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1.
Veterinar ; 59(1):14-23, 2021.
Article in Croatian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1837993

ABSTRACT

The first cases of human disease from COVID-19 were recorded in December 2019 in China, from where it spread rapidly around the world. COVID-19, the third emerging coronavirus infection in humans, is caused by the new SARS-CoV-2 virus, which can cause a severe acute respiratory syndrome in some infected individuals. Previous research has revealed the possible animal origin of SARS-CoV-2, with bats considered as natural reservoirs and pangolins as intermediate hosts. To better understand COVID-19 and more successfully control the spread, domestic and wild animals have been infected in experimental conditions. On the other hand, in some species, infections have been recorded in field conditions. Natural infections have been reported in dogs, cats, tigers, lions, and minks, who have been in contact with SARS-CoV-2 positive humans. The reverse transmission of the pathogen, from infected animals to humans, has only been recorded on intensive mink farms. To better understand the pathogenesis of this disease's causative agent, drugs and vaccine trials, some experimental infections were performed on animal models, of which ferrets, rhesus macaques, and hamsters proved to be the most suitable. This article aimed to consolidate known data on the potential origin of SARS-CoV-2, its transmission to humans, infections in animals, and their significance in the epidemiology of COVID-19.

2.
Pakistan Journal of Zoology ; 54(4):1899, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837596

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus consists of single-stranded, enveloped and RNA virus, largest genome among all RNA viruses and has 4 proteins i.e. envelope, spike, nucleocapsid and membrane. Coronaviruses are classified into 4 genera: Alphacoronavirus, Betacoronavirus, Gammacoronavirus and Deltacoronavirus. Betacoronavirus most probably originated from bats and the virus may have jumped to avian species and evolved as Deltacoronavirus group. The avian coronaviruses jumped among other avian species, giving rise to Gammacoronavirus from Deltacoronavirus, while Betacoronavirus may have given rise to Alphacoronavirus. It is known that SARS-CoV-2 belongs to Betacoronavirus. This most similar virus is verified in bat and Malayan Pangolin. Analysis showed that SARS-CoV-2 most probably originated by recombination of both bat and pangolin viruses. Viral protein seroconversion and viral specific nucleotide positive documented in all COVID-19 patients tested provides confirmation of a link between the presence of this virus and the disease.

3.
Cureus ; 14(3), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1835734

ABSTRACT

Based on the recommendation of the International Coalition to Eliminate hepatitis B virus (ICE-HBV), we intend to mimic the spontaneous resolution of HBV infection to achieve a functional cure of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. To this end, we propose sequential targeting of the innate and adaptive host immune responses. Long-term suppression of HBV replication and hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg) production will be achieved first by inducing a strong innate immune response. The clinically validated viral superinfection therapy (SIT) will be administered, which employs an attenuated, non-lytic, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) that provides an exceptionally strong interferon (IFN) response. Then, the exhausted HBV-specific T cell function will be restored by blocking the cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA‐4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD‐1) receptors with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). In order to minimize any risk of toxicity, off-label low doses of nivolumab (0.5 mg/kg) plus ipilimumab (0.3 mg/kg) will be administered, the safety and efficacy of which has already been demonstrated in 131 unselected stage IV cancer patients. We predict that this combination therapy will provide sustained off-treatment virological and clinical responses during a relatively short treatment period.

4.
Frontiers in Public Health ; 10:854419, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834651

ABSTRACT

Human deaths from rabies are preventable and can be eliminated by applying a systematic One Health approach. However, this ancient disease still threatens the lives of millions of people in up to 150 countries and kills an estimated 59, 000 people every year. Rabies today is largely a disease of poverty, almost always linked to dog bites, with most deaths occurring in neglected communities in Africa and Asia. The disease places an immense economic burden on its victims, a cost that far outweighs the investment needed to control it. A global framework for rabies elimination in humans is set out in Zero by 30: The Global Strategic Plan to end human deaths from dog-mediated rabies by 2030. Despite the existence of proven control strategies and agreement on the path to eliminating human rabies deaths, mortality numbers from rabies remain high, and COVID-19 has set back efforts even further. But COVID-19 has also highlighted the value of a One Health approach to zoonotic disease and pandemic prevention. Rabies control programs offer a practical route to building One Health capacities that can also address other zoonotic threats, including those with pandemic potential. The United Against Rabies Forum aims to accelerate progress on rabies elimination while applying a One Health approach. The Forum promotes cross-sector collaboration among stakeholders and supports countries in their rabies elimination efforts. Increased political engagement and resource mobilization, both internationally and nationally, will be needed to achieve global rabies goals and can also make One Health implementation a reality.

