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1.
Journal of Research in Medical and Dental Science ; 10(8):96-99, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2067804

ABSTRACT

The spread of Covid 19 virus all over the globe in 2019 from Wuhan, China has posed possible threats to all the age groups of the human race. In the month of January dated 30 of the year 2020 the disease was declared as a public health emergency of International Concern and further them declared Corona virus illness as a pandemic on 11 March 2020. There had been numerous times when the virus has evolved into a new strain and many variants of the virus have emerged since the year 2021, and became dominant and spread too many countries, With the Delta, Alpha and Beta variants are the most virulent and Omicron being the latest strain of the virus. The virus posed threats in all possible forms from economic damages to the country to attacking the lives of people. The virus has all the potential of damaging organs severely. All the classes, strata's and age groups were affected, out of which the maximum to bear the brunt of the virus were the elderly and frail patients. They contracted infections easily and could not overcome the damage virus caused to the various organs. In this review, we will be discussing then the palliative care for elderly when there are times patients cannot be admitted in the hospital or are terminally ill and the condition doesn't seem to improve in spite of all the measure taken, we resort to improve their life and decreasing their pain and discomfort. Through this article we would be discussing about all the measure that can be taken to do the same.

2.
Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine ; 26(3):140-150, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2066865

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has necessitated the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) among the frontline health care workers (HCWs). Even though PPE helps in preventing infection, it poses significant physical and psychological impacts at varying levels. Correspondingly, multiple independent studies have brought out the PPE-associated problems. However, there exists a lacuna on comprehensive information of global prevalence related to the same. Aim(s): To estimate the prevalence and risk factors of PPE among HCWs during COVID-19 across the globe. Design(s): Systematic review and meta-analysis. Method(s): The review was undertaken as per the protocol registered in PROSPERO CRD42021272216 following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis(PRISMA) guidelines. Two independent reviewers have undertaken the search strategy, study selection, and methodological quality assessment. Discrepancies were addressed by the third reviewer. Heterogeneity was addressed through I2 statistics and forest plots generated by open meta-software. Result(s): A total of 16 articles conducted across 6 different countries among 10,182 HCWs were included in the review. The pooled prevalence of skin lesions, headache, sweating, breathing difficulty, vision difficulty, thirst/dry mouth, fatigue, and communication difficulty, anxiety, fear were 57 (47-66%), 51 (37-64%), 75 (56-90%), 44 (23-68%), 61 (21-94%), 54 (30-77%), 67 (58-76%), 74 (47-94%), 28 (24-33%), 14 (10-17%), respectively. Moreover, the various risk factors included are the use of PPE for >6 h and young females. In addition, the medical management of new-onset problems created an additional burden on the frontline health care personnel (HCP). Conclusion(s): The frontline HCWs encountered physical and psychological problems at varying levels as a result of wearing PPE which needs to be addressed to prevent the inadequate use of PPE leading to infections. Copyright © 2022 Wolters Kluwer Medknow Publications. All rights reserved.

