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2.
Respirology ; 27(SUPPL 1):154, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1816639

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Development of a new interventional bronchoscopy (IP) unit is a challenge due to requirement of equipment and skilled staff. Organising this in a public-private model was not well explored. Methods: Our IP unit at Northern Beaches Hospital (NBH) was established in August 2020. This audit was from August 2020 to Sept 2021. All equipment required were obtained through research funding. The number of procedures, types and complications analysed. The staff training sessions and ongoing training noted. Results: During the 12-month period: 129 flexible bronchoscopies, 77 Linear-Endobronchial Ultrasound Guided Biopsies (EBUS), 30 Radial-EBUS, 10 cryo-biopsy for lung nodules, 10 rigid-bronchoscopies, 7 de-bulking and two tracheal dilatations and one stent placements were performed. There was one unplanned admission for hypoxia and one patient developed a vocal cord polyp following a Radial/ cryo-rigid procedure. No pneumothorax or significant bleeding. Staff had staged introduction to multiple procedures and ongoing training during sessions. One nurse specialist and one interventional bronchoscopist with IP fellowship training conducted the sessions. With 12-month data it was easy to convince management of the workload and revenue, enabling purchase of a full fleet of two EBUS scopes, EMU 2 processor, Radial-EBUS probe driver, one ultra-thin scope, Cryobiopsy machine and Rigid equipment. Nursing staff turnover was high and required multiple training sessions. COVID-19 resulted in 3-month closure. Conclusion: The new IP unit at NBH was accomplished with full fleet of equipment including rigid-cryo capability in a short time with reasonable case numbers during COVID-19 lockdown. Being a private hospital, demonstrating revenue with grant funded equipment resulted in funding approval. Having a partnership enabled both public an private list to be combined to maximise usage of equipment. Staff turnover was high and needed constant education.

3.
International Journal of Pharmacy Practice ; 30(SUPPL 1):i15-i16, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1816116

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Community pharmacy is one of the most accessible sectors in the health service and played a key role in responding to COVID-19 (1). Efforts to tackle COVID-19 have required an immediate response from the community pharmacy workforce. Aim: To examine views and experiences of community pharmacists regarding changes in practice/processes in preparation for and response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A telephone questionnaire was conducted across a geographically stratified sample of community pharmacists in Northern Ireland (NI). Based on the total number of pharmacies (N=528) and an anticipated response rate of 30%, up to 433 pharmacies were to be contacted to achieve a target sample size of n=130 (sampling fraction 24%). The questionnaire sections comprised: (1) measures taken to prevent COVID-19 infection;(2) response to the pandemic, i.e. immediate actions taken, effect on service provision and new/innovative ways of working;(3) pandemic preparedness;(4) communication with GPs and patients;(5) professional knowledge;(6) recovery and future outlook. Data were coded, entered into SPSS v27, and analysed descriptively. Free-text comments were summarised using thematic analysis. Results: One hundred and thirty community pharmacists (175 approached) completed the questionnaire (74% response rate). Pharmacists responded comprehensively to implementing infection control measures, e.g. management of social distancing in the shop (n=125, 96.2%), making adjustments to premises, e.g. barriers/screens (n=124, 95.4%), while maintaining medicines supply (n=130, 100.0%) and advice to patients (n=121, 93.1%). Patient-facing services such as minor ailments and smoking cessation were initially stopped by 115 (88.5%) and 93 (71.5%) pharmacies respectively during the first wave of the pandemic (March-May 2020);by the second wave (Sep-Dec 2020), modified services had resumed in 121 (93.1%) and 104 (79.9%) pharmacies respectively. Newly commissioned services were provided, e.g. emergency supply service (n=121, 93.1%), flu vaccination for healthcare workers (n=101, 77.7%) and volunteer deliveries to vulnerable people (n=71, 54.6%);new initiatives were developed, e.g. measures to flag/assist patients with sensitive issues (n=73, 56.2%). Pharmacies with a business continuity plan increased from 85 (65.4%) pre-pandemic to 101 (77.7%) during the second wave. Free-text responses indicated how pharmacists adapted practice in the front line to reassure and advise the public and maintain essential medicines supply. Pharmacists were least prepared for the increased workload and patients' challenging behaviour, but 126 (96.9%) reported that they felt better prepared during the second wave. Telephone was the main method of communication with patients (n=107, 82.3%) and GPs (n=114, 87.7%). Pharmacists felt they had sufficient training resources available (n=113, 86.9%) to maintain professional knowledge. Pharmacists agreed/strongly agreed that they would be able to re-establish normal services (n=114, 87.7%), were willing to administer COVID-19 vaccines (n=105, 80.7%) and provide COVID-19 testing (n=79, 60.8%) in the future. Conclusion: The high response rate is a strength of the study, but the impact is limited by not including patients or service commissioners. The pharmacy workforce remained accessible and maintained supply of essential medicines and advice to patients throughout the pandemic. Provision of modified and additional services such as vaccination reinforced the clinical and public health role of pharmacy.

