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1.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1150, 2022 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883522

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pandemic of SARS CoV2 virus has severely impacted the entire world population. The lockdown imposed during the pandemic has created enormous challenges particularly on the health, economic and social life of most individuals. This study aimed to investigate the changes in health-related lifestyle and food security during the lockdown and how they influenced the quality of life (QoL) of Malaysian adults. METHODS: An online survey using a structured questionnaire consisting of sociodemographic, body weight, diet quality, physical activity, sleep quality, food insecurity, and QoL was conducted among adult respondents across Malaysia. Multivariate linear regression analyses were conducted to assess the associations between the changes in each component and QoL based on the total score before and during the lockdown. RESULTS: A total of 759 valid responses were included in the final analysis (75% female and 24.5% male). There was a significant improvement in diet quality during the lockdown while sleep quality and food insecurity worsened significantly. As for physical activity, metabolic equivalents (METs) in moderate activity increased significantly, whilst there was a significant decrease in the METs in walking and total minutes spent on physical activity during the lockdown. Overall, independent of age, gender, ethnicity, and religion, there were significant associations between QoL during lockdown and changes in BMI, METs of moderate activity, sleep quality, and food insecurity. CONCLUSIONS: The unprecedented COVID-19 outbreak and the lockdown measure during the pandemic have caused significant negative changes in health-related lifestyles and affected the QoL of Malaysian adults. Despite the new norms and rules to prevent disease transmission, efforts to maintain a healthy lifestyle and food security among the population must be rolled out to improve the QoL and prevent further adverse mental and physical health outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Food Insecurity , Healthy Lifestyle , Humans , Life Style , Malaysia/epidemiology , Male , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Pediatr Obes ; : e12948, 2022 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883199

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 mitigation measures, including closures of schools and recreational facilities and alterations in eating behaviours and physical activity, may impact weight. OBJECTIVE: To examine changes in body weight and body mass index (BMI) in children and adolescents with obesity participating in an obesity treatment program before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: Body weight and BMI at baseline and 6 months were recorded for the 'historic' cohort (females = 34, males = 21) before the pandemic (November 1, 2018, to March 18, 2020) and for the 'pandemic' cohort (females = 30, males = 30) during the pandemic (March 19, 2020 to July 31, 2021). Analyses were adjusted for baseline weight/BMI, age, and ON-Marg score, a measure of the social determinants of health. RESULTS: In males, body weight (98.29 versus 89.28 kg, p < 0.001) and BMI (36.46 versus 34.85 kg/m2 , p = 0.027) were greater in the pandemic compared with historic cohort. In females, body weight (p = 0.769) and BMI (p = 0.548) were not different between the two cohorts. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic may have diminished the health impacts of a weight management program, particularly in males, leading to increased body weight and BMI.

3.
Journal of Childrens Services ; : 10, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1883101

ABSTRACT

Purpose Boys & Girls Clubs of America (BGCs) provide numerous avenues for youth to connect, be physically active and have healthy meals/snacks. These services are often provided to low-income families at reduced cost to bridge the gap in after school and summer childcare. However, many of these clubs were forced to dramatically change their services during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to examine how 13 BGCs in Texas, USA, experienced COVID-19 and persevered to provide services. Design/methodology/approach Interviews were conducted with 16 BGC leaders from 13 different BGCs. Open-ended questions were used to elicit leaders' experiences with the pandemic, services their clubs were able to offer, barriers overcome and supports crucial to their ability to serve their communities. Thematic analysis was used to generate findings from these interviews. Findings BGC services changed significantly during the pandemic. Normal activities were no longer possible;however, leaders (alongside their communities) continually provided services for their families. Further, leaders reiterated the power of the community coming together in support of their families. Social implications While BGC leaders had to adapt services, they found ways to reach families and serve their community. These adaptations can have dramatic impacts on the social and physical well-being of children in their communities. Learning from this adversity can improve services as clubs start to build back. Originality/value This study provides vital context to the changing care and setting children were exposed to during the pandemic response. Additionally, these results provide understanding of the adaptations that took place in these services.

