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1.
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases ; 2023, 2023.
Article in German | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20242039

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) from wildlife has raised concerns about spillover from humans to animals, the establishment of novel wildlife reservoirs, and the potential for future outbreaks caused by variants of wildlife origin. Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are abundant in urban areas and live in close proximity to humans, providing the opportunity for spillover of SARS-CoV-2. Evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection and exposure has been reported in Norway rats. We investigated SARS-CoV-2 infection and exposure in Norway rats from Southern Ontario, Canada. From October 2019 to June 2021, 224 rats were submitted by collaborating pest control companies. The majority of samples were collected in Windsor (79.9%;n = 179), Hamilton (13.8%;n = 31), and the Greater Toronto Area (5.8%;n = 13). Overall, 50.0% (n = 112) were female and most rats were sexually mature (55.8%;n = 125). Notably, 202 samples were collected prior to the emergence of variants of concern (VOC) and 22 were collected while the Alpha variant (B.1.1.7) was the predominant circulating VOC in humans. Nasal turbinate (n = 164) and small intestinal (n = 213) tissue samples were analyzed for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by RT-PCR. Thoracic cavity fluid samples (n = 213) were tested for neutralizing antibodies using a surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT) (GenScript cPass);confirmatory plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) was conducted on presumptive positive samples. We did not detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA in any samples tested. Two out of eleven samples positive on sVNT had neutralizing antibodies confirmed positive by PRNT (1 : 40 and 1 : 320 PRNT70);both were collected prior to the emergence of VOC. It is imperative that efforts to control and monitor SARS-CoV-2 include surveillance of rats and other relevant wildlife species as novel variants continue to emerge.

2.
Romanian Journal of Veterinary Medicine & Pharmacology ; 5(37):316-328, 2022.
Article in Romanian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-20241771

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of the current COVID-19 pandemic, has evolved to have a wide range of hosts, including non-human primates, wild and domestic animals. Determining the susceptibility of different animal species to SARS-CoV-2 infection and the role of animals in the epidemiology of the disease will be critical to designing appropriate human and veterinary public health responses to this pandemic. A better understanding of the susceptibility of animal species to SARS-CoV-2 may help clarify transmission mechanisms and identify potential reservoirs and sources of infection that are important for both animal and human health. The current pandemic produced by SARS CoV-2 and its variants represents an example of the unique concept of health (One Health) in which humans and animals are components of the same epidemiological chain. In this paper, only the natural infections found in different animals species will be reviewed, according to literature data, regarding the species of affected animals, the transmission patterns (human-animal, animal-human), clinical aspects, diagnosis confirmation and a brief presentation of the prevention possibilities through vaccination.

3.
International Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Systems ; 15:88-94, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20237983

ABSTRACT

Travel & Tourism being the largest service provider industry (value worth US billion $234) have been increasingly contributing third highest Foreign Exchange Earnings with a double digit growth (17.1% in Mar, 2018). It has been in limelight since past few years with the Ministry of Tourism taking few remarkably significant steps to increase the value and volume of foreign tourists arrivals (FTAs) with phenomenally customized tourist attractions like e-visa, subsidized packages to religious places, golden circuit, royal trains like Palace on wheels and participating in tourist marts within and outside the country exhibiting the destinations, food & cultural diversity. As per the reports of The World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC) India grossed about 9.2% of total GDP value in 2018 with revenues exceeding $240billion along with financially supporting direct/indirect employment opportunities (42.67 million jobs or 8.1% labour force).The recent health and financial emergency of Pandemic COVID-19 which has affected every sector of economy with world over lockdowns shutting down the growth engines of modern economy for quarter nearly i.e. have risked employment of millions across. The sluggish economic growth and declining consumer purchasing power with loss in positive sentiment / behaviour due to economic fallout, unprecedented unemployment statistics going above the earlier recession will eventually be a debacle for the Hospitality and Tourism industry with an expected loss of more than $ 125 billion. The research study aims to create an in-depth understanding of challenges faced by the Tourism industry in the current pandemic situation and consumer sentiment. The findings prove a declining consumer sentiment with tourism associated activities. However an increasing awareness on environmental and sustainable development will prove to be a game changer for Wildlife and ecotourism destinations within the country apart from countryside travel to hometown rather than expensive and riskier foreign travel. The inferences drawn are in confirmation to governments "Dekho Apna Desh” and Incredible India program. ©Copyright IJHTS.