3.
Chest ; 162(4):A1320, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060986

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Challenges in Cystic Fibrosis Case Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 1:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary involvement in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is seen in 30-50% of patients (most commonly Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonitis) but cystic lung disease is extremely rare (1). Lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP) is an inflammatory lung disease that is characterized by infiltration of lymphocytes and plasma cells (2), and associated with lung cysts. Oftentimes, it is associated with HIV, lymphoma, and primary Sjogren's Syndrome (SS) (2), however there are rare reports of LIP associated with SLE (1). We present a case of a young male with incidental lung cysts who was found to have a new diagnosis of SLE. CASE PRESENTATION: A 24-year-old male with a past medical history of premature birth at 5 months and prior mild COVID-19 infection presented with 3 weeks of abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, and unintentional 15-pound weight loss. He endorsed dry mouth, frequent cavities, and a new rash involving his chest, face, and lower extremities. Physical exam was significant for malar rash and dry mucous membranes. Labs revealed pancytopenia, sedimentation rate 61 mm/hour and C-reactive protein 5.54 mg/L. Computed tomography (CT) of the chest showed several thin-walled cysts in all bilateral lung lobes (predominant in right upper lobe) and bilateral axillary lymph nodes [Figure 1]. CT abdomen and pelvis was unremarkable. Autoimmune work-up resulted in a positive antinuclear antibody >1:1280, double stranded DNA antibody elevated at 34, elevated SSA and SSB antibodies (>8.0 and 1.4 respectively), and decreased Complement 3 (59.5 mg/dl) and 4 (10.1 mg/dl) levels. Peripheral smear, right axillary lymph node and bone marrow biopsies were negative for malignancy. He was started on prednisone and Plaquenil with symptomatic improvement. There is high suspicion of LIP given the clinical and radiological findings. He will follow up in clinic to obtain PFTs and schedule a lung biopsy. DISCUSSION: Interstitial lung disease in SLE presents in middle-aged patients at a later part of their disease course, with a female preponderance (2,3). An initial presentation of SLE and secondary SS in a young male and associated cystic lung disease is rare. The suspicion for LIP in association with SLE is high in our patient given variable size and distribution of lung cysts and coexisting secondary Sjogren's syndrome, although no ground glass or nodular opacities were found on CT chest as reported in typical LIP (3). Though this patient has no pulmonary symptoms, cysts/LIP in SLE tend to progress and have a high incidence of developing lymphomas, gammaglobulinemia and amyloidosis (2,3). CONCLUSIONS: It is important to establish a histopathological diagnosis and obtain baseline PFTs to monitor pulmonary disease manifestations. In addition to controlling the primary disease with antirheumatic drugs, steroids have been found to be useful in acute pulmonary flares (2). Reference #1: Maeda R, Isowa N, Miura H, Tokuyasu H. Systemic lupus erythematosus with multiple lung cysts. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2009 Jun;8(6):701-2. doi: 10.1510/icvts.2008.200055. Epub 2009 Mar 12. PMID: 19282324. Reference #2: Yood RA, Steigman DM, Gill LR. Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus. 1995 Apr;4(2):161-3. doi: 10.1177/096120339500400217. PMID: 7795624. Reference #3: Filipek MS, Thompson ME, Wang PL, Gosselin MV, L Primack S. Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus: radiographic and high-resolution CT findings. J Thorac Imaging. 2004 Jul;19(3):200-3. doi: 10.1097/01.rti.0000099464.94973.51. PMID: 15273618. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Matthew Fain No relevant relationships by Christina Fanous No relevant relationships by Rathnavali Katragadda No relevant relationships by CHRISELYN PALMA

4.
Journal of Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences University ; 11(1):105-110, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2034522

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, a respiratory corona virus, zoonotic disease and a global pandemic burden demonstrates a myriad of clinical and oral manifestations that have been documented in yester years. The clinical manifestations include sore throat, fever, dyspnea and anosmia (partial or complete loss of smell). The oral manifestations include xerostomia, candidiasis, and hyperpigmentation of melanin, oral ulcerations and ageusia (loss of taste sensation). These findings were further worsened in patients with co-morbidities such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, immunosuppression, pro-inflammatory or pro-coagulative states. The possibility of fungal infections with invasive mycosis has also been documented. However, the occurrence of this deadly virus in pre-diabetic case is a rarity that needs to be explored so as to affirm the hypothesis that hyperglycemia was due to viral induced phenomena or thereof. We report here, one such rare case of mucormycotic osteomyelitis of maxilla manifested after few months in SARS-CoV-2 positive patient with no previous history of diabetes but marked increase in blood sugar level, when infected with corona virus, which can be tagged as a case of non-diabetic hyperglycemia/pre-diabetes/impaired glucose regulation (raised blood glucose level but not in the diabetic range).