4.
Bariatric Surgical Practice and Patient Care ; 17(1):1, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1882960
5.
Journal of Chemical Education ; 99(5):1877-1889, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1882734

ABSTRACT

Chemistry laboratory experiments are invaluable tostudents'acquisition of necessary synthetic, analytical, andinstrumental skills during their undergraduate studies. However,the COVID-19 pandemic rendered face-to-face (f2f), in-personteaching laboratory experiences impossible from late 2019-2020and forced educators to rapidly develop new solutions to deliverchemistry laboratory education remotely. Unfortunately, achievinglearning and teaching objectives to the same caliber of in-personexperiments is very difficult through distance learning. Toovercome these hurdles, educators have generated many virtual and remote learning options for not only foundational chemistrycourses but also laboratory experiments. Although the pandemic challenged high-level chemistry education, it has also created anopportunity for both students and educators to be more cognizant of virtual learning opportunities and their potential benefits withinchemistry curriculum. Irrespective of COVID-19, virtual learning techniques, especially virtual lab experiments, can complement f2flaboratories and offer a cost-efficient, safe, and environmentally sustainable alternative to their in-person counterparts.Implementation of virtual and distance learning techniques???including kitchen chemistry and at-home laboratories, prerecordedvideos, live-stream video conferencing, digital lab environment, virtual and augmented reality, and others???can provide a wide-ranging venue to teach chemistry laboratories effectively and encourage diversity and inclusivity in thefield. Despite their relevanceto real-world applications and potential to expand upon fundamental chemical principles, polymer lab experiments areunderrepresented in the virtual platform. Polymer chemistry education can help prepare students for industrial and academicpositions. The impacts of polymers in our daily life can also promote students'interests in science and scientific research. Hence, thetranslation of polymer lab experiments into virtual settings improves the accessibility of polymer chemistry education. Herein, weassess polymer experiments in the emergence of virtual learning environments and provide suggestions for further incorporation ofeffective polymer teaching and learning techniques into virtual settings

6.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):7-8, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880864

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 infection in immunocompromised individuals has been associated with prolonged virus shedding and the development of novel viral variants. Rapamycin and rapamycin analogs (rapalogs, including everolimus, temsirolimus, and ridaforolimus) are FDA-approved for use as mTOR inhibitors in multiple clinical settings, including cancer and autoimmunity, but a common side effect of these drugs is immunosuppression and increased susceptibility to infection. Immune impairment caused by rapalog use is traditionally attributed to their impacts on T cell signaling and cytokine production. Methods: We used replication-competent SARS-CoV-2 and HIV pseudotyped with betacoronavirus Spike proteins to assess how rapalog pretreatment of cells ex vivo and rodent animals in vivo impacts susceptibility to Spike-mediated infection. Results: We show that exposure to rapalogs increases cellular susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection by antagonizing components of the constitutive and interferon-induced cell-intrinsic immune response. Pre-treatment of cells (including human lung epithelial cells and primary human small airway epithelial cells) with rapalogs promoted the early stages of SARS-CoV-2 infection by facilitating Spike-mediated virus entry. Rapalogs also boosted infection mediated by Spike from SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV in addition to hemagglutinin of influenza A virus and glycoprotein from vesicular stomatitis virus, suggesting that rapalogs downmodulate antiviral defenses that pose a common barrier to these viral fusion proteins. By identifying one rapalog (ridaforolimus) that lacks this function, we demonstrate that the extent to which rapalogs promote virus entry is linked to their capacity to trigger the lysosomal degradation of IFITM2 and IFITM3, intrinsic inhibitors of virus-cell membrane fusion. Mechanistically, rapalogs that promote virus entry inhibit the mTOR-mediated phosphorylation of TFEB, a transcription factor controlling lysosome biogenesis and lysosomal degradation pathways such as autophagy. In contrast, TFEB phosphorylation by mTOR was not inhibited by ridaforolimus. In the hamster model of SARS-CoV-2 infection, injection of rapamycin four hours prior to virus exposure resulted in elevated virus titers in lungs, accelerated weight loss, and decreased survival. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that preexisting use of certain rapalogs may elevate host susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease by activating a lysosome-mediated suppression of intrinsic immunity.