4.
BioPharm International ; 36(5):3, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20236726
5.
Risky business: how Peru's wildlife markets are putting animals and people at risk 2021 28 pp 50 ref ; 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-20231448

ABSTRACT

This publication presents Peru's illegal wildlife trade activity before and after Covid-19 pandemic which creates a perfect conditions for zoonotic emerging infectious diseases such as SARS-CoV-2 to emerge and spread among animals and people, thus recommendations to prevent this scenario are highlighted.

6.
Epidemiol Infect ; 151: e96, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238550

ABSTRACT

The recent reinforcement of CoV surveillance in animals fuelled by the COVID-19 pandemic provided increasing evidence that mammals other than bats might hide further diversity and play critical roles in human infectious diseases. This work describes the results of a two-year survey carried out in Italy with the double objective of uncovering CoV diversity associated with wildlife and of excluding the establishment of a reservoir for SARS-CoV-2 in particularly susceptible or exposed species. The survey targeted hosts from five different orders and was harmonised across the country in terms of sample size, target tissues, and molecular test. Results showed the circulation of 8 CoV species in 13 hosts out of the 42 screened. Coronaviruses were either typical of the host species/genus or normally associated with their domestic counterpart. Two novel viruses likely belonging to a novel CoV genus were found in mustelids. All samples were negative for SARS-CoV-2, with minimum detectable prevalence ranging between 0.49% and 4.78% in the 13 species reaching our threshold sample size of 59 individuals. Considering that within-species transmission in white-tailed deer resulted in raising the prevalence from 5% to 81% within a few months, this result would exclude a sustained cycle after spillback in the tested species.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chiroptera , Deer , One Health , Animals , Humans , Animals, Wild , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics
7.
Animals (Basel) ; 13(10)2023 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235326

ABSTRACT

As humans expand their territories across more and more regions of the planet, activities such as deforestation, urbanization, tourism, wildlife exploitation, and climate change can have drastic consequences for animal movements and animal-human interactions. These events, especially climate change, can also affect the arthropod vectors that are associated with the animals in these scenarios. As the COVID-19 pandemic and other various significant outbreaks throughout the centuries have demonstrated, when animal patterns and human interactions change, so does the exposure of humans to zoonotic pathogens potentially carried by wildlife. With approximately 60% of emerging human pathogens and around 75% of all emerging infectious diseases being categorized as zoonotic, it is of great importance to examine the impact of human activities on the prevalence and transmission of these infectious agents. A better understanding of the impact of human-related factors on zoonotic disease transmission and prevalence can help drive the preventative measures and containment policies necessary to improve public health.

8.
BMC Vet Res ; 19(1): 74, 2023 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234911

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The European bison (Bison bonasus) is a near threatened species and requires health monitoring. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of antibodies to pathogens known to cause respiratory and digestive illness in ruminants. RESULTS: In the studied 328 European bison, the highest seroprevalence was observed for Bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1) (50.27%), Bovine Coronavirus (BCoV) (26.36%), and Bluetongue Virus (BTV) (12.83%). For Mycoplasma bovis strains and Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV), positive results were rare. Interestingly, a higher prevalence of BTV antibodies was noted in the northeastern populations and older animals. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that the Polish European bison population appears to have considerable contact with BoHV-1; however, this does not appear to be of great significance, as clinical symptoms and post-mortem lesions are rarely noted in Polish European bison population. The high seroprevalence of BTV in the north-east of Poland is an ongoing trend, also noted in previous studies. It is possible that European bison may perpetuate the virus in this region. This is the first report of antibodies for BCoV in European bison.