5.
Emerging Infectious Diseases ; 28(4), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1834284

ABSTRACT

Patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 might have bacterial and fungal superinfections develop. We describe a clinical case of coronavirus disease with pulmonary aspergillosis associated with Bordetella hinzii pneumonia in an immunocompetent patient in France. B. hinzii infections are rare in humans and develop secondary to immunosuppression or debilitating diseases.

6.
Microbiology Research ; 13(1):49, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1818178

ABSTRACT

Nosocomial resistance in staphylococci and enterococci is challenging. The aim of this work was to conduct a multipoint study using molecular detections, antimicrobial resistances profiles, patient demographics and disease patterns for objective assessments of Staphilococcus aureus and other Gram-positive pathogens recovered from clinical infections in the Ha’il region. We have surveyed 188 non-duplicate Gram-positives against 22 antimicrobials for molecular-differentiation, resistance, patient demographics, and disease patterns from January–April 2021. According to definitions for acquired resistance, Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequent with multidrug resistant (65.4%), where MRSA was 60% (n = 72 out of 121). In age-identified patients, 43% were seniors ≥50 years, 38% 21–49 years, and 19% 0–20 years. In gender-identified patients, 63% were males, and 37% were females. While 25% of specimens were from the ICU, the majority (60%) of specimens were from surgical infection in other wards. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the second (15.4%) species of infection identified with 81% from bloodstream infections at the ICU and other wards. The majority of S. epidermidis patients (69%) were seniors ≥50 years, while other age groups 0–20 and 21–49 each had 14% isolates. Although S. epidermidis was multidrug-resistant, it was susceptible to many drugs. Enterococcus faecalis (13%) ranked third with two major infections;bloodstream (64%) and urinary-tract infections (36%) in mainly seniors (86%). Its isolates were fully resistant to oxacillin, penicillin, cefoxitin, and cefotaxime but nearly 100% susceptible to seven others. Other Gram-positive bacteria (6%) were susceptible to many antibiotics. The use of combinations of objective criteria is a well thought out approach in infection control. While the low-frequency of Gram-positives is an impressive achievement, future large-scale investigations should include all private hospitals, clinics and other cities over a longer sampling time to gain more insights. Although geriatric susceptibility can be justified by age and comorbidities, the staphylococcal infections in young adults and children is a global concern and warrants more vertical studies.

7.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(7), 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1817900

ABSTRACT

Epidemiologic and genomic investigation of SARS-CoV-2 infections associated with 2 repatriation flights from India to Australia in April 2021 indicated that 4 passengers transmitted SARS-CoV-2 to >11 other passengers. Results suggest transmission despite mandatory mask use and predeparture testing. For subsequent flights, predeparture quarantine and expanded predeparture testing were implemented.