7.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):265, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880623

ABSTRACT

Background: Limited data are available on pregnancy and COVID-19 in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of women ≥18 years old hospitalized at 23 health facilities in six SSA countries between March 1, 2020, and March 31, 2021. We assessed the impact of pregnancy on SARS-CoV-2 infection, and of SARS-CoV-2 on pregnant women, through comparisons of clinical outcomes among: 1) pregnant and non-pregnant women hospitalized with RT-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, and 2) pregnant women confirmed to be positive or negative for SARS-CoV-2 infection by RT-PCR. The primary outcome for both analyses was intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Secondary outcomes included need for oxygen supplementation or mechanical ventilation, pregnancy outcomes, and maternal or neonatal mortality. We performed negative log-binomial regression models to estimate the impact of pregnancy on SARS-CoV-2 among all women in the cohort, and the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on pregnancy outcomes. Factors associated with mortality were evaluated using competing-risk regression based on Fine and Gray's proportional hazards model. Results: We analyzed data on 1,315 hospitalized women: 510 pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection;403 non-pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection, and 402 pregnant women without SARS-CoV-2 infection. Among those with SARS-CoV-2 infection, pregnancy was associated with increased risk of ICU admission (adjusted rate ratio [aRR]= 1.86, 95% CI: 1.07-3.22, p=0.003) and oxygen supplementation (aRR= 1.48, 95% CI: 1.06-2.08, p=0.001). Among pregnant women, those with SARS-CoV-2 infection had increased risk of ICU admission (aRR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.20-3.35, p=0.008), oxygen supplementation (aRR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.17-2.11, p=0.002) and maternal mortality (aRR=3.08, 95% CI: 1.21-7.85, p=0.018) (Figure). Comparing SARS-CoV-2-infected vs. uninfected pregnant women, infected women were more likely to deliver by Caesarean section (59.3% vs 37.9%, RR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.29-1.89, p<0.001);however, proportions of pre-term infants (32.4% vs. 31.1%, respectively, p = 0.870), infants with low birth weight (33.8% vs. 30.9%, respectively, p=0.711) and neonatal deaths [8/209 (3.8%) vs. 8/306 (2.6%) (RR=1.46, 95% CI: 0.56-3.84, p=0.436, respectively)] were similar. Conclusion: Among hospitalized pregnant women, SARS-CoV-2 infection increased morbidity and mortality. These data support international recommendations to prioritize COVID-19 vaccination among pregnant women.

8.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):94, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880132

ABSTRACT

Background: It is imperative to investigate novel, broadly conserved coronavirus immunogens as new SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern are continually emerging. The goal of this study was to generate a broadly protective long-term vaccine candidate against potential new variants of SARS-CoV-2 and novel, outbreak coronaviruses. The vaccine immunogen spanned portions of the highly conserved RNA replication machinery (nsp12 and nsp13) (CoV.Con). The vaccine was packaged into a rhesus adenoviral vector (RhAd52.CoV.Con) with the goal of generating robust long-lived CD8+ T-cell responses. Methods: The CoV.Con immunogen was generated by aligning coronavirus sequences to determine the most conserved region. ACE2 carrier and BALB/c mice were immunized intramuscularly with 109 RhAd52.CoV.Con and boosted four weeks later. Splenocytes were harvested four weeks after boost. Cellular immunity was determined through ELIspot and intracellular cytokine stain (ICS). BALB/c mice were primed and boosted with RhAd52.CoV.Con. Four weeks post boost mice were challenged intranasally with mouse adapted SARS-CoV-2. Protection was measured by weight loss and plaque assay. Results: Four weeks post RhAd52.CoV.Con boost immunization, ACE2 carrier and BALB/c mice developed cellular immunity as shown by ELIspot (Fig 1a) and ICS. ACE2 carrier mice cellular immunity showed bias toward nsp12 while BALB/c mice showed nsp13 preference. BALB/c mice were primed and boosted with RhAd52.CoV.Con. Four weeks after boost mice were challenged with mouse adapted SARS-CoV-2. RhAd52.CoV.Con was compared against and combined with a suboptimal dose of RhAd52.S.pp at 4 and 8 weeks post injection. Protection against weight loss (Fig 1b) and viral load (Fig 1c) was minimal although increased RhAd52.S.pp protection was observed from 4 to 8 weeks post immunization. Increased RhAd52.S.pp protection corresponded to increased spike antibody binding and neutralizing titers. Conclusion: Our work investigates a highly conserved coronavirus immunogen, CoV.Con, demonstrating immunogenicity in two mouse strains. While RhAd52. CoV.Con protection in the mouse model was minimal it demonstrates a schema for generating coronavirus immunogens that can protect against multiple different viruses. This work takes the first steps towards generating a long-lived broadly protective T-cell coronavirus vaccine.