Subject(s)
Bison , Herpesvirus 1, Bovine , Animals , Poland/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Antibodies, Viral , Digestive System
9.
Ibis ; 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2327754

ABSTRACT

The presence of humans within the natural environment is increasing worldwide. Assessing the impact of such activities on wildlife is crucial for declining populations where human disturbance adds to existing pressures. Here, we investigated how human activities at night influenced Little Penguin Eudyptula minor numbers and behaviours (specifically return time, number of vocalizations and time spent in vigilance) on Granite Island, a declining population in South Australia, Australia. We combined data from regular night surveys with continuous video and audio monitoring to assess the impact of human activities on the Little Penguins. The use of white light (i.e. from torches or camera flashes) by people was the most frequent activity recorded at night (recorded on 65% of the monitored nights). Fewer penguins were found on land at night when Dogs Canis lupus familiaris were present, but not when the number of people increased, when concerts occurred, or when white lights were used. Little Penguins were observed more often returning late from sea at night when Dogs were present and when white lights were used, but not when concerts occurred. An increase in penguin vocalizations at night correlated with the presence of Dogs and the occurrence of concerts, whereas penguins vocalized less when white lights were used. The time Little Penguins spent in vigilance did not correlate with any of the disturbances analysed. Our study also highlights the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on wildlife, as the occurrence of human activities increased significantly following the implementation of the COVID-19 health protection measures. These results add to a growing body of literature suggesting that human activities on land, and their consequent disturbance(s), may affect the numbers and behaviours of wildlife and that appropriate measures need to be developed to limit such impacts.

10.
One Health ; 16: 100569, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327978

ABSTRACT

Bats are presumed reservoirs of diverse α- and ß- coronaviruses (CoVs) and understanding the diversity of bat-CoVs and the role bats play in CoV transmission is highly relevant in the context of the current COVID pandemic. We sampled bats in Côte d'Ivoire (2016-2018) living at ecotones between anthropogenic and wild habitats in the Marahoué National Park, a recently encroached protected area, to detect and characterize the CoVs circulating in bats and humans. A total of 314 bats were captured, mostly during the rainy season (78%), and CoV RNA was detected in three of the bats (0.96%). A CoV RNA sequence similar to Chaerephon bat coronavirus/Kenya/KY22/2006 (BtKY22) was found in a Chaerephon cf. pumilus and a Mops sp. fecal swab, while a CoV RNA sequence similar to the two almost identical Kenya bat coronaviruses BtKY55 and BtKY56 (BtKY55/56) was detected in an Epomops buettikoferi oral swab. Phylogenetic analyses indicated differences in the degree of evolutionary host-virus co-speciation for BtKY22 and BtKY55/56. To assess potential for human exposure to these viruses, we conducted human syndromic and community-based surveillance in clinics and high-risk communities. We collected data on participant characteristics, livelihoods, animal contact, and high-risk behaviors that may be associated with exposure to zoonotic diseases. We then collected biological samples for viral testing from 401 people. PCR testing of these biological samples revealed no evidence of CoV infection among the enrolled individuals. We identified higher levels of exposure to bats in people working in crop production and in hunting, trapping and fishing. Finally, we used the 'Spillover' risk-ranking tool to assess the potential for viral spillover and concluded that, while there is no evidence to suggest imminent risk of spillover for these CoVs, their host range and other traits suggest caution and vigilance are warranted in people with high exposure risk.

11.
COVID-19 and a World of Ad Hoc Geographies: Volume 1 ; 1:43-63, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2323540

ABSTRACT

The history of pandemic diseases provides a cautionary tale about the vulnerability of human populations to environmental threats. Many have interpreted our current pandemic as evidence of increasing disruption to natural ecosystems and the havoc this can cause as humans are exposed to new pathogens. An initial focus on a Chinese market as the source of the virus turned attention to human interactions with wildlife, and many hope that the pandemic may provide a turning point if the threat of disease stimulates a renewed interest in the conservation of species and wild places. Additionally, declining air pollution and renewed animal activity in human spaces during lockdown emboldened many to push for further environmental measures to be put in place via a green approach to rebuilding economies. On the other hand, global recession will likely limit funding and willingness to invest in conservation measures, potentially signaling a significant retreat from current environmental efforts. Furthermore, problems with solid waste disposal highlight significant environmental challenges associated with the pandemic. Whether short-term environmental improvements associated with the pandemic can be translated into longer-term environmental gains will prove critical to both environmental and public health futures. © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2022.