8.
Virus Evolution ; 8(veab110), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1816260

ABSTRACT

Zoonotic spillover of animal viruses into human populations is a continuous and increasing public health risk. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) highlights the global impact of emergence. Considering the history and diversity of coronaviruses (CoVs), especially in bats, SARS-CoV-2 will likely not be the last to spillover from animals into human populations. We sampled and tested wildlife in the Central African country Cameroon to determine which CoVs are circulating and how they relate to previously detected human and animal CoVs. We collected animal and ecological data at sampling locations and used family-level consensus PCR combined with amplicon sequencing for virus detection. Between 2003 and 2018, samples were collected from 6,580 animals of several different orders. CoV RNA was detected in 175 bats, a civet, and a shrew. The CoV RNAs detected in the bats represented 17 different genetic clusters, coinciding with alpha (n = 8) and beta (n = 9) CoVs. Sequences resembling human CoV-229E (HCoV-229E) were found in 40 Hipposideridae bats. Phylogenetic analyses place the human-derived HCoV-229E isolates closest to those from camels in terms of the S and N genes but closest to isolates from bats for the envelope, membrane, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase genes. The CoV RNA positivity rate in bats varied significantly (P < 0.001) between the wet (8.2 per cent) and dry seasons (4.5 per cent). Most sampled species accordingly had a wet season high and dry season low, while for some the opposite was found. Eight of the suspected CoV species of which we detected RNA appear to be entirely novel CoV species, which suggests that CoV diversity in African wildlife is still rather poorly understood. The detection of multiple different variants of HCoV-229E-like viruses supports the bat reservoir hypothesis for this virus, with the phylogenetic results casting some doubt on camels as an intermediate host. The findings also support the previously proposed influence of ecological factors on CoV circulation, indicating a high level of underlying complexity to the viral ecology. These results indicate the importance of investing in surveillance activities among wild animals to detect all potential threats as well as sentinel surveillance among exposed humans to determine emerging threats.

9.
Gender, Place & Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography ; : 1-18, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1815720

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has brought to unavoidable prominence what feminist geopolitics has long insisted, namely that the global and the intimate are always, everywhere, already entangled. Drawing on Anglo-American experiences of the pandemic, this paper aims to make two key arguments. The first is that feminist geopolitics is a conceptual approach that is perhaps uniquely placed to make sense of COVID geographies. The second is to propose that this account of COVID speaks back to recent debates about the future of feminist geopolitics. Reflecting on recent debates about possible futures for feminist geopolitics, the paper will make the case for a materially-engaged feminist geopolitics which nevertheless keeps the socially-marked body at the heart of analysis. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Gender, Place & Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography is the property of Routledge and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

10.
"Lucrari Stiintifice Medicina Veterinara, Universitatea de Stiinte Agricole si Medicina Veterinara ""Ion Ionescu de la Brad"" Iasi" ; 64(4):10-20, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1812670

ABSTRACT

The following paper includes a synthesis of bibliographical information regarding the main diseases caused by coronaviruses, both in animals (companion and domestic) as well as in humans, observing the imprevisible tendencies of this viral family. These data are completed by an epidemiological analysis of the main events caused by coronaviruses in humans, using the available databases. Coronaviruses are worldspread entities, producing, in humans and animals, the most diverse diseases, with digestive, respiratory or nervous symptoms in animals, some forms being very serious and with special economic implications and others mild or even clinically unexpressed;in humans, the symptoms are predominantly respiratory, in some cases beginning with digestive signs and the complications that occur may be neurological in nature. Over the years, especially since 2002 (SARS-CoV), continuing with 2012 (MERS) and more recently, from 2019, culminating with SARS-CoV-2, it has been possible to identify the trend of zoonotic transmission (from animal to human), with a particularly high pathogenic potential of these viruses, which have different rates of morbidity and mortality. Another interesting aspect is the fact that cases of anthropozoonotic transmission (from human to animal) have been reported, in the case of pets, but also of fur animals (minks).

11.
Sustainability ; 14(8):4748, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1810164

ABSTRACT

Several biosafety gaps in agri-food sectors have become evident in recent years. Many of them are related to the global livestock systems and the organizational models involved in their management and organization. For example, producing pigs requires a global system of massive confinement and specific technological innovations related to animal production and health that involve broad technical and scientific structures, which are required to generate specific knowledge for successful management. This suggests the need for an underlying socially agglomerated technological ecosystem relevant for these issues. So, we propose the analysis of a specialized scientific social structure in terms of the knowledge and technologies required for pig production and health. The objective of this work is to characterize structural patterns in the research of the swine health sector worldwide. We use a mixed methodological approach, based on a social network approach, and obtained scientific information from 4868 specialized research works on health and pig production generated between 2010 to 2018, from 47 countries. It was possible to analyze swine research dynamics, such as convergence and influence, at country and regional levels, and identify differentiated behaviors and high centralization in scientific communities that have a worldwide impact in terms of achievements but also result in significant omissions.