4.
International Journal of Pharmacy Practice ; 30(SUPPL 1):i14-i15, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1816115

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The two-year, NHS Education for Scotland (NES) post-registration foundation programme supports early career pharmacists in patient-facing sectors of practice. The experiential programme, based on an eight-element competency framework, also includes webinars, online resources, and tutor support. Learners complete an online evidence portfolio and undertake a summative OSCE. Aim: The aim of this paper is to report the experiences of the community-pharmacist participants, with a focus on the fitness-for-purpose' of the programme. Methods: This was a longitudinal mixed-methods study theoretically underpinned by Miller's triangle and social cognitive theory. Eligible participants were all pharmacists registering for the programme in Scotland in September 2017 and February 2018, all participating Welsh community-pharmacists, and all tutors. Invitation packs were emailed by NES/HEIW staff with names forwarded to researchers following signed consent. Focus groups/interviews (face-to-face or virtual according to participant preference) were undertaken at start, mid-point and exit of programme, to explore expectations (benefits, social gains, professional identify), experiences (challenges, facilitators, meeting of learners' needs) and barriers. Proceedings were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim and managed using NVivo. Thematic analysis (1) was based on social cognitive theory (transferable behavioural skills and professional attitudes). An inductive analysis additionally identified emergent themes. Participants in Scotland were invited to complete an on-line base-line questionnaire to describe their self-assessed competence against the NES Foundation framework (personal and professional practice, membership of healthcare team, communication, patient centred approach to practice). Data was analysed in SPSS using descriptive statistics. Themes from qualitative and quantitative data were integrated. IRAS ethical approval was not required;NHS Research & Development approval was given. Results: 96 pharmacists registered for the programme: 18 community-pharmacists in Scotland (11 health boards);14 community pharmacists in Wales. In Scotland 15 community-pharmacists completed questionnaires: 9 expected an increase in confidence' and 11 to provide better patient care'. Self-assessed competence against the framework was generally high. Across Scotland and Wales, 12 focus-groups (involving 19 community-pharmacists), 12 community-pharmacist interviews, 10 tutor focus-groups (8 community-pharmacist tutors) and 3 community-pharmacist tutor interviews were conducted. At midpoint and exit pharmacists and tutors reported increased confidence, the ability to reflect and pride in their achievement. Barriers: included lack of protected time;workload;and lack of support (tutor and employer). There were also programme issues (practicalities of portfolio;workplace-based assessment, no access to medical records);and cultural issues in community-pharmacy (speed & safety';lack of recognition). Reasons for dropping out of the programme included: moved geographical area;too experienced;workload pressures;no incentive;no employer support. Four community-pharmacists in Scotland and none in Wales completed the programme. Conclusion: Study limitations include the small numbers, programme delivery limited to Scotland and Wales, and limited response rate to focus-groups/interviews, exacerbated by COVID19. Overall community pharmacist expectations were met, and they perceived the programme was fit-for-purpose and worthwhile. However, barriers particularly related to the community pharmacy context, may have led to the high drop-out rate. These findings should be considered as the new UK-wide RPS curriculum for foundation pharmacists (2) is implemented in Scotland, to optimise its successful delivery.