12.
Infektoloski Glasnik ; 42(1):9-15, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2326894

ABSTRACT

Seven human coronaviruses have been identified so far: four seasonal coronaviruses (HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-NL63, HCoV-HKU1) and three novel coronaviruses (SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2). While seasonal coronaviruses cause only mild symptoms, novel coronaviruses cause severe and potentially fatal infections. All known coronaviruses originated in animals. Bats are considered as an origin for the majority of coronaviruses capable of infecting humans;however, rodents are proposed as natural hosts for HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-HKU1. Different animal species could serve as intermediate hosts including alpacas (HCoV-229E), livestock (HCoV-OC43), civet cats (SARS-CoV), camels (MERS-CoV), and pangolins (SARS-CoV-2). In Croatia, SARS-CoV-2 was detected in humans, pet animals, wildlife, and the environment. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the role of the 'One Health' approach in the surveillance of zoonotic diseases.Copyright © 2022, University Hospital of Infectious Diseases. All rights reserved.

13.
Frontiers in Marine Science ; 10, 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2324292

ABSTRACT

Disease surveillance of marine mammal populations is essential to understand the causes of strandings, identify potential threats to animal health, and to support development of conservation strategies. Here we report the first large multi-pathogen screening of prevalence for viruses, bacteria and parasites in a sample of 177 live, healthy, wild Caspian seals (Pusa caspica), captured and released during satellite telemetry studies 2007-2017. Employing molecular and serological assays we assess prevalence of pathogens known to be of significance for marine mammal health worldwide, and evaluate the results in relation to Caspian seal health and conservation. RT-PCR, and PCR assays find evidence for infection by Canine Distemper Virus (CDV), Phocine herpes virus, phocine adenovirus and Influenza A at prevalences of 5%, 6.4%, 21.7%, and 4% respectively. The genomes of CDV isolates collected in 2008 showed 99.59% identity with the 2000 Caspian seal CDV epizootic strain. A partial coding sequence for the Us2 gene from the Caspian seal herpes virus was identical to PhHV-1 isolate PB84, previously reported from a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), while amplicon sequences for the adenovirus polymerase gene indicated a novel strain. ELISA assays detected exposure to Influenza A (55% of tested samples), adenovirus (25%), coronavirus (6%), CDV (8%), herpes virus (94%), Toxoplasma gondii (2.6%) and heartworm (1%). Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests detected exposure to Influenza B at a prevalence of 20%, and Leptospira microscopic agglutination tests detected suspected exposure to Leptospira serovars in 9% of tested samples. Overall, the risks, profile and prevalence of pathogens in Caspian seals appear comparable to other wild phocid seal populations. Our results suggest Caspian seals have exposure pathways to pathogens with epizootic potential or ability to cause significant morbidity, and that disease impacts could reduce the resilience of the population to other conservation threats. Caspian seals are listed as Endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), and we recommend that resources are invested to support further surveillance programs and to understand how anthropogenic pressures may influence future disease risks. A translated version of this is available in Russian and Kazakh in the Supplementary Material (Presentation 1 and Presentation 2)

14.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 31(2):37, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2320497

ABSTRACT

Dr. Worobey will discuss the scientific evidence for when, where and how both the HIV/AIDS pandemic and the COVID-19 pandemic originated, and what we can learn from this knowledge to prevent or mitigate future pandemics?. In both cases, cross-species transmission into humans via wildlife consumption, versus via laboratory accident, were plausible hypotheses of origin. And in both cases, there is now overwhelming evidence in favor of the natural zoonosis route. Indeed, in the case of COVID-19, we have insights into the genesis of the pandemic that are in many ways unparalleled in the history of investigating pandemic origins.

