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1.
J Clin Microbiol ; 60(11): e0105822, 2022 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097912

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been the cause of human pandemic infection since late 2019. SARS-CoV-2 infection in animals has also been reported both naturally and experimentally, rendering awareness about a potential source of infection for one health concern. Here, we describe an epidemiological investigation of SARS-CoV-2 infection in 639 cats and 224 dogs throughout multiple waves of COVID-19 outbreaks in Thailand. To indicate the potential source of infection, we performed SARS-CoV-2 genomic sequencing of samples obtained from pets and contacted humans, combined with in-depth interviews to support the epidemiological investigation. In the tested animals, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was present in 23 cases (19 cats and 4 dogs). Whole-genome sequencing of selected samples showed various SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern, which included the original European lineage (B.1), Alpha (B.1.1.7), Delta (B.1.617), and Omicron (BA.2). Among SARS-CoV-2-positive pets, 34.78% had evidence of contact with infected humans. Together with genomic analysis and an overlapping timeline, we revealed evidence of viral transmission from infected humans as the primary source, which spread to household cats via an undefined mode of transmission and most likely circulated between cohoused cats and caretakers within the weeks before the investigation. The SARS-CoV-2 surface glycoprotein (spike gene) obtained from caretakers of individual cats contained sequence signatures found in the sequences of infected cats, indicating possible exposure to the virus excreted by cats. Although pet-to-human transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is considered relatively rare, our study provides suspected episodes of human infection from animals that were initially infected through contact with infected humans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Cats , Dogs , Animals , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/veterinary , RNA, Viral , Thailand/epidemiology
2.
Chinese Journal of Zoonoses ; 38(8):685-692, 2022.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-2040046

ABSTRACT

An investigation of coronavirus (CoV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) in rodents was performed to understand CoV and HEV infection of rodents in Dali City, Yunnan Province. Rodent samples were obtained in the four towns of Dali city through traps from August 2020 to August 2021. A total of 76 rodents belonging to six species and five genera were captured: Rattus tanezumi, Rattus norvegicus, Apodemus chevrieri, Eothenomys miletus, Niviventer fulvescens, and Mus Pahari. Detection of CoV and HEV was performed by nested-PCR. The infection rate of CoV was 40.74% (11/27) and 2.38% (1/42) in R. norvegicus and R. tanezumi, respectively. The infection rate of HEV was 14.81% (4/27) and 2.38% (1/42) in R. norvegicus and R. tanezumi, respectively. Co-infection with CoV and HEV was detected in two R. norvegicus, with a co-infection rate of 7.41% (2/27). A Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) search was performed on partial RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) sequences of CoV and HEV. Eleven strains from R. norvegicus were a-CoV, and matched best to strain KY370050 from Rattus losea (Fujian, China), with 99.73% to 99.74% nucleotide (nt) sequency identity. One strain was ss-CoV from R. tanezumi, which displayed 98.21% nt sequence identity with strain MT820632 from Bandicota indica (Yunnan, China). Five strains from R. norvegicus were all HEV-C, and showed 95.87% to 96.21% sequence similarity to strain MN450853 from a patient in Hong Kong, China. In conclusion, CoV and HEV infections are present in rodents in Dali City. Because the host animals of the two viruses are closely related to humans, surveillance and investigations of related viruses should be strengthened.