5.
Laryngoscope Investig Otolaryngol ; 7(4): 1018-1024, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1999888

ABSTRACT

Objective: Radiation therapy (RT) for head and neck cancer (HNC) can result in severe xerostomia, or the subjective feeling of dry mouth. Characterizing xerostomia is critical to designing future clinical trials investigating how to improve HNC patients' quality of life (QoL). Few studies have investigated the very late (>5 years post-RT) effects of RT for HNC. We undertook preliminary studies quantifying very late xerostomia. Methods: Six adults who underwent RT for HNC at least 5 years prior and reported xerostomia were enrolled. Five healthy adults without a self-reported history of HNC or xerostomia were enrolled as controls. All participants completed three validated surveys to measure xerostomia-related QoL. Salivary production rates were measured and compositional analysis of the saliva and oral microbiome was completed. Results: The QoL survey scores for the HNC participants were significantly worse as compared to the control participants. The HNC participants produced less unstimulated saliva (p = .02) but not less stimulated saliva. The median salivary mucin significantly higher in HNC participants than in control participants (p = .02). There was no significant difference between the pH, amylase, or total protein. Microbiome analysis revealed alpha diversity to be significantly lower in the HNC participants. Conclusion: In the survivors of HNC who suffer from late toxicities, multiple means of measuring toxicity may be useful. We found that in patients with radiation-induced xerostomia over 5 years after therapy, not only were the QoL surveys significantly worse, as expected, but other measurements such as mucin and oral microbiome diversity were also significantly different. Level of evidence: 3.

6.
World Journal of Dentistry ; 13(5):434-440, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1975165

ABSTRACT

Aim: Evaluation of oral lesions in COVID-hospitalized patients, analyzing the potential etiopathogenetic mechanisms. Materials and methods: We evaluated a total of 58 hospitalized COVID patients in the time span from April 2021 to May 2021. The group analyzed consists of 38 male patients (66%) and 20 female patients (34%), aged between 22 and 92, with a preponderance of 60–80 years. All patients underwent an oral evaluation in order to detect the various oral manifestations;moreover, the onset time of these lesions has been correlated with the time of manifestation of the general symptoms of COVID infection. Results: Xerostomia has been the most frequent oral manifestation detected (30 patients, 51.7% of the sample), followed by ageusia (16 patients, 27.6%), and white tongue (13 patients, 22.4%). Other oral manifestations observed were aphthous lesions, fissured tongue, metallic taste, tingling in the lip and chin, and burning mouth syndrome. Conclusion: Our findings show a significant correlation between the oral manifestations and the burst of viral replication phase in COVID patients. Clinical significance: Awareness of the possible oral manifestations of COVID infection is important to conduct a correct diagnosis in oral pathology. © The Author(s). 2022.

7.
NeuroQuantology ; 20(8):1519-1527, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1969848

ABSTRACT

This study investigated dental problems and radiological and cardiac evaluations in patients affected by Covid-19. Heart disease is related to the health of the teeth, and people who have damaged and decayed teeth are more prone to cardiovascular disease. Researchers have concluded that poor dental hygiene is a sign of acute heart disease risks. In the report presented by Tarje Imna service, a group of researchers examined almost 65 thousand people infected with the corona virus in order to evaluate the effects of the covid 19 virus on the oral and dental health of the affected people. According to the results of this research, one of the effects of the corona virus on the body is the reduction of oral moisture. Almost 43% of patients accepted this effect. In general, dry mouth is one of the causes of oral and dental diseases, especially bad breath. Corona virus also increases the risk of tooth decay by reducing the moisture in the mouth. Another effect of the corona virus on the mouth and teeth is to cause ulcers in the gums and tongue. Of course, in this case, researchers do not comment with certainty, because they believe that other factors are also effective in causing these wounds. Some experts say that considering that more than 47 percent of adults who are 30 years old or older have periodontal diseases, such as gum infection, inflammation of the gums and bone around the teeth. We should expect that the existing dental and oral problems will become more acute in case of infection with Covid-19.