5.
International Journal of Pharmacy Practice ; 30(SUPPL 1):i8-i9, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1816112

ABSTRACT

Introduction: When prescriptions are being processed in pharmacies and an activity occurs that requires the return to a previous procedural step to correct the process, this is known as rework' (1). This may include labelling errors or the incorrect dispensing of medications, and ultimately adds to pharmacists' workload. Given that increasing community pharmacists' workload negatively affects their job satisfaction, well-being, and patient care, it is vital that rework is minimised in everyday practice. To date, little is known regarding the prevalence of this rework phenomenon in community pharmacies or how this might be prevented. Aim: To evaluate the cause and frequency of prescription rework in community pharmacies. Methods: A data collection form was created for community pharmacists to self-record the instances and causes of prescription rework occurring in their workplace across a two-week period. After piloting the form with two pharmacists in different pharmacies, community pharmacists in Ireland were invited to participate in the study using convenience sampling and snowballing. Only participating pharmacists were aware of when data collection was occurring in their pharmacy to minimise the Hawthorne effect with other staff (2). Descriptive statistics were used to describe rework frequency according to the different causes, as well as the pharmacist and pharmacy characteristics. Results: Eight participating pharmacists were recruited (four male and four female;median 4 years' post-qualification experience) from five independent pharmacies and three chain pharmacies. In total, 325 reworks were recorded across 65 days between June 2021 and August 2021. Rework was recorded on 92.9% of the study days, with an average of 5 reworks/day - whereby the average per pharmacist ranged from 1.82 to 15 reworks/day. The data collection form's pre-specified rework categories captured 91.7% of reworks, with the remainder assigned as other'. The three most frequent rework categories were those due to labelling errors (22.8%), prepared prescriptions which required opening and repackaging (15.1%), and medication owed to patients (13.9%). The people involved in reworks included: pharmacists alone (33.5%), technicians alone (20.3%), pharmacists and technicians (14.8%), pharmacists and patients (10.2%), and pharmacists and prescribers (4%). Conclusion: This study shows that rework happens regularly in community pharmacies and has provided an insight into the causes of rework in this setting. While individual pharmacist and pharmacy characteristics may have influenced rework frequency, it was not possible to conclusively establish these associations with the small sample size, due to the difficulty of recruiting pharmacists during the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings are valuable as they highlight areas where pharmacy staff can reduce rework and will help inform strategies to minimise this in future - thus reducing workload and facilitating more time for staff to focus on providing care to patients in community pharmacies.

6.
Wounds UK ; 18(1):34-41, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1812598

ABSTRACT

Background: Understanding the burden of surgical site infection (SSI) requires comprehensive, reliable and comparable data. However, many hospitals do not routinely collect information on wound healing after the patient leaves hospital. Aim: To evaluate five post-discharge surveillance strategies that collect patient/carer reported outcomes on wound healing following adult and paediatric surgery. Method: Between March 2020 and February 2021, colleagues from five specialist hospitals in England collaborated to collect baseline and compliance data for the different methods of postdischarge surveillance. The five methods included were telephone follow-up;postal questionnaires;postal questionnaires and contacting non-responders by telephone to asking patients to install a postoperative app on their personal smartphone (Medopad, Huma) and using a SSI surveillance text link, which did not need to be installed (Isla, Islacare Ltd). Results: Overall, 1432 patients out of 2116 patients provided information about their wound after discharge. The group of patients who were asked to install an app on their smart device had the lowest return rate for information on their wound, while the system that used a text link and did not need to be installed had one of the highest return rates. Conclusion: Understanding baseline practice and evaluating different methods of discharge surveillance may help to drive improvement in this area. Our early findings suggest that in practice, a SSI surveillance approach using a text link and photos, such as Isla, which is used in hospital before discharge by staff and post-discharge by patients warrants further attention.

7.
Quality-Access to Success ; 23(187):192-199, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1812194

ABSTRACT

The existence of this workload is due to an imbalance between the capacity or ability of workers and the demands of the work that must be faced. As is the case with the conditions of workers in MSMEs, the demands of work are greater than the capacity of workers. Hence, the emergence of workload can not be avoided. Many studies on the workload of MSMEs have been carried out in Indonesia, however none of existing works has employes the Fishbone approach. This study evaluates the workload of three indicators, namely mental workload, physical workload, and Covid-19 pandemic. The novelty of this work is that, unlike the existing work that use different methods, we focus Fishbone method in our work. Furthermore, we used a large sample size of 341 respondents who are MSMEs employees in Malang, Indonesia, where the survey method was used for data collection. The results of the t-test analysis showed that the average mental workload score was not the same as the average physical workload score, the positive t-count results showed that the average physical workload score was higher than the mental workload. The results of the analysis with frequency describe that the response given to each indicator is mental workload in the underioad category, physical workload in the optimal category, and the Covid-19 in the overload category. The main factors causing the workload are the Covid-19 pandemic factor where respondents feel always bothered about the pandemic, the physical workload factor where respondents often feel tired, and the mental workload factor where respondents have personal problems that interfere with work. The workload for MSME workers is in line with previous predictions that the physical load is more dominant than the mental load. However, during this Covid-19 period, a higher workload is felt due to the impact of the government's restrictions on activities.