3.
Veterinarski Glasnik ; 74(1):1-17, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2039613

ABSTRACT

Background. Coronaviruses (CoVs) have been recognized in veterinary virology for a long time and comprise a large group of RNA viruses responsible for enteric, respiratory, hepatic, and neurologic diseases in a variety of animal species and humans. These viruses are very adaptable considering their highly error-prone replication process and recombination ability, resulting in remarkable mutability and efficient expansion of their host range and tissue tropism. Scope and Approach. In the recent past, after the outbreaks caused by SARS-CoV in 2002 and MERS-CoV in 2012, CoVs became a research focus in the scientific community. Moreover, the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic raised more questions concerning the threats posed by these viruses. Several significant examples of coronaviruses jumping the species barrier and changing their tropism have been reported in the past, and novel viruses of both animals and humans have appeared as a consequence. This paper reviews some of the examples of CoV mutability and the most notable animal coronaviruses of veterinary relevance. Key Findings and Conclusions. There is still no proof that the novel virus SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted to humans from domestic animals, and its recent cross-species jump is currently being intensively researched. Intensified and diverse human activities that lead to the disruption of ecosystems contribute to the increased risk of contact with animals that might represent virus reservoirs. The need for constant surveillance of CoVs and expanded studies of their virological traits, mutation mechanisms, diversity, prophylactic and therapeutic measures highlight the key role of both veterinarians and medical doctors in order to preserve the health of the human population.

4.
Journal of Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences University ; 11(1):105-110, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2034522

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, a respiratory corona virus, zoonotic disease and a global pandemic burden demonstrates a myriad of clinical and oral manifestations that have been documented in yester years. The clinical manifestations include sore throat, fever, dyspnea and anosmia (partial or complete loss of smell). The oral manifestations include xerostomia, candidiasis, and hyperpigmentation of melanin, oral ulcerations and ageusia (loss of taste sensation). These findings were further worsened in patients with co-morbidities such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, immunosuppression, pro-inflammatory or pro-coagulative states. The possibility of fungal infections with invasive mycosis has also been documented. However, the occurrence of this deadly virus in pre-diabetic case is a rarity that needs to be explored so as to affirm the hypothesis that hyperglycemia was due to viral induced phenomena or thereof. We report here, one such rare case of mucormycotic osteomyelitis of maxilla manifested after few months in SARS-CoV-2 positive patient with no previous history of diabetes but marked increase in blood sugar level, when infected with corona virus, which can be tagged as a case of non-diabetic hyperglycemia/pre-diabetes/impaired glucose regulation (raised blood glucose level but not in the diabetic range).

5.
Zhongguo Yufang Shouyi Xuebao / Chinese Journal of Preventive Veterinary Medicine ; 44(3):346-346, 2022.
Article in English, Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2034493

ABSTRACT

The new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is raging around the world, infecting more than 460 million people and killing more than 6 million people, posing a serious threat to human health. Analyzing the pathogenic mechanism of the virus and discovering new drug targets are the keys to the development of antiviral drugs. Similar to the envelope proteins of many important viruses such as Ebola virus and Marburg virus, the spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 relies on the cleavage and processing of cellular furin to mature during infection, and then make the virus infective, so furin is an important potential target for antiviral therapy. However, the regulation mechanism of furin enzyme activity in cells under physiological and infection conditions is not yet very clear.

6.
Zycie Weterynaryjne ; 96(1):15-23, 2021.
Article in Polish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2034286

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the betacoronavirus that causes COVID-19, has spread rapidly around the world since December 2019. It was suspected from the beginning that the primary outbreak in China, was of a zoonotic origin, but the SARS- CoV-2 animal reservoir(s) has not been definitively identified yet. So far, it has been confirmed that numerous animal species are susceptible to infection and that experimentally infected cats, shrews, hamsters and ferrets can also shed the virus. The SARS-CoV-2 was also detected in farmed mink (Neovison vison), in which it caused both, the clinical and subclinical disease, with respiratory symptoms and increased mortality. In April 2020, the first SARS-CoV-2 cases were detected in minks in the Netherlands, and to date (November 2020), further outbreaks have been confirmed in Denmark, Italy, Spain, Sweden, the United States, Greece, France and Poland. It has also been shown that the transmission of infection from humans to minks and from minks to humans may occur. The OIE is working on the inclusion of mink in the WAHIS database and encouraging the Members to provide appropriate data for this species to improve the monitoring of the epidemiological situation worldwide and prevent the establishment of a possible new reservoir for SARS-CoV-2.