15.
Nihon Seitai Gakkaishi = Japanese Journal of Ecology ; 72(2), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2319739

ABSTRACT

At this stage of the Great Acceleration of the Anthropocene, humanity is experiencing the global issues of worsening climate change impacts, devastating damage from more frequent and severe natural disasters and the COVID-19 pandemic, all of which are attributable to ecosystem degradation and biodiversity loss. The global community recognises that these issues pose severe societal and economic risks. “Nature-based solutions” have been posited as a means to address these threats. Nature-based solutions utilise natural terrestrial ecosystem functions to provide environmental, social and economic benefits at low cost. The growing social demand for nature-based solutions constitutes an opportunity for the field of ecology to expand beyond the conventional focus on biodiversity and conservation and shift to presenting biodiversity and ecosystem functions as the basis of human well-being and social sustainability. We sought to identify a trajectory for ecological research that is aimed at contributing to the effective implementation of nature-based solutions. First, we summarise current social needs related to terrestrial ecosystem utilisation. Next, we provide an overview of existing literature and knowledge regarding biodiversity and terrestrial ecosystem function, which are critical to nature-based solutions. Finally, we identify outstanding ecological hurdles to the implementation of these strategies and propose a way forward based on our findings. We explain that any basic presentation of ecological processes requires addressing the impacts of climate change and the interrelatedness of biodiversity, climate and social systems. Enhanced ecological process models are critical for linking biodiversity and ecosystems with climate and social systems. It is crucial to establish a framework that embeds monitoring systems, data infrastructure and delivery systems within society to mobilise terrestrial ecosystem and biodiversity data and results. Furthermore, the implementation of nature-based solutions must include acknowledging trade-offs in objectives and transdisciplinary research with other fields