9.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):74-75, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880040

ABSTRACT

Background: Gastrointestinal symptoms and viral RNA (vRNA) in stool have been described in human SARS-CoV-2 infections. However, intestinal pathology and related inflammation have not been extensively described in humans or animal models. Here we investigate the effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the gut mucosa and inflammation in rhesus macaques (RM) and humans. Methods: Fourteen adult RM were infected with US/WA-1/2020 SARS-CoV-2 instilled intranasally and intratracheally. Animal clinical features (mass, temperature, etc.) and samples (nasal swabs, throat swabs, blood, stool, etc.) were collected at baseline and up to day 10 post-infection at necropsy. RNA was extracted from swab and stool samples and vRNA measured by qRT-PCR. Plasma samples were assessed for inflammatory biomarkers by ELISA. Tissues collected at necropsy were fixed and evaluated for microbial translocation through immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of bacterial products;H&E staining was also performed. Tissues were additionally collected from uninfected RM and processed in the same manner. Human plasma samples from individuals with moderate COVID-19 were collected at early infection and recovery time points and assessed for inflammatory biomarkers. Results: SARS-CoV-2 infection of RM did not induce fever nor weight loss over five percent. vRNA was detected in all animals in nasal and throat swabs. vRNA, including subgenomic RNA indicative of viral replication, was also detected in stool samples. Scores for translocating bacteria in colon sections stained by IHC for bacterial products were higher for SARS-CoV-2 infected RM than uninfected controls. Additionally, follicles made up a higher percentage of total mesenteric lymph node area in SARS-CoV-2 infected animals than control RM. Furthermore, soluble CD14 in plasma increased significantly from baseline to day 10 of SARS-CoV-2 infection (p=0.0006) and decreased significantly in humans from early infection to recovery time points (p=0.0295). Conclusion: Thus, adult RM experienced mild to moderate SARS-CoV-2 infections yet demonstrated evidence of microbial translocation. Humans similarly demonstrated evidence of microbial translocation that decreased upon recovery from COVID-19. These data suggest gut pathology in SARS-CoV-2 infection may be contributing to systemic inflammation in COVID-19.

10.
European Journal of Molecular and Clinical Medicine ; 9(3):2925-2930, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880008