8.
J Clin Med ; 11(15)2022 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969321

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, has impacted the world in an unprecedented way since December 2019. SARS-CoV-2 was found in the saliva of patients, and entry points for the virus may have been through the numerous angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors in the oral cavity. Oral manifestations of COVID-19 could contribute to the burden of oral disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of oral manifestations of COVID-19 in patients and their association with disease severity. METHODS: Interviews were conducted with adult participants diagnosed with COVID-19 between October 2021 and March 2022 to document their demographic and health status data, symptoms, and the presence of oral manifestations of COVID-19. Chi-square and the Fisher's exact test were used to compare data on the presence or absence of oral manifestations of COVID-19. RESULTS: Of 195 participants interviewed, 33% were 18 to 24 years old, 33% were 25 to 34 years old, and 75% were female. A total of 57 (29%) had oral manifestations; the most common were taste disorders (60%), xerostomia (42%), and oral ulcers (11%). There was no relationship between the severity of COVID-19 and the presence of the oral manifestations. CONCLUSION: Oral manifestations of COVID-19 were common among female patients and linked to certain general COVID-19 symptoms regarding frequency and extent.

9.
Journal of Clinical Periodontology ; 49:84, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956753

ABSTRACT

The aim is to determine oral manifestations in patients with COVID-19 disease and in the postcovid period. Methods: A special survey (questionnaire) was made in 424 people who had COVID-19 confirmed by RT-PCR, ELISA for specific IgM and IgG antibodies and Chest CT scan (168 people). 123 people had complaints and clinical symptoms in the oral cavity 2-6 months after the illness and they came to the University dental clinic. Laboratory tests have been performed (clinical blood test, blood immunogram, virus and fungal identification). Results: Survey results showed that 16,0% participants had asymptomatic COVID-19, 23,6% - mild and 48,1% moderate disease. 12,3% with severe COVID-19 were treated in a hospital with oxygen support. In the first 2 weeks 44,3% indicated xerostomia, dysgeusia (21,7%), muscle pain during chewing (11,3%), pain during swallowing (30,2%), burning and painful tongue (1,9%), tongue swelling (30,2%), catharal stomatitis (16,0%), gingival bleeding (22,6%), painful ulcers (aphthae) (8,5%) and signs of candidiasis - white plaque in the tongue (12,3%). After illness (3-6 months), patients indicated dry mouth (12,3%), progressing of gingivitis (20,7%) and periodontitis (11,3%). In patients who applied to the clinic we identified such diagnoses: desquamative glossitis - 16 cases, glossodynia (11), herpes labialis and recurrent herpetic gingivostomatitis (27), hairy leukoplakia (1), recurrent aphthous stomatitis (22), aphthosis Sutton (4), necrotising ulcerative gingivitis (13), oral candidiasis (14), erythema multiforme (8), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (2), oral squamous cell papillomas on the gingiva (4) and the lower lip (1). According to laboratory studies, virus reactivation (HSV, VZV, EBV, CMV, Papilloma viruces) was noted in 52 patients (42,3%), immunodeficiency in 96 people (78,0%), immunoregulation disorders (allergic and autoimmune reactions) in 24 people (19,5%). Conclusions: Lack of oral hygiene, hyposalivation, vascular compromise, stress, immunodeficiency and reactivation of persistent viral and fungal infections in patients with COVID-19 disease are risk factors for progression of periodontal and oral mucosal diseases.