8.
Sustainability ; 14(8):4729, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1810159

ABSTRACT

Digital education is a recently highlighted challenge for educational innovation. This study aimed to discover the educational conditions in which teachers and students may be involved during the pandemic, and how these may affect teachers’ workload and educational quality. A Mixed Methods Design was used, where quantitative and qualitative data were obtained and analyzed. An ad hoc questionnaire was created and sent to teachers of different levels of education (pre-university) and types of school (public and private). Predictive variables of working hours were analyzed by carrying out a multiple regression. Moreover, changes experienced by teachers were studied by analyzing qualitative data. The variables type of teaching, students’ access to electronic resources, and instant training in online teaching predicted teachers’ working hours. Furthermore, participants cited having changes in workload and being overwhelmed during this period, having less contact with students, and experiencing changes in working environment as the most important variables affecting the new working conditions. In conclusion, teachers’ training in online education and the provision of electronic resources for students should be a priority to make online learning possible, to avoid the problem of teachers needing to perform extra work in similar future conditions, and to foster educational innovation.

9.
Human Systems Management ; 41(2):251-255, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1798946

ABSTRACT

During COVID-19, telework has become a new form of work for broader groups of workers who were not teleworking prior to the pandemic. In this study, we ask what we will be returning to after COVID-19, if teleworking will become a new norm or if most workplaces will merely return to the old forms of work. The main research question of this study was to estimate the role of telework in perception of workload. More specifically, to gain an understanding of the stakes involved when reorganizing work after the pandemic, we analysed the relationship between perceived workload and opportunities to telework. Multilevel analysis utilized representative national data of wage earners in Finland (N = 4091). The findings showed that the opportunity to telework is associated with lower perceived workload in the capital area but not in the rural areas. More specifically, increasing telework opportunities among different-level workers, particularly in educational and social work in the capital area, would be beneficial in terms of increasing well-being at work. There could be good reasons for organizations to reject returning to the status quo ex ante after COVID-19 and to consider the new norm, where opportunities to telework are offered to wider worker groups.

10.
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research ; 73(1):114-119, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1798544

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 pandemic has impacted the lives of everyone in one way or another. The healthcare workers being the group directly or indirectly working with the covid patients are at higher risk which can lead to increased anxiety among them. This is a prospective, cross-sectional, observational study among healthcare workers who were involved with patient care during the initial stages of the pandemic. Generalized Anxiety Disorder Assessment scale (GAD-7 scale) and WHO-5 wellbeing scale were distributed among healthcare workers through an online survey as a google form. Out of 95 participants who consented about 80% were frontline workers among which the majority (82%) were doctors and nursing staff (11.6%). The mean GAD-7 score observed was 6.06 ± 5.12 with a majority of the participants having minimal anxiety (44.44%). The mean WHO-5 wellbeing score was 55.83 ± 26.57. The present study showed a majority of the health care worker has minimal anxiety but the low mood was prevalent in many which could be due to increased workload and stress.

11.
Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology ; 20(1):27-42, 2022.
Article in Spanish | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1798193

ABSTRACT

Introduction. University teachers have had to face the changes demanded by virtual educa-tion in times of the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, the objective was to determine whether adaptation to virtual classes and workload predict professional self-efficacy in university teachers. Method. associative-predictive study, with the participation of 321 university teachers (55.5% male and 44.5% female) from two Peruvian universities (22.4% state and 77.6% pri -vate), between 26 and 66 years of age, selected under a non-probabilistic purposive sampling. The evaluation was carried out using a scale of adaptation to virtual classes, a workload scale and a professional self-efficacy questionnaire. A structural equation model was estimated us-ing SPSS Amos 22.0 statistical software. Results. Correlation analysis showed significant associations between the study variables (p < .05). For the SEM model, the goodness-of-fit indicators were very good (chi 2= 380.68, with 143 gl, and a p value < .001, CFI = .956 IFI= .957;NFI= .932;GFI= .891;TLI = .948;RMSEA= .072). Thus, it is possible to determine that there is a statistically significant effect of adapta-tion and workload on professional self-efficacy. Discussion or Conclusion. The level of adjustment to virtual teaching and the perception of work overload are factors that influence university teachers' confidence in their pedagogical abilities. It is concluded that adjustment and workload predict professional self-efficacy in Peruvian university teachers.