ABSTRACT

Background: The incidence of mother-to-newborn Covid 19 transmission is low. However, data are limited on the factors associated with neonatal clinical or viral testing outcomes. This study aims at evaluation of clinical profile of neonates born to COVID positive mothers. Objective: To determine the number of neonates from 01 April 2020 to 30 August 2021 with lab confirmed COVID-19 infection born to Covid 19 positive mothers. To assess the clinical features of neonates born to Covid 19 positive mothers. Methods & Materials: Study design: Retrospective cohort study Study period: 01 April 2020 to 30 August 2021 Study Place: Gulbarga institute of medical science kalaburagi, Karnataka India. Conclusions: Perinatal covid 19 infection may have adverse effects on newborns causing problems such as fetal distress, premature labour, Hyperbilirubinemia, respiratory distress, oxygen requirement, sepsis, birth asphyxia and even death. However vertical transmission of Covid 19 is yet to be confirmed Aims and objectives: To determine the number of neonates from 01 April 2020 to 30 August 2021with RTPCR confirmed COVID-19 infection born to Covid 19 positive mothers. To assess the clinical features of newborns born to Covid 19 positive mothers. Inclusion criteria: All neonates born to Covid 19 positive mothers METHODS: Manual medical records of mother and baby were reviewed. Data on maternal demographic factors (age, residence, socioeconomic status), co morbidities, symptoms of COVID 19, Data on newborn demographic factors (gestational age, sex, birth weight, mode of delivery, Apgar score) were collected . All neonates born to covid 19 positive mother were reviewed for clinical and lab data till time of discharge. Clinical data such as respiratory distress, oxygen desaturation, poor feeding, apnea, seizures, tachycardia, fever, hypothermia, jaundice in those neonates was reviewed. Associated morbid factors such as Birth asphyxia, prematurity, relative sepsis were analysed. Lab data such as TLC, CRP, Sr Ferritin, Sr LDH, D-Dimer, Procalcitonin, RTPCR analysis of nasopharyngeal and throat swab of neonates born to covid positive mothers were reviewed. Chest x ray was reviewed. Those having clinical symptoms/ signs were admitted in NICU. Asymptomatic hemodynamically stable Covid19 negative neonates were isolated on mother side. Sample size: 200 neonates born to covid19 positive mothers. Sample size was determined based on the incidence of covid19 positive rates of neonates born to covid positive mothers, using formula 4PQ/L2. Results: Among these 200 pregnant women with confirmed Covid 19 infection, fever and cough were the common symptoms noted. Of the newborns born to these mothers, 92 were male neonates and 108 were female neonates, 153 were full-term neonates and 32 were born premature;15 were small-for-gestational-age (SGA) neonates. Clinically, the initial presentations in the neonates were respiratory distress(n=5) and failure to breathe at birth(n=4), but other presentations such as fever(n=1), poor feeding(n=3),rapid heart rate(n=4), hyperbilirubinaemia (n=5) abnormal Xray(n=3) and oxygen requirement(n=4) were also observed. All neonates were improved and discharged. Nasopharyngeal and throat swab specimens were collected from these neonates 2to3days after birth for Covid 19 RT-PCR tests, out of which 02 neonates showed positive results. One COVID-19 positive baby presented with failure to breathe at birth was treated with antiviral and antibiotics. The other baby also had similar presentation was treated with antiviral and oxygen. Both neonates improved and discharged.

11.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):264-265, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1879912

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused over 240 million infections and 5 million deaths. Little is known about the impact of COVID-19 on pregnancy outcomes in Sub-Saharan Africa. We followed a cohort of COVID-infected and uninfected pregnant women in Kenya until six weeks postpartum to assess the burden of COVID-19 and its association with poor maternal and neonatal outcomes. Methods: We conducted repeat SARS-CoV-2 testing using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on pregnant women enrolled in an antenatal COVID-19 cohort study (AnCOV). Those infected were managed according to Kenya Ministry of Health COVID-19 clinical guidelines. Adverse pregnancies outcomes were compared among SARS-CoV-2 infected and uninfected women using multivariate log-binomial generalized linear models. Results: Between August 2020 and August 2021, 1688 pregnant women were enrolled;998 completed pregnancy follow-up. Of those, 259 (26.0%) had adverse outcomes, and 169 (22%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, of whom 93 (55%) were symptomatic. The most prevalent symptoms included cough (76.1%), headache (47.9%), anorexia (41%), anosmia (35.0%), fatigue (30.8%), joint pains (29.1%), fever (28.2%), runny nose (23.1%), chills (19.7%) and myalgia (12.8%). Fourteen COVID-19 pregnant women required hospitalization;none were admitted in ICU. Very low birthweight (<1500g) (adjusted relative risk (aRR) 4.78, 95% CI 1.11-20.49), very preterm birth (<34 weeks) (aRR=2.57, 1.34-4.90) and preterm birth (<37 weeks) (aRR=1.54, 1.03-2.29) were more common among women with COVID-19. There were no significant associations between COVID-19 in pregnancy and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, preeclampsia, stillbirths and perinatal deaths. Conclusion: SARS-CoV-2 infection increases the risk of very low birth weights and very preterm births in western Kenya.