10.
British Journal of Dermatology ; 186(6):e249, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956694

ABSTRACT

Numerous cutaneous reactions have been reported secondary to COVID-19 vaccinations. The most commonly reported include local site reactions, delayed large local reactions, urticaria and morbilliform eruptions. Here we report a case of de novo subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE) after COVID-19 immunization. A 56-year-old woman presented with a 3-month history of a rash. The onset was 1 week following the first dose of the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine. She reported lesions characterized by erythema, pruritus and a burning sensation. She also described mouth dryness. Examination revealed scaly annular erythematous plaques on the chest, arms, legs and scalp. Blood results were positive for anti-Ro antibodies and strongly positive for anti-nuclear antibodies (1: 2560 titre). Anti-Smith, anti-centromere and double- stranded DNA antibodies were negative. Skin biopsy revealed the histological appearance of an interface of dermatitis. Direct immunofluorescence was negative. These clinical and histopathological findings are consistent with a diagnosis of SCLE. The patient was treated with hydroxychloroquine, a weaning course of prednisolone, topical steroids and topical tacrolimus. Her hydroxychloroquine dose was 200 mg twice daily for the first 3 months and then increased to 400 mg twice daily. This resulted in an improvement of her presentation although she has yet to achieve complete remission. It has been suggested that enhanced interferon responses with COVID-19 vaccination and interactions of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein with cytoplasmic RNA-binding proteins could contribute to disease flares in lupus. There are two other recent reports of SCLE developing or being exacerbated by COVID-19 vaccination. More research is required to determine how COVID-19 vaccinations affect patients with autoimmune skin diseases.

11.
HemaSphere ; 6(SUPPL 2):16-17, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1915867

ABSTRACT

G protein-coupled receptor family C group 5 member D (GPRC5D) has limited expression in healthy human tissue but is highly expressed in malignant plasma cells, making it a promising target for immunotherapy approaches for MM. Talquetamab (JNJ-64407564) is a first-in-class bispecific antibody that binds to both GPRC5D and CD3 receptors to redirect T cells to kill MM cells. Updated and new results of talquetamab at the recommended phase 2 doses (RP2Ds) are reported (NCT03399799). Eligible patients had RRMM or were intolerant to standard therapies. Patients who were previously treated with B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA)-directed therapies were eligible. This analysis focuses on patients who received talquetamab subcutaneously (SC;range: 5.0-800 μg/kg) weekly (QW) or biweekly (Q2W) with step-up dosing. The primary objectives were to identify the RP2D (part 1) and assess talquetamab safety and tolerability at the RP2Ds (part 2). Adverse events (AEs) were graded by CTCAE v4.03;cytokine release syndrome (CRS) was graded per Lee et al 2014 criteria. Responses were investigator-assessed per IMWG criteria. As of July 19, 2021, 95 patients had received SC talquetamab. The original RP2D was 405 μg/kg SC talquetamab QW with step-up doses, and a second RP2D of 800 μg/kg SC talquetamab Q2W with step-up doses was also identified. 30 patients received 405 μg/kg QW (median 61.5 years [range 46-80];63% male;100% triple-class exposed;80% penta-drug exposed;77% triple-class refractory, 20% penta-drug refractory;30% prior BCMA-directed therapy;median follow-up [mF/U]: 7.5 mo [range 0.9-15.2]). 23 patients received 800 μg/kg Q2W (median 60.0 years [range 47-84];48% male;96% triple-class exposed;70% penta-drug exposed;65% triple-class refractory, 22% penta-drug refractory;17% prior BCMA-directed therapy;mF/U: 3.7 mo [range 0.0-12.0]). No treatment discontinuations due to AEs were reported at either RP2Ds. Most common AEs at the 405 μg/kg QW were CRS (73%;1 grade 3 CRS), neutropenia (67%;grade 3/4: 60%), and dysgeusia (60%;grade 2: 29%). Skin-related AEs occurred in 77% of patients and were all grade 1/2 (nail disorders: 30%). Infections occurred in 37% of patients (1 grade 3 COVID-19 pneumonia). Most common AEs at 800 μg/kg Q2W were CRS (78%;all grade 1/2), dry mouth (44%;all grade 1/2), and neutropenia (44%;grade 3/4: 35%). Skin-related AEs occurred in 65% of patients with grade 3 events in 13% (nail disorders: 17%). Infections occurred in 13% of patients (1 grade 3 pneumococcal sepsis). In 30 response-evaluable patients treated at 405 μg/kg QW, the overall response rate (ORR) was 70% (very good partial response or better [≥VGPR]: 57%). In 17 response-evaluable patients treated at 800 μg/ kg Q2W, the ORR was 71% (≥VGPR: 53%). Responses were durable and deepened over time with both RP2Ds (Figure). Median duration of response (DOR) was not reached at either RP2D;6-month DOR rate was 67% (95% CI: 41-84) at 405 μg/kg QW. Serum trough levels of talquetamab were comparable at both RP2Ds. Pharmacodynamic data at both RP2Ds showed peripheral T cell activation and induction of cytokines. SC talquetamab is well tolerated and highly effective at both RP2Ds. Preliminary data suggest that less frequent, higher doses of SC talquetamab do not negatively impact the safety profile. Further evaluation of talquetamab as monotherapy (phase 2;NCT04634552) and in combination with other therapies in patients with RRMM is underway. (Figure Presented) .