12.
23rd International Conference on Passive and Active Measurement, PAM 2022 ; 13210 LNCS:573-599, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1797703

ABSTRACT

The first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic hit North America in March 2020, disrupting personal and professional lives, and leading to work-from-home mandates in many jurisdictions. In this paper, we examine two years of empirical network traffic measurement data from the University of Calgary’s campus network to study the effects of the pandemic on a post-secondary education environment. Our study focuses on the online meeting applications and services used, as well as traffic volumes, directionality, and diurnal patterns, as observed from our campus edge network. The main highlights from our study include: changes to inbound and outbound traffic volumes;reduced traffic asymmetry;significant growth in Zoom, Microsoft Teams, and VPN traffic;structural changes in workday traffic patterns;and a more global distribution of campus network users. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

13.
Critical Care ; 26(SUPPL 1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1793871

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The aim of the study was to determine the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on intensive care workload [1,2] at our only acute main general hospital on the island. During the pandemic surge in March 2021, our intensive care was running at 200% capacity. Mater Dei Hospital has a 20-bedded adult intensive care catering for a population of 500,000. Methods: This is a prospective cohort study conducted in the COVID- 19 Intensive Care Unit at Mater Dei Hospital, Malta. Data analysed is from March 2020 to May 2021. Data collected daily from admission until death or discharge from ICU. Results: A total of 261 patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) required admission to our intensive care. ICU facilities required expansion into a total of 5 Intensive Care Units, therefore reaching a capacity of 44 intensive care beds during the peak month of March 2021. A maximum of 21 patients were admitted per week culminating to a total of 33 COVID-19 Intensive Care beds during the month of March 2021. A total of 179 patients (68.6%) required mechanical ventilation for a median duration of 11 days per patient. Proning was required in 124 mechanically ventilated patients (70.5%). 50 patients (20%) required CRRT with a maximum number of 7 patients per day requiring CRRT. Conclusions: COVID-19 pandemic transformed the way how we provide critical care with improved bed capacity, ICU triage and ICU devices. This study highlighted the need for more clinical guidelines and their availability for online use. This will positively impact the care of non-COVID patients. It also highlighted the need for more training of non-ICU staff to allow for surges in ICU capacity. The COVID-19 pandemic has seen Mater Dei hospital already investing in ICU personnel and equipment as this cannot be reactive to large scale events but must be a proactive planned strategy to enhance resilience of our ITU.

14.
Critical Care ; 26(SUPPL 1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1793867

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Burnout syndrome (BOS) has been recognized for over 50 years. Over time, it has been reported that certain health care specialties are more vulnerable to BOS, such as those working in an intensive care unit (ICU). The introduction of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and its growing demand, adds to the overall workload in ICU, and exposes practitioners to complex ethical and administrative situations, which may impact their psychological well-being. We aim to investigate the effects of an ECMO service, on BOS development in the ICU. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study, using an online questionnaire;The Maslach Burnout Inventory Human Services Survey for Medical Personnel. In addition, demographic variables, workload, salary satisfaction, and caring for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients were assessed. Participants were divided based on working in ICU with ECMO service into ICU with (ECMO-ICU) and without (non-ECMO-ICU) ECMO service, and burnout status (burnout and no burnout). Results: The response rate for completing the questionnaire was 36.4% (445/1222). Males represented 53.7% of the participants. The overall prevalence of burnout was 64.5%. The overall burnout prevalence did not differ between ECMO- and non-ECMO-ICU groups (64.5% and 63.7, respectively). However, personal accomplishment (PA) score was significantly lower among ECMO-ICU personnel compared to those in a non-ECMO ICU (42.7% versus 52.6, p = 0.043). Significant predictors of burnout included profession (nurse or physician), acquiring COVID-19 infection, knowing other practitioners who were infected with COVID- 19, salary dissatisfaction, and extremes of workload. Conclusions: Burnout was equally prevalent among participants from ECMO- and non-ECMO ICU, but PA was lower among participants in ICU with an ECMO service. The reported high prevalence of burnout, and its predictors, requires special attention to try and reduce its occurrence.