12.
The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice ; 10(6):A13-A16, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1878433

ABSTRACT

Airway eosinophil rather than neutrophil count is the independent predictor of the longitudinal change in all lung function measures, even in patients who are being treated with inhaled or oral corticosteroids or antieosinophilic biologics. In future clinical trials that are investigating eosinophils targeting therapies, the addition of small airway function markers to the routinely used FEV1 might be more appropriate for the evaluation of lung function. The patients with IIA should be carefully monitored after the occupational asthma diagnosis, and the poor asthma outcomes highlight the need for preventive actions.As-Needed Use of Short-Acting β2-Agonists Alone Versus As-Needed Use of Short-Acting β2-Agonists Plus Inhaled Corticosteroids in Pediatric Patients with Mild Intermittent (Step 1) Asthma: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Rodríguez-Martínez et al 1563 What is already known about this topic? What does this article add to our knowledge? A remote intervention can produce at least a 5% weight loss in a significant proportion of people with obesity and poorly controlled asthma, and this degree of weight loss is associated with improved asthma control.

13.
Nutrition Clinique et Metabolisme ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1878330

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to assess lifestyle changes along with weight fluctuations during the COVID-19 lockdown in Lebanon. This cross-sectional study was conducted using a web-survey disseminated through social media platforms to a large sample of the Lebanese population between May 25th and June 8th, 2020, during the lockdown in Lebanon. Behavioral changes and weight variation during the confinement were assessed. Two thousand one hundred sixty-one participants (64.9% female) aged 18 to 78 years old were included in this study. On average, no net weight variation was reported by the participants. 59.3% of the smokers changed their smoking habits, 40.7% of the drinkers reported a decrease in alcohol consumption, 43.5% of the participants exercised less than one time weekly and 35.8% changed their diet. Increased frequency of physical activity, following a diet during lockdown, decreased weight dissatisfaction (P < 0.0001 for the three variables) were retained as significant factors associated with weight loss. Planning to engage in physical activity post lockdown was associated with weight gain (P = 0.021). In the Lebanese population, no net weight variation was reported during the lockdown. Increasing physical activity and initiating diet were associated with weight loss. Healthcare authorities should be alerted about the importance of these factors during the follow-up of the confined population. © 2022 Société francophone nutrition clinique et métabolisme (SFNCM)

14.
American Journal of Public Health ; 112(6):853-858, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1877218

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus pandemic reveals an urgent need: the marketing of ultra-processed "junk" food must be stopped. [...]the food industry has gotten away with pushing consumption of high-calorie, highly processed products-as often and in as many places as possible, and in increasingly large amounts-all in the name of profit.1 In this business-first food environment, obesity and its associated type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, and, these days, severe outcomes from COVID-19, are collateral damage.2 Because poor health more strongly affects the most vulnerable members of society,3 public health advocates ought to be demanding immediate, forceful government action to discourage food industry production and marketing of unhealthful products. Obesity prevalence rose in parallel with increasing portion sizes.12 The low prices of ultra-processed foods also encourage overconsumption. Since 1980, the prices of all foods have risen with inflation, but those of soft drinks and snacks rose much less than average, whereas fruits and vegetables became relatively more expensive.13 Low food prices democratize eating in fast-food and other restaurants where portions are large and more calories are consumed. [...]in 2000, Michael Jacobson and I, recognizing the food industry's role in weight gain, recommended measures such as taxes and advertising restrictions that would improve the environment of food choice.18 In 2001, the Surgeon General called for obesity policies to reduce racial, ethnic, gender, and age disparities and stigma;to encourage food companies to provide foods and beverages in reasonable portion sizes;and examine its marketing practices (my emphasis).19 Federal Dietary Guidelines for Americans explicitly target personal choice: they advise individuals to reduce consumption of sugar, salt, and saturated fat. The 2020 objectives include modest goals for increasing the proportion of schools that exclude sugar-sweetened beverages and for increasing the number of states that provide incentives to retail outlets selling foods consistent with dietary guidelines.21 Current guidelines and health objectives not only ignore ultra-processed foods but also ignore three valiant but unsuccessful attempts to address the food industry's role in childhood obesity (an easier target than in adults).

