patients may be exposed to pathogenic microorganisms, including bacteria and viruses that may infect the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reduction of the salivary viral load using oral antiseptic mouthwashes in patients testing positive for COVID-19. Methods: Sixty-three individuals were recruited after testing positive for COVID-19 by real-time RT-PCR assay and divided into five groups. Group 1 received sterile water, group 2 received 1.5% hydrogen peroxide solution (HP), group 3 received 0.12% chlorhexidine (CHX), group 4 received 0.1% sodium hypochlorite solution (NaClO), and group 5 received sequential rinses using CHX and HP. After collecting the initial saliva sample, individuals were asked to use the designated mouthwash for 1 min. Additional saliva samples were collected immediately after rinsing, 15 and 30 min after rinsing. Real-time RT-PCR assays for RNA detection of SARS-CoV-2 were performed on the saliva samples. Results: Compared to the baseline values, there was a significant reduction in the number of copies of SARS-Cov-2 after 30 min in Group 2, and immediately after the initial mouthwash in Group 4. There were no significant differences among the experimental groups and the control group in any period. Conclusions: Although the mouthwashes containing 0.1% NaClO or 1.5% HP reduced the viral load compared to the baseline values, there were no significant differences compared to the control group.

14.
BJU International ; 129:94-95, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956728

ABSTRACT

Introduction & Objectives: Minimally invasive transurethral therapies for benign prostatic hypertension are becoming increasingly common in Europe and America. They may be performed under local anaesthetic and provide a good alternative to invasive procedures in a COVID era. REZUM, a minimally invasive transurethral water-vapor therapy, has been shown to be a safe and effective treatment for BPH, especially where preserved sexual function is a priority. Although short-term clinical outcomes are promising, long-term data from robust studies is lacking. In Australia, there are few providers of REZUM, which utilises steam injections to reduce prostatic tissue. This study aims to investigate the safety and efficacy of REZUM in an Australian cohort. Methods: A clinical audit was conducted of 50 patients who underwent REZUM to treat symptoms of BPH over a 12-month period. Procedures were performed under general anaesthetic. Demographics, comorbidities, sexual function, prostate volume, PSA, voiding flow rate, post-void residual volume and International Prostate Symptom Score were extracted from medical records, in addition to patient's reasons for seeking minimally invasive treatment. Corresponding post-operative data was collected. Descriptive statistics of the cohort were obtained using Stata 16.0. Paired t-test was used to identify if there was a significant difference between IPSS scores pre- and postprocedure Results: Patients accessing treatment ranged from 48 to 84 years (mean 64.6). Median prostate volume was 55mL (inter-quartile range 45-78mls) and mean International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) was 20.3. 28% of the cohort cited concern for ejaculatory function, either from medication side effects or TURP, as their primary reason for seeking minimally invasive treatment. A further 25% of the cohort was additionally concerned about other side effects from medications and/or TURP or had experienced medication failure. The mean follow up period was 6 months (range 6-weeks-26 months). 69% of men were satisfied with their symptom improvement at the time of review, with the expectation of ongoing improvement in men who had attended a 6-week post-operative review only. Postprocedure mean IPSS was 7.9 (range 2-33). Mean reduction in IPSS score post-procedure was 12.7 points (p<0.001). 3 men experienced complications (retention, infection, bulbar stricture). Conclusions: REZUM provides a safe alternative to traditional invasive prostatic treatments. It may be performed under local anaesthetic, providing an effective alternative in a COVID era. Men concerned about medications, more invasive treatments and ejaculatory dysfunction are increasingly seeking relief from this minimally invasive option and experiencing good outcomes including significant symptom improvement sustained over medium-term follow up.

15.
British Journal of Dermatology ; 186(6):e253, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956715

ABSTRACT

A 24-year-old man presented with a 7-day history of oral ulceration and 3-day history of erythema at the urethral meatus with one erythematous papule on the scrotum. The patient had tested positive for COVID-19 on polymerase chain reaction test. The patient had not eaten for 6 days, managing only sips of water. There were no new medications and no recent vaccinations. On examination his lips were ulcerated with haemorrhagic crust. His tongue had significant swelling and ulceration. There was erythema and superficial ulceration surrounding the urethral meatus. Thus, the patient had mucosal involvement only, with no target lesions, blisters or epidermal detachment. Inflammatory markers were raised. The initial impression was that of reactive infectious mucocutaneous eruption (RIME) associated with COVID-19 infection, given the likely viral cause, in a systemically well, young patient. The differential included erythema multiforme major, Stevens-Johnson syndrome and pemphigus vulgaris. Bacterial and viral swabs, septic screen, sexually transmitted infection screen including HIV, circulating skin antibodies were all negative. The patient was treated with topical and systemic steroids, with a catheter to prevent urethral stenosis, intravenous Pabrinex®, oral nutritional supplements, analgesia, Difflam™ mouthwash, betamethasone mouth rinse and lidocaine mouth spray. The patient's symptoms had resolved after 6 weeks. This case demonstrates the multispecialty management of a patient presenting acutely with RIME secondary to COVID-19, who was treated successfully with oral and topical steroids.