15.
Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research ; 13(1):178-186, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1791338

ABSTRACT

Background: Odisha was also affected by the spread of the novel coronavirus (SARS-Cov-2), responsible for the COVID-19 disease. For its mitigation the health system in a tertiary care institution was frantically deploying all personnel like from health , security, food handlers , dealing with transportation. Objective: Our aim was to assess exposure, perceptions, workload, and possible burnout of Security personnel during the COVID-19 pandemic and to suggest specific recommendations based on the study findings. Methodology: The type of study was a cross sectional study, placed at Cuttack district in Odisha. Time Period of this study was Aprilto June 2021. 465 were finally included in the study. On the days of the mental health status assessment security personnel's were appraised and accordingly a predesigned, pretested questionnaire was implemented to them. Results: 57.5% males and 67.2% females were at the risk of burn out while 38.4% and 32.4% were at the edge of severe burn out. There was a significant difference in the mean score between those aged less than 30 years at F (5.434, 2) and those between 30 to 50 years as well as those aged above 50 years with p- value 0.008 and 0.009 respectively. Conclusions: Specific strategies have to be recommended and adapted like changing work pattern taking breaks, avoiding overtime, balance work with life. The task should include different skills to cope with stress, time managementand social support from family, friends and peer. Besides this various relaxation strategies to promote fitness, developunderstanding of life, counseling, better sleep, exercise, and good balanced nutrition.

16.
Traditional Medicine Research ; 7(3), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1791218

ABSTRACT

Network pharmacology is an emerging technology based on systems biology and computer information technology, with the help of databases and related auxiliary software, to carry out new drug development and the screening analysis of drug active ingredients and targets. At present, the network pharmacology has been used widely in the research of prevention and treatment drugs for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This paper reviews the research methods of network pharmacology in the field of prevention and treatment of COVID-19 by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the development of its specific drugs and further explores the concrete application ideas of this technology. The necessary databases and tools of necessary for screening the active components and targets to molecular docking are summarized. In addition, the practical application of network pharmacology in the study of several potential TCM and active components against COVID-19 is reviewed, mainly including the screening of active components, the discovery of target, and the elucidation of action mechanism. The diversification of research ideas of network pharmacology in the field of TCM was realized, in particular, with two specific ideas in the study of active ingredients of TCM. Finally, the difference of control effect among several TCM and Western medicines on COVID-19 and the limitation and challenge of network pharmacology in TCM, i.e., the insufficient integrity and accuracy of the database, the uncertain complexity of components analysis, the unclear mechanism of component-target action, and some new challenges due to the characteristics of TCM, are discussed. In view of the importance of TCM in the field of control of COVID-19, the combination of TCM and network pharmacology will continue to play an important role in the development of specific drugs of COVID-19 in the future, in particular, to save time and reduce the workload of drug developers, which is also a direction of TCM development. This study provides theoretical reference and methodological basis for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 by TCM.

17.
Construction Research Congress (CRC) on Project Management and Delivery, Contracts, and Design and Materials ; : 192-203, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1790426

ABSTRACT

Many college students had to switch to remote learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. Analyzing their workload and productivity after this major change is helpful to improve remote learning and teaching under these circumstances;however, there is limited quantitative evidence. Therefore, this study aims to quantitatively explore the impact of remote learning on college students' workload and productivity in the US during the pandemic. Within this issue, this research also asseses the impact of assistantships (i.e., students get paid for research, teaching, or other work) on students' workload and productivity, which has not been examined in remote learning during the pandemic. An online survey was developed and distributed, with 48 valid responses received. Descriptive analysis showed that total workload and overall productivity in remote learning were decreased, and students with assistantships had a higher total workload and higher productivity than those of students without assistantships. T-test indicated that the overall productivity in remote learning was reduced, with the most significant decrease in lecture attendance. Specifically, no significant difference in total workload between face-to-face and remote learning was detected, while significant differences in total workload and overall productivity between students with and without assistantships were identified. Further exploration of participants' comments suggested the folloiwng major reasons for decreased productivity, including inadequate learning location, distraction, lack of self-motivation, and technology and connectivity issues. This study can help students and instructors better arrange study contents to improve remote learning productivity and further reduce the negative impact of the pandemic on education activities.