12.
Clinical Toxicology ; 60(SUPPL 1):30, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1915449

ABSTRACT

Objective: In some countries the Thursday before Easter is called Green Thursday according to the Christian calendar, and in this tradition, a green meal should be eaten on this day to ensure good health throughout the coming year. A few days before Easter the National Toxicological Information Centre (NTIC) registered an increased number of toxicological consultations following consumption of deep-frozen spinach puree which was sold in retail chains throughout Slovakia. Symptoms were characteristic of tropane alkaloid intoxication and experts suspected the spinach was contaminated with Jimson weed (Datura stramonium). Methods: A retrospective analysis of all telephone calls concerning frozen spinach products from the database of the NTIC from 1 March 2021 to 30 April 2021 was conducted. Results: The NTIC received 93 telephone calls from people who had consumed frozen spinach, of which 64 people (7 children) had mild symptoms of intoxication (PSS1) and 5 moderate poisoning (PSS2). The most commonly reported symptoms were malaise, dizziness, dry mouth, mydriasis and blurred vision that appeared within 1 to 2 hours after ingestion. Patients with moderate symptoms of intoxication were confused, disoriented and had hallucinations. The symptoms disappeared spontaneously within 48 hours. The country was in a state of emergency that had been declared before Easter due to COVID-19 and people were afraid to attend hospitals. Therefore, only 7 out of 69 people with symptoms arrived in hospital. Only 3 patients were hospitalised. Treatment was symptomatic, without the administration of an antidote physostigmine. The other patients were treated at home. Unfortunately, an increased number of consultations was recorded on Good Friday afternoon, when it was very difficult to initiate a wide scale alert informing the public through the media. Over the Easter weekend, the NTIC alerted the public to avoid the contaminated spinach via social media and the NTIC website. The State Veterinary and Food Administration of the Slovak Republic arranged analyses of contaminated frozen spinach samples in an accredited laboratory and this confirmed the presence of atropine and scopolamine. Conclusion: Datura stramonium grew with spinach in the field as a weed and contaminated the spinach due to insufficient entry and exit controls. As a result of promptly spreading information and informing the public about the contaminated spinach product in the media, further cases of poisoning over the Easter holidays were successfully averted.

13.
Practical Diabetes ; 39(3):5-6, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1894621
14.
In Vivo ; 36(3): 1349-1353, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1818963

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human infection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus has caused a pandemic characterized by a plethora of diseases, of which those affecting the internal organs and nervous system can have severe, life-threatening consequences. Among the manifestations of the disease at the viral entry site, diseases in oral mucosa adnexa are rarely reported. This case report describes a COVID-19-associated aggravating parotid gland disease. CASE REPORT: The 47-year-old, SARS-CoV-2-positive male patient, already hospitalized and now in need of ventilation, had been referred for intensive care treatment due to increasing respiratory problems. A unilateral swelling of the cheek was noticed, the cause of which was initially a parotid gland infection. Examination ruled out mechanical causes of the parotid gland. During further treatment, the patient developed a parotid abscess, which was drained extra orally. CONCLUSION: The oral cavity is primarily considered as a reservoir of the pathogen. There is an increasing number of reports detailing inflammation of the major salivary glands associated with SARS-CoV-2 virus. Knowledge of this association facilitates therapeutic decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Abscess/diagnosis , Abscess/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Parotid Gland , SARS-CoV-2
15.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 11(3): 1000-1005, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753785