15.
Sports (Basel) ; 10(5)2022 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875747

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To explore motives for combat sport participation, weight regulation practices, symptoms of low energy availability (LEA), disordered eating (DE) or eating disorders (ED), and any experiences with sexual harassment (SH) among female combat-sport athletes. METHODS: In total, 29 athletes were recruited by social media and in clubs. Participants responded to a questionnaire on health behavior and mental health and completed diet registration and a DXA-scan. RESULTS: Most athletes started combat sports to feel empowered and experienced an inclusive milieu, but the frequency of health issues was high. A total of 21-67% had symptoms of ED, suffered from injuries, had low site-specific BMD, and/or symptoms of LEA. Athletes had insufficient intake of energy and nutrients, and <50% received any dietary information or guidance from their clubs. Most athletes complied with favorable weight-loss strategies; still, >20% used unfavorable methods and rapid weight-loss periods. A total of 70% of the athletes had experienced SH, of which 41% experienced SH within the combat-sport context. CONCLUSION: Combat sport offers an inclusive milieu, which may increase women's health and confidence; still, our results indicates a need for actions to safeguard female combat-sport athletes' mental and physical health, implying a cultural change within the community of combat sport and a need for increased health and nutrition literacy.

16.
Indian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics ; 59(2):208-221, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1876337

ABSTRACT

To develop a questionnaire to measure the influence of Low Carb Diet Therapy on patients' Quality of Life, and also assess the effect of Low Carb Diet on biochemical, anthropometric and dietary intake parameters reflecting on the evaluation of care, health status and thus the efficacy of online consultation and review methods during COVID-19 Pandemic. Thirty five patients visiting the Diabetologist / Endocrinologist through online methods prescribed Low Carb Diets were administered the QOL questionnaire in Google Form through WhatsApp at online visit to the doctor and the subsequent visit. Other demographic, biochemical, anthropometric parameters, and diet recall were gathered at baseline and the subsequent review. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA), Reliability Analysis (RA) using Cronbach's alpha, test-retest reliability were done. The questionnaire assessed 15 aspects or questions in the QOL. Exploratory factor analysis suggested a three-factor solution with eigen values >1 and factor loadings >0.3. The first factor contained 5 reliable items, the second factor contained 4 items, third factor with 6 items (with Cronbach's Alpha= 0.669, 0.884, 0.775 respectively) As hypothesized, the QOL was better among patients following Low Carb Diets with higher levels of happiness, more satisfaction with their life and health and also, their biochemical, anthropometric and intake improved. These findings indicate the efficacy of the Low Carb Diet education on QOL and the influence on biochemical, anthropometric and dietary intake parameters was noted. This also shows the efficacy of online consultation and review methods during Pandemic.

17.
International Conference on Advanced Mechanical Engineering, Automation and Sustainable Development, AMAS 2021 ; : 872-876, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1872304

ABSTRACT

Online shopping and shipping agent are more popular with the outbreak of the disease COVID-19. Logistics companies are constantly competing with each other on delivery speed and shipping costs to attract customers. The measurement and classification of parcels is a crucial step in the product supply chain, determining the shipping cost and the accuracy of product classification. The transportation of goods requires speed and correct delivery at low-cost service and safe to the product. In particular, the stage of packaging and shipping pricing takes much time. From receiving, packing, weighing, measuring, and checking the area to calculate the price, all items must go through such a step to ship elsewhere. The shipping cost may be affected by space volume rather than the actual weight. This paper presents the development of the controlling board for a smart weighing device that can measure both the weight and 3D box-boundary dimensions of the parcel. The smart device includes three ultrasonic sensors, a loadcell set connecting in the form of Wheatstone bridge, a barcode reader, a process data by a PIC microcontroller, and store data on the computer via UART/Ethernet protocol. The results of the several experiments for checking the stability and accuracy of each quantity measurement prove the reliability of the smart equipment. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