18.
7th ACM SIGIR Conference on Human Information Interaction and Retrieval, CHIIR 2022 ; : 315-320, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1789004

ABSTRACT

We conducted a lab-based eye-Tracking study to investigate how interactivity of an AI-powered fact-checking system affects user interactions, such as dwell time, attention, and mental resources involved in using the system. A within-subject experiment was conducted, where participants used an interactive and a non-interactive version of a mock AI fact-checking system, and rated their perceived correctness of COVID-19 related claims. We collected web-page interactions, eye-Tracking data, and mental workload using NASA-TLX. We found that the presence of the affordance of interactively manipulating the AI system's prediction parameters affected users' dwell times, and eye-fixations on AOIs, but not mental workload. In the interactive system, participants spent the most time evaluating claims' correctness, followed by reading news. This promising result shows a positive role of interactivity in a mixed-initiative AI-powered system. © 2022 ACM.

19.
Fam Pract ; 2022 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784343

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: General practitioners (GPs) have been among the frontline workers since the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic. Reflecting and analyzing the ongoing pandemic response of general practice provides essential information and serves as a precondition for outlining future health policy strategies. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of the pandemic on GPs' daily work and well-being and to describe needs for improvement in primary care highlighted by the pandemic. METHODS: A 2-time cross-sectional online survey involving GPs in a northern Italian region was conducted in September 2020 and March/April 2021. RESULTS: Eighty-four GPs (29.6% of invited GPs) participated in the first survey, and 41 GPs (14.4%) in the second survey. Most GPs experienced a notable workload increase which was tendentially higher during the advanced stages of the pandemic. A notable increase between the first and the second survey was noted regarding the frequency of Covid-related patient contacts and phone calls. Communication with health authorities and hospitals was rated as improvable. Psychological distress among GPs tended to increase over time; female GPs were more affected in the first survey. Most practices introduced major changes in their workflow, mainly appointment-based visits and separating Covid-19-suspected patients. Availability of protective equipment considerably increased over time. In the second survey, the GPs felt more prepared to self-protection and outpatient treatment of Covid-affected patients. CONCLUSION: The work of GPs has been substantially impacted by the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic. Efforts should be undertaken to efficiently strengthen primary care which plays an important role in pandemic events.


The Covid-19 pandemic has considerably impacted the way of daily working of general practitioners (GPs). Several studies have been conducted which reflected the immediate response of general practice to the pandemic at its early stages, but studies assessing the ongoing situation are missing. This study responded to this need and aimed to illustrate the challenges, difficulties, and the personal well-being of GPs during the first pandemic wave and during the second/third pandemic wave. The study consisted of a 2-time online survey of GPs in a northern Italian province. The 84 GPs participating in the first survey and 41 GPs participating in the second survey indicated a notable workload increase due to the pandemic. The availability of protective equipment and of clinical guidance about how to treat Covid-19-affected patients in their homes was poor at the beginning but increased considerably over time. Psychological distress was slightly increasing. Most GPs modified their workflow and practice organization. Adequate support for general practice is required in pandemic events to enable GPs to provide safe and high-quality care; needs for improvement especially concern the provision of resources and the communication with public health institutions and hospitals.

20.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 166, 2022 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779644

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has a huge impact on healthcare provided. The nationwide pathology registry of the Netherlands, PALGA, offers an outstanding opportunity to measure this impact for diseases in which pathology examinations are involved. METHODS: Pathology specimen numbers in 2020 were compared with specimen numbers in 2019 for 5 periods of 4 weeks, representing two lockdowns and the periods in between, taking into account localization, procedure and benign versus malignant diagnosis. RESULTS: The largest decrease was seen during the first lockdown (spring 2020), when numbers of pathology reports declined up to 88% and almost all specimen types were affected. Afterwards each specimen type showed its own dynamics with a decrease during the second lockdown for some, while for others numbers remained relatively low during the whole year. Generally, for most tissue types resections, cytology and malignant diagnoses showed less decrease than biopsies and benign diagnoses. A significant but small catch-up (up to 17%) was seen for benign cervical cytology, benign resections of the lower gastro-intestinal tract, malignant skin resections and gallbladder resections. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant effect on pathology diagnostics in 2020. This effect was most pronounced during the first lockdown, diverse for different anatomical sites and for cytology compared with histology. The data presented here can help to assess the consequences on (public) health and provide a starting point in the discussion on how to make the best choices in times of scarce healthcare resources, considering the impact of both benign and malignant disease on quality of life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Netherlands/epidemiology , Pandemics , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
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