and stakeholders with the shared goal of transformative change. Ecological research must demonstrate more clearly how terrestrial biodiversity and ecosystems are linked to human health and well-being, as well as how they are affected by production and consumption systems. In the age of climate change, the knowledge and tools of the ecologist form the foundation of nature-based solutions and provide an indispensable theoretical basis for this approach.Alternate :æŠ„éŒ²äººæ–°ä¸–ã®å¤§åŠ é€Ÿã¨ã‚‚å‘¼ã°ã‚Œã‚‹æ°—å€™å¤‰å‹•ã®æ™‚ä»£ã«ãŠã„ã¦ã€æ°—å€™å¤‰å‹•å½±éŸ¿ã®é¡•åœ¨åŒ–ã€è‡ªç„¶ç½å®³ã®æ¿€ç”šåŒ–ãƒ»é »ç™ºåŒ–ã€COVID-19の世界的流行などの地球規模の問題が増大している。国際社会では、ã"ã‚Œã‚‰ã®å•é¡Œã¯ç”Ÿæ…‹ç³»ã®åŠ£åŒ–ã‚„ç”Ÿç‰©å¤šæ§˜æ€§ã®æå¤±ãŒè¦å› ã§ã‚ã‚‹ã"と、そして社会経済にも多大な損害ã‚'与える大きなリスクであるã"とが共通の認識となりつつある。そのような状況ã‚'åæ˜ ã—ã€é™¸åŸŸç”Ÿæ…‹ç³»ã®å¤šé¢çš„ãªæ©Ÿèƒ½ã‚'活用するã"とで、低いコストでç'°å¢ƒãƒ»ç¤¾ä¼šãƒ»çµŒæ¸ˆã«ä¾¿ç›Šã‚'もたらし、社会が抱える複数の課題の解決に貢献する「自然ã‚'基盤とした解決策」という新しい概念に大きな期待が寄せられている。ã"の解決策への社会的なニーズの高まりは、生態学が長年取り組ã‚"できた生物多様性や生態系の保全に関する課題ã‚'超えて、生態学が生物多様性や生態系が豊かな人é–"社会ã‚'継続し発展させる知的基盤となるã"とや、生態学の社会的有用性ã‚'示す機会である。そã"で本稿では、気候変動時代における「自然ã‚'åŸºç›¤ã¨ã—ãŸè§£æ±ºç­–ã€ã®å®Ÿè·µã«å‘ã‘ãŸç”Ÿæ…‹å­¦ç ”ç©¶ã®æ–¹å‘ã¥ã‘ã‚'目的とし、陸域生態系の活用に対する社会的なニーズの現状ã‚'概観する。その上で、「自然ã‚'åŸºç›¤ã¨ã—ãŸè§£æ±ºç­–ã€ã®éµã¨ãªã‚‹é™¸åŸŸç”Ÿæ ‹ç³»ã®ç”Ÿç‰©å¤šæ§˜æ€§ã‚„ç”Ÿæ…‹ç³»æ©Ÿèƒ½ã«é–¢ã™ã‚‹çŸ¥è¦‹ã‚'整理して課題ã‚'抽出し、ã"れらã‚'è¸ã¾ãˆã¦ä»Šå¾Œã®ç”Ÿæ…‹å­¦ç ”ç©¶ã®æ–¹å‘æ€§ã‚'å…·ä½"的に示す。まず、現象の基礎的な理解という観点からは、生物多様性ã‚'含む陸域生態系と気候システムや社会システムとの相äº'関係性ã‚'含めた包括的な気候変動影響のメカニズムの解明と、予測・評価のためのプロセスモデルの高度化ã‚'進めるã"と、そして同時に、陸域生態系と生物多様性の変化ã‚'ç¤ºã™ãŸã‚ã®åŠ¹æžœçš„ãªãƒ¢ãƒ‹ã‚¿ãƒªãƒ³ã‚°ã¨æƒ…å ±åŸºç›¤ã®å¼·åŒ–ã‚'行い、データや分析結果ã‚'社会に還元するフレームワークã‚'構築するã"ã¨ãŒå„ªå…ˆäº‹é …ã§ã‚ã‚‹ã€‚ã‚ˆã‚Šå®Ÿè·µçš„ãªè¦³ç‚¹ã‹ã‚‰ã¯ã€ã€Œè‡ªç„¶ã‚'基盤とした解決策」の実装や社会変革などにおいて共通の目標ã‚'ã‚‚ã¤ä»–åˆ†é‡Žã¨ã®å­¦éš›ç ”ç©¶ã‚'積極的に行うã"とにより、実装における目的é–"のトレードオフã‚'示すã"と、健康・福祉の課題や生産・消費システムの中での陸域生態系や生物多様性への影響や役割ã‚'示すã"ã¨ãªã©ãŒå„ªå…ˆäº‹é …ã¨ãªã‚‹ã€‚æ°—å€™å¤‰å‹•ã«ä»£è¡¨ã•ã‚Œã‚‹ä¸ç¢ºå®Ÿæ€§ã®é«˜ã„ç'°å¢ƒä¸‹ã§ã€åŠ¹æžœçš„な「自然ã‚'åŸºç›¤ã¨ã—ãŸè§£æ±ºç­–ã€ã®å®Ÿæ–½ãŸã‚ã«ã¯ã€ãã®ç§‘å­¦çš„åŸºç›¤ã¨ãªã‚‹ç”Ÿæ…‹å­¦ã®çŸ¥è¦‹ã¨ãƒ„ãƒ¼ãƒ«ã¯ä¸å¯æ¬ ã§ã‚ã‚Šã€ã¾ãŸãã®å®Ÿè£…ã‚'通じた社会変革へのé"筋においても生態学の貢献が期待されている。

16.
Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems ; 32(10 p.1660-1674):1660-1674, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2313411