18.
Obesity Science & Practice ; 8(3):272-278, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1871941

ABSTRACT

BackgroundBased on CDC estimates in the United States, the prevalence of obesity was 42.4% in 2017–2018, and the annual cost of obesity was $147 billion in 2008. Yet studies estimate that only 20–40% of adults with obesity received counseling from their primary care providers. Recent studies using shared medical appointments (SMA), where patients are seen by a multidisciplinary team, have shown promising results in obesity management. We developed an insurance‐based weight loss program incorporating SMA, called the Program for Reducing Obesity (PRO), and report our findings here.MethodsEnrollment began in January 2019 at the UCLA Health Thousand Oaks clinic. Patients age ≥18 years with BMI ≥30 kg/m2 were eligible by referral to PRO, a program consisting of individual visits and SMAs with an obesity medicine board certified endocrinologist and registered dietitian. Primary outcomes were change in weight after 3, 6, and 12 months. Secondary outcomes included proportion that achieved ≥5% weight loss, change in percent body fat, HbA1c, HDL, triglycerides, and blood pressure.Results102 patients (mean age 59.7 years, 72% women, mean weight 103.6 kg, mean BMI 36.6 kg/m2) have been analyzed, with 91 patients completing at least 12 months of the program. Patients achieved significant weight loss: 3.0%, 5.0%, and 7.8% of their baseline weight after 3, 6, and 12 months respectively. 52% of patients lost ≥5% of their baseline weight after 12 months. Patients had significant reductions in body fat: 2.1%, 7.4%, and 6.7% of their baseline (all p ≤ 0.01) after 3, 6, and 12 months respectively. Improvements were also seen in HbA1c (p ≤ 0.01), triglycerides (p ≤ 0.04), and systolic blood pressure (p ≤ 0.07) after 12 months although not all results achieved statistical significance.ConclusionOur institutional review of PRO, an insurance‐based obesity program utilizing SMA, demonstrates a successful approach to promoting weight loss in a community‐based setting.

19.
Behavioral Sciences ; 12(5):158, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1871772

ABSTRACT

Gym-goers often socially compare themselves with their trainers as they strive to look as attractive as their fitness trainers. The aim of this study was to better understand this phenomenon in the fitness industry. Relying on social comparison theory and social identity theory, self-identification with a physically attractive fitness trainer was posited to have a strong mediating effect on the relationship between appearance motive, weight management motive and gym-goers’ intention to exercise. The moderation effects of gym-goers’ age and gender in the direct relationships between appearance motive, weight management motive and exercise intention were also examined. The primary outcome of this study revealed that gym-goers who were influenced by appearance and weight management motives are more likely to identify with physically attractive fitness trainers. Additionally, gender significantly moderates the relationships between appearance motive, weight management motive and exercise intention. Appearance and weight management motives are the primary factors that influence the exercise intention of female gym-goers as compared to their male counterparts. This study sheds new insights into understanding the influence of the physical attractiveness of fitness trainers and its impact on gym-goers’ exercise intentions via self and social identification process.

20.
Cells ; 11(10):1618, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1871689

ABSTRACT

[...]the incorrect regulation of these pathways as a result of GSK-3 hyperactivity impairs normal cellular homeostasis. [...]disruptions to the normal niche function, reflected by GSK-3 hyperactivity, may be used as a diagnostic tool to detect aberrant activity of stem cells [5]. [...]the absence of GSK-3 improved glucose tolerance (GTT) in insulin-resistant animals fed a high-fat diet (HFD), but did not affect their body weight. [...]maintaining a healthy weight is of prime importance for patients on chronic lithium therapy [10].

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