12.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(7), 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1809305

ABSTRACT

Recently, along with increasing use of immune checkpoint inhibitors such as nivolumab, the incidence of immune-related adverse events, including type 1 diabetes mellitus, has become a serious problem. We report a patient who had immune checkpoint inhibitor‒associated type 1 diabetes mellitus that developed after a second mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccination.

13.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(6), 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1809302

ABSTRACT

Genomic surveillance has emerged as a critical monitoring tool during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Wastewater surveillance has the potential to identify and track SARS-CoV-2 variants in the community, including emerging variants. We demonstrate the novel use of multilocus sequence typing to identify SARS-CoV-2 variants in wastewater. Using this technique, we observed the emergence of the B.1.351 (Beta) variant in Linn County, Oregon, USA, in wastewater 12 days before this variant was identified in individual clinical specimens. During the study period, we identified 42 B.1.351 clinical specimens that clustered into 3 phylogenetic clades. Eighteen of the 19 clinical specimens and all wastewater B.1.351 specimens from Linn County clustered into clade 1. Our results provide further evidence of the reliability of wastewater surveillance to report localized SARS-CoV-2 sequence information.

15.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(5):1083-1084, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1809300
16.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(5):1083, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1809297
17.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(5):1079-1080, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1809294
18.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(5):1026-1030, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1809291

ABSTRACT

In a cross-sectional survey in Omdurman, Sudan, during March-April 2021, we estimated that 54.6% of the population had detectable severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 antibodies. Overall population death rates among those >50 years of age increased 74% over the first coronavirus disease pandemic year.

19.
Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science ; 25(2):126-138, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1806029

ABSTRACT

Asian elephants and humans have long shared their lives, but recent changes in human perspectives on animal use have created ripples through the small country of Nepal. Captive elephants are caught in the crossfire between local communities, elephant owners, mahouts, and NGOs in debates over their treatment, health, welfare and use in tourism. In addition, zoonotic disease, natural disasters and political strife affect the lives of captive elephants and mahouts. For example, during the COVID-19 pandemic, elephants, caregivers and owners found themselves facing income loss, decreased welfare from housing and husbandry issues, and food shortages. Many owners sold elephants, fired mahouts, and “quit” the tourism industry. Others sought help from outside organizations, community members, and governmental agencies to retain ownership of what they viewed as valuable commodities. NGOs and grassroots organizations assisted in the hopes of keeping elephants in Nepal, thus preventing them from long, treacherous walks across the border and into situations where they might face further welfare decreases. This article combines elephant stable visits and interviews with mahouts, owners, NGO, and government staff between January 2019 and December 2021. It highlights the ongoing health and welfare challenges faced by elephants and mahouts in Nepal.

20.
Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science ; 25(2):167-179, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1806028

ABSTRACT

This research explores the intersection between zoonosis and the trade in wildanimals by applying the Asian palm civet (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus) as a lens through which to analyse the ways humans and animals shape, and are shapedby, multi-species entanglements. Civets occupy a unique space withincontemporary human-animal relations, as they have become an increasinglypopular companion species despite being vectors of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)coronavirus. The 2002 SARS outbreak not only killed 774 humans, but itsconfirmed species origin instigated the retribution-like public slaughter of anestimated 10,000 civets. Guided by the theory of ”contamination”, this paper compares human-civet relations duringSARS and COVID-19 outbreaks through content analysis of global news mediaand the social media activity of “Civet Lover” clubs, dedicated social spacesfor civet pet keeping enthusiasts. Results show that amidst the COVID-19pandemic, the civet pet trade is thriving with considerable implications forhumans and animals. This paper argues for the exotic pet trade to receivegreater monitoring and regulation, for compromised animal welfare and healthcould present the opportunity for further disease emergence.

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