ABSTRACT

Before the 2020 COVID‐19 pandemic, cruise ship tourism had been one of the fastest growing segments of global tourism, presenting a range of potential impacts. At Akaroa Harbour, Aotearoa New Zealand, the number of annual cruise ship visits more than quadrupled following earthquake damage to Ōtautahi Christchurch's Lyttelton Port in 2011. Akaroa Harbour is an area of core use for endangered and endemic Hector's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus hectori). Dolphins here are exposed to some of the highest levels of cetacean tourism in Aotearoa New Zealand. Relationships were examined between growth in cruise ship visits, as well as tours focused specifically on dolphins, and long‐term trends in summer distribution of Hector's dolphins at Akaroa Harbour, from 2000 to 2020. Core use areas for Hector's dolphins within the harbour were quantified via kernel density estimation using data from 2,335 sightings from over 8,000 km of standardized survey effort. Data were allocated into four periods based on varying levels of tourism. Dolphin habitat preference varied over time, with the greatest change occurring between 2005–2011 and 2012–2015. When comparing these periods, the spatial overlap of core habitat was less than 24%. Dolphin distribution shifted towards the outer harbour after 2011 and has remained relatively consistent since. The observed shift in distribution coincided with the more than fourfold increase in annual cruise ship visits to Akaroa Harbour. Several pressures related to cruise ship tourism are likely to have influenced habitat preferences of dolphins. Further investigation into causal factors of the observed shift is warranted. In the wake of the COVID‐19 pandemic, the future of cruise ship and wildlife tourism is in flux. Our findings suggest that the future re‐development of this industry should follow a precautionary approach, with the onus on industry to provide evidence of sustainability before proceeding.

17.
Wildlife Research ; 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2310954

ABSTRACT

Context. The Covid-19 pandemic led to increased use of green/blue space as indoor spaces became frequently inaccessible. These changes affected the direct interactions between humans and nature. Aims. To investigate the links between mental health, loneliness, wellbeing, and interaction with non-companion animals, proximity to and use of green/blue space. Methods. A cross-sectional online survey of adult UK residents was conducted between April and June 2020. The questionnaire included validated and bespoke items measuring demographics and exposures and outcomes related to mental health, wellbeing, loneliness, human-animal interactions with non-companion animals (wildlife/farm animals), and proximity to and use of green/blue space before and since the first UK Covid-19 lockdown. Key results. Of 5926 participants, 4408 (74.4%) reported interacting with non-companion animals at least every other day. Frequent engagement with non-companion animals was significantly associated with smaller decreases in mental health scores (b = 0.131, 95% CI [0.007-0.256], P = 0.038) and smaller increases in loneliness scores (b = -0.135, 95% CI [-0.241-0.030], P = 0.012). Just under half (48.4%, n = 2867) reported living directly next to a green/blue space, and over half (52.3%;n = 3097) reported using such space at least every day since lockdown. Regular use of green/blue space since lockdown was significantly associated with higher mental health (b = 0.154, 95% CI [0.037-0.272], P = 0.010), lower loneliness (b = -0.334, 95% CI [-0.430 - -0.238], P = 0.001), and higher wellbeing (b = 0.810, 95% CI [0.572-1.047], P = 0.001). Closer proximity to such space was significantly associated with lower loneliness scores (b = -0.224, 95% CI [-0.319 - -0.130], P = 0.001), and higher wellbeing scores (b = 0.632, 95% CI [0.391-0.873], P = 0.001). Conclusion. The multi-faceted human-nature relationship may promote key human health benefits in the context of the lockdown. Implications. These findings have highlighted the importance of green/blue space and the human-animal relationship, and how they might play a critical role in maintaining people's mental health within a pandemic context. Further targeted investigations relating to these areas and links with human health are important within both pandemic and non-pandemic contexts.