16.
Sci Total Environ ; : 157637, 2022 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956333

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic required a wide range of adaptations to the way that water sector operated globally. This paper looks into the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Brazilian water sector and evaluates the water sector's organisational resilience from the lens of water professionals. This study uses British Standard (BS 65000:2014)'s Resilience Maturity Scale method to evaluate organisational resilience in water sector under two defined scenarios of before and during the pandemic. For this purpose, the self-assessment framework developed by Southern Water in the United Kingdom (based on BS 65000:2014), comprising of the core resilience elements of Direction, Awareness, Alignment, Learning, Strengthening, and Assurance, are used for evaluations. A qualitative-quantitative surveying method is used for data collection. A total of 14 responses to the whole questionnaire were received from May 2021 to August 2021, each representing one water company in Brazil (four local companies and ten state-owned ones). The analyses identified COVID-19 as a threat multiplier particularly to already existing financial challenges due to the pre-existing threats in water sector. Bad debt and the COVID-19 emergency measures are recognised as the main challenges by 21 % and 14 % of the survey respondents. The state-owned and local companies scored an almost similar maturity level 3, 35 % and 34 % respectively, while the local companies scored much lower at maturity level 4 i.e., 26 % as opposed to 47 % in state-owned sector. This indicates that COVID-19 has a greater impact on local companies and the needs to increase preparedness. This study replicates an international experience to raise awareness on water sector's resiliency in Brazil and how it can be improved to withstand future external shocks. It sheds light on how and what existing challenges can be exacerbated facing a global shock and proposes opportunities for improvement of resilience maturity in water sector in Brazil.

17.
45th Jubilee International Convention on Information, Communication and Electronic Technology, MIPRO 2022 ; : 421-427, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1955349

ABSTRACT

In Republic of Croatia ways of rescue and protection of citizens, materials, and other goods in catastrophes such as earthquakes, flooding or ongoing global pandemic of coronavirus disease are regulated by Law on Protection and Rescue. Some of the most important parts are ways of controlling, handling, and coordinating tasks, constitutions of bodies for administration and ways of alarming and informing in activities of protection and rescue. Water supply network is very important part of the city infrastructure. Hence, it is necessary to ensure high-quality and reliable water supply network management process. In our previous research network model and relevant real-time data are integrated into the complete system that will cover all city infrastructure, acting as infrastructure data interchange portal usable especially in the case of disasters. All citizens are communicated with this platform through different user roles or services using telecommunications infrastructure. Main goal of research in this paper is to improve ways of controlling, coordinating tasks and informing citizens. Platform is used to collect whole relevant data from different sources such as water supply network operating center, electricity network operating center, gas transmission network operating center, telecommunication network operating center, citizens, 112 service and so on in emergency. Different behavioral scenarios have been implemented in the platform. According to the collected relevant data, the platform activates a certain scenario that best suits the current situation. According to the scenario, the platform automatically generates tasks to relevant people via a mobile application. In addition, other citizens receive information about acting through social networks notifications. © 2022 Croatian Society MIPRO.

18.
Vitruvio ; 7(1):62-77, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1954504

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic showed us how fragile cities are when dealing with this phenomenon. The lack of green areas, high pollution levels, and human overpopulation contributed to the increase of the urban heat island effect and proved to be the perfect ingredients for the spread of the virus that changed, perhaps forever, our ways of living inhabiting. The consequences were even more dramatic for the inhabitants of informal neighbourhoods, as these exacerbated existing problems related to economic instability and low food and water security. This paper proposes using Nature-Based Solutions to mitigate and adapt to climate change and increase access to water in informal settlements. The research study focused on analysing two technologies, the Blue-Green roof and Rain Garden, developing a prototype for each one. Considering that the practice of self-building characterises spontaneous settlements, the modules were conceived to be built by the inhabitants using recycled materials. These low-tech strategies improve indoor thermal comfort, facilitate the storage of filtered rainwater for domestic use and provide access to affordable food through domestic scale cultivation. Implementing these solutions in marginalised neighbourhoods could also empower residents to face challenges related to Global Warming, such as runoffs generated by heavy precipitations, and improve hygienic conditions to prevent the spread of diseases. © 2022, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia.. All rights reserved.

19.
Oecologia Australis ; 26(2):112-127, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1954449

ABSTRACT

Brazil’s wealth in water, its distribution, and losses, together with considerations on the challenges posed by the impacts of climate change, the precarious basic sanitation in the country, the demands of the agroindustry and the need to invest in new areas/themes through partnerships and integrated actions are the main points discussed in this article. The central proposal is to indicate new arrangements and possibilities for Limnology to face some of the problems that afflict humanity, especially those arising from climate change, loss of biodiversity and lack of basic sanitation, particularly critical challenges for Brazil. © 2022, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. All rights reserved.

20.
Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences ; 14:S698-S701, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1954398

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The novel COVID-19 which spread's primarily through oral and nasal passage poses a major threat of spread during dental treatments. It is important for dental practitioners to use minimal aerosol techniques. The aim of this study is to compare the time taken, efficiency and aerosol generated between modified and conventional technique (CT) of bracket bonding. Methods: This study includes 40 patients who required complete orthodontic treatment. In all 40 patients, one of the arches was bonded with modified technique (MT) and the opposing with CT. The time taken to prepare tooth in both the techniques were accessed. The efficiency of bond was seen over a period of 6 months. The amount of aerosol particulate matter generated during CT and MT was observed using a laser air quality monitor Conclusion: There is no significant difference in the bond failure and time taken between both the techniques. The aerosol generated in MT was minimal or almost negligible when compared to the use of CT. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences is the property of Wolters Kluwer India Pvt Ltd and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

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