ABSTRACT

Background: Viral diseases continue to emerge as a threat to mankind and are a serious concern to public health. The latest lethal SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19 is a highly contagious disease, which propagated quickly across the globe. Similar to other influenza-like viral infections, symptoms such as fever, dry cough, myalgia, arthralgia, headache, diarrhea, dyspnea, and fatigue were reported among COVID-19 patients. Evidence suggests that the oral cavity is affected by this virus either directly or indirectly. Aim: The aim of this observational study was to determine the oral manifestations among COVID-19 patients. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was carried out among COVID-19 recovered patients. A sample of 100 subjects, diagnosed as mild and moderate cases of COVID-19 disease were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: The study comprised an almost equal number of male (51%) and female (49%) participants and among them, 48% belong to the health professional group. A total of 54% of subjects were aged above 35 years and 46% below 35 years. Oral manifestations among study subjects during and after the disease illness included xerostomia being the commonest symptom (44%), followed by swallowing difficulty (16%), mouth ulcerations (10%), chewing problem (7%), gum bleeding (6%), and burning sensation (4%). Conclusion: Xerostomia, frequent aphthous ulcers, swallowing difficulty, and burning mouth were the most frequently encountered symptoms in study subjects during the disease and post recovery. Early identification of oral symptoms in COVID-19 recovered or suspected cases can help a dentist or a general physician to diagnose high-risk groups, mitigate transmission, and promote overall health.

16.
J Oral Biol Craniofac Res ; 12(2): 279-283, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747754

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The aim of present study was to investigate oral manifestations associated with COVID-19 disease. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study comprised 367 suspects with mild/moderate COVID-19 symptoms who reported to a tertiary care hospital's screening OPD. An in-depth case history was taken, and an oral cavity examination was performed to detect any oral findings. All participants were tested for SARS-CoV-2 using a naso-pharyngeal swab and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.Oral manifestations and the results of RT-PCR testing were correlated. Statistical analyses were performed using Epi Info and R software. To estimate the prevalence of oral symptoms, the Pearson chi-square test was used. Results: Oral manifestations were found in 58% of the study population. The difference in the prevalence of oral manifestations between RT-PCR positive COVID-19 patients versus RT-PCR negative suspects was statistically significant (p = 0.007) with xerostomia and dysgeusia being significantly higher in positive patients (p = 0.036 and p = 0.044 respectively) while the prevalence of stomatopyrosis and other intraoral signs was insignificant. Conclusion: Xerostomia and dysgeusia are the common oral manifestations of COVID-19.

17.
Polymers (Basel) ; 14(5)2022 Feb 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742589

ABSTRACT

The medical term xerostomia refers to the subjective sensation of oral dryness. The etiology seems to be multifactorial with the most frequently reported causes being the use of xerostomic medications, neck and head radiation, and systematic diseases (such as Sjögren's syndrome). Xerostomia is associated with an increased incidence of dental caries, oral fungal infections, and difficulties in speaking and chewing/swallowing, which ultimately affect the oral health-related quality of life. The development of successful management schemes is regarded as a highly challenging project due to the complexity of saliva. This is why, in spite of the fact that there are therapeutic options aiming to improve salivary function, most management approaches are alleviation-oriented. In any case, polymers are an integral part of the various formulations used in every current treatment approach, especially in the saliva substitutes, due to their function as thickening and lubricating agents or, in the case of mucoadhesive polymers, their ability to prolong the treatment effect. In this context, the present review aims to scrutinize the literature and presents an overview of the role of various polymers (or copolymers) on either already commercially available formulations or novel drug delivery systems currently under research and development.