18.
Animal Behaviour ; 200:125-136, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2304481

ABSTRACT

Emerging infectious fungal diseases are responsible for the extinction of myriad species across a range of phyla. As recently shown by the COVID-19 pandemic, social transmission can be key to disease spread, and in this context, humans are not alone in trying to be alone. In group-living species, individuals have been shown to use social behaviour to avoid infection;diseased individuals can isolate from the group, or healthy animals can avoid diseased conspecifics. However, little is known about social behaviour as a mechanism to avoid fungal infection. In this study, we investigated the extent to which wild urban eastern water dragons, Intellagama lesueurii, a gregarious reptile, modify their social behaviour as a response to infection with a recently emerged infectious fungal disease, caused by the pathogen Nannizziopsis barbatae. Using individual data from a long-term study population inhabiting Roma Street Parkland in Brisbane's Central Business District (QLD, Australia) and focal sampling, we tested whether dragons exhibit self-isolation and social-distancing behaviours in the context of dyadic social approach events. Our results suggested that while the presence of the fungal disease had no effect on individuals' social behaviour, its severity did. Specifically, we found that (1) diseased individuals were no less social than their nondiseased conspecifics, (2) nondiseased individuals did not avoid or spend less time with diseased conspecifics, and (3) models considering the severity of skin lesions caused by N. barbatae, instead of their presence or absence, suggested that individuals avoided more severely diseased conspecifics regardless of their own disease status. © 2023 The Author(s)

19.
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases ; 2023, 2023.
Article in German | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2304462

ABSTRACT

Bats have received considerable recent attention for infectious disease research because of their potential to host and transmit viruses, including Ebola, Hendra, Nipah, and multiple coronaviruses. These pathogens are occasionally transmitted from bats to wildlife, livestock, and to humans, directly or through other bridging (intermediate) hosts. Due to their public health relevance, zoonotic viruses are a primary focus of research attention. In contrast, other emerging pathogens of bats, such as bacteria, are vastly understudied despite their ubiquity and diversity. Here, we describe the currently known host ranges and geographic distributional patterns of potentially zoonotic bacterial genera in bats, using published presence-absence data of pathogen occurrence. We identify apparent gaps in our understanding of the distribution of these pathogens on a global scale. The most frequently detected bacterial genera in bats are Bartonella, Leptospira, and Mycoplasma. However, a wide variety of other potentially zoonotic bacterial genera are also occasionally found in bats, such as Anaplasma, Brucella, Borrelia, Coxiella, Ehrlichia, Francisella, Neorickettsia, and Rickettsia. The bat families Phyllostomidae, Vespertilionidae, and Pteropodidae are most frequently reported as hosts of bacterial pathogens;however, the presence of at least one bacterial genus was confirmed in all 15 bat families tested. On a spatial scale, molecular diagnostics of samples from 58 countries and four overseas departments and island states (French Guiana, Mayotte, New Caledonia, and Réunion Island) reported testing for at least one bacterial pathogen in bats. We also identified geographical areas that have been mostly neglected during bacterial pathogen research in bats, such as the Afrotropical region and Southern Asia. Current knowledge on the distribution of potentially zoonotic bacterial genera in bats is strongly biased by research effort towards certain taxonomic groups and geographic regions. Identifying these biases can guide future surveillance efforts, contributing to a better understanding of the ecoepidemiology of zoonotic pathogens in bats.

20.
Conservation Letters ; 16(2), 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2303953

ABSTRACT

Arguably, researching the trade and trafficking of natural resources, such as wildlife crime, environmental crime, trafficking of natural commodities, unregulated and unreported fishing, factory farming, human–wildlife conflict, to name a few examples, involves all four areas of threat. [...]research can be extremely emotionally taxing for both the researcher and research participants. [...]it offers the researcher an opportunity to think through potentially "risky”, dangerous, harmful, and ethically compromising fieldwork situations, while reflecting on their own positionality and protection of themselves, research participants, and data. [...]they are required to fill out risk assessments and complete specialized training for hostile environments. With increasing use of qualitative research methods within the wildlife trafficking research field, coupled with the growing importance of human–wildlife interactions exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic, this disparity in ethical regulations needs imminent addressing. [...]with the current emphasis on ‘decoloniality', an ethical review process could ensure that parachute social science is avoided, and equity and sustainable collaboration between stakeholders are foregrounded in the research.

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