18.
New Armenian Medical Journal ; 15(3):78-83, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1695241

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 caused by an emerging pathogen SARS-CoV-2 is able to lead to various pathological conditions in the oral cavity. Of huge importance is the risk of xerostomia which can occur in both during the height of the disease and after recovery from this novel coronavirus infection. A possible risk factor for xerostomia in patients with COVID-19 may be the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 by salivary gland cells. Efforts are under way in many countries to treat and minimize the so called post-COVID syndrome. Our clinical and epidemiological study was aimed at studying the effectiveness of the treatment of xerostomia in patients with COVID-19. The research question required an observational, prospective, sampling, controlled open before-after intervention study design. This paper describes the potential of using modern moisturizing polycomponent toothpastes in patients with signs of xerostomia who have undergone COVID-19. The study included 40 patients of both sexes, aged 32 to 44 years. 78 +/- 6.6% were female participants. Research methods such as medical and dental examination, sialometry test for measuring saliva flow, as well as statistical analysis and interpretation were used. Our research has shown that the application of moisturizing toothpaste can improve salivation and subjective sensations of this group of patients. In addition, we have outlined approaches to the construction of further clinical and epidemiological studies of effectiveness of interventions similar in nature. In turn, this will allow us to make more accurate and maximally unbiased judgments about prophylactic and therapeutic effects of such interventions.

19.
J Maxillofac Oral Surg ; : 1-10, 2022 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1682030

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The current COVID-19 pandemic has created a huge impact across the globe. Recent literature has reported the occurrence of varied oral lesions in COVID-19 patients in the form of sporadic case reports. This analytical cross-sectional study was carried out to gauge and understand the pattern of oral lesions in qualitative RT-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involves a total of 500 qualitative RT-PCR confirmed, hospitalized COVID-19 patients who were meticulously scanned for any hard and soft tissue lesions developing concomitantly with the disease occurrence. RESULTS: This study included a total of 367 (73.4%) males and 133 (26.6%) female patients with a mean age of 53.46 ± 17.50 years. Almost 51.2% of patients presented with gustatory disturbance, 28% with xerostomia and 15.4% of patients were found to have oral findings like erythema, ulcers, depapillation of tongue. There was a statistically significant correlation between oral manifestations and disease severity (p ≤ 0.001). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 is found to effect oral health with greater probability in patients with severe diseases (SARI) which may be due to disease itself, immune response and lack of motivation for personal hygiene measures. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12663-021-01679-x.

20.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 279(5): 2523-2532, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1640832

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The present study investigates the COVID-19 survivors' perspective on speech, swallowing, and hearing-related issues post-COVID-19. We further investigate the recovery duration for speech, swallowing, and hearing-related symptoms post-COVID. DESIGN: Survey study; E-survey. METHODOLOGY: A total of 78 subjects (35.78 years ± 11.93) participated in the survey. All the participants were diagnosed with the RTPCR method. To understand the recovery duration for the speech, swallowing and hearing issues post-COVID-19, we conducted a three-phase study. RESULTS: In the first phase of the survey, 68 subjects reported symptoms related to speech, swallowing, and hearing issues 15 days of post-COVID recovery. A total of 76.4% of subjects reported only swallowing-related issues, 4.41% only speech-related issues, whereas 1.47% reported the problem in speech and hearing functions. The 2nd phase of the study was conducted after the first phase of the study. Only 22 subjects reported the presence of swallowing, speech and hearing-related issues from the 68 subjects. During the last phase, only 12 subjects reported speech, swallowing, and hearing issues. All subjects recovered from the olfaction and gustation impairment, whereas 50% of subjects reported the presence of xerostomia. CONCLUSION: From the present study, we conclude that the SARC-CoV-2 virus directly affects the respiratory system and affects the aero-digestive system and laryngeal system physiology. Individuals with comorbid conditions admitted in ICU during COVID-19 treatment and prolonged hospital stay were at higher risk of developing speech, swallowing, and hearing-related issues post-COVID-19. The present study indicated that all COVID-19 survivors should be screened for speech, swallowing, and hearing-related issues for early rehabilitation if needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Deglutition , Hearing , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Speech
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