7.
Revista de Politica Agricola ; 31(1):105-122, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2034170

ABSTRACT

The relationship between international trade and animal health is particularly important in the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) of the World Trade Organization - WTO. Supported by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), SPS measures are scientifically justified and play an important role in placing epidemiology at the center of decisions related to health and animal trade. The objective of this study was to discuss the interactions between the international meat trade and the epidemiology of zoonotic diseases of viral origin, in a debate on how the current Covid-19 pandemic could change the consumer behavior related to health and hygiene issues, and how the meat sector was affected by SPS measures, highlighting the relevance of Brazil in this context.

8.
Zhongguo Yufang Shouyi Xuebao / Chinese Journal of Preventive Veterinary Medicine ; 44(2):235-235, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2034139

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus (CoV) is a single-stranded, positive-stranded RNA enveloped virus that infects humans and animals. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) occurred in 2003 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS) occurred in 2012. The new coronavirus that occurred in 2019 up to the present (Coronavirus disease-19, COVID-19) is caused by a new zoonotic coronavirus infection that negatively affects human life and social and economic development. Severely ill patients with SARS, MERS and COVID-19 are often complicated by the so-called "cytokine release syndrome", which produces a large amount of uncontrollable pro-inflammatory factors, leading to life-threatening multiple organ failure.

9.
Slovensky Veterinarsky Casopis ; 45(2):72-74, 2020.
Article in Slovak | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2034129

ABSTRACT

This article describes the differences between the influenza pandemic and the Covid-19 pandemic and the immunological and virus-host cell characteristics of SARS-CoV-2.

10.
Zhongguo Yufang Shouyi Xuebao / Chinese Journal of Preventive Veterinary Medicine ; 44(3):344-344, 2022.
Article in English, Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2034013

ABSTRACT

Wild animals may be closely related to the outbreak of infectious diseases in recent years. For example, it has been reported that there are closely related SARS-CoV and new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) in civet cats, raccoon dogs and pangolins. Therefore, it is of great significance to identify existing or potential pathogens in wild animals that may be in close contact with humans, in order to trace the origin of a specific epidemic and to carry out risk assessment of the most likely source of future epidemics.

11.
HPS Weekly Report ; 55:35, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2033645

ABSTRACT

This study presents the current epidemiological scenario for influenza in EU and EEA countries. Results showed that no human cases of avian influenza were reported in the EU and EEA for 2020. Sporadic human cases of avian influenza A(H5N1), A(H5N6), A(H5N8) and A(H9N2) infection were reported. In 2020, outbreaks and detections of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, mainly A(H5) of clade 2.3.4.4, continued to affect poultry, wild and captured birds worldwide. Influenza virus A(H1N1)v, A(H1N2)v and A(H3N2)v of swine origin caused sporadic human cases in Brazil, Canada, China, Germany, the Netherlands, and the USA. Slightly more human cases were identified, possibly due to greater awareness, combined with more targeted testing in those with respiratory symptoms during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, for the EU and EEA, influenza activity remained at, or below, inter-seasonal levels throughout the 2020 to 2021 season, possibly due to the impact of the various public health and social measures implemented to reduce transmission of SARS-CoV-2.

12.
Journal of Anatolian Environmental and Animal Sciences ; 7(2):145-155, 2022.
Article in Turkish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2026648

ABSTRACT

Many pandemic diseases have emerged in the history and millions of people affected from these diseases. Among the marked pandemics in history, the plague, known as the black death, was recorded to cause the death of 17-54% of the world population. Similar to previous pandemics, as the SARS CoV-2, which emerged in 2019 and belonged to the coronavirus family, caused an epidemic and turned into a pandemic infection, positive cases were detected in more than 483 million people, and more than 6.1 million people died. While this emerging epidemic is still continuing its effects, it has been determined that there are positive cases in pets such as dogs and cats, especially in mink (Neovison vison). Especially in Denmark, Netherlands and Finland, positive animals for COVID-19 were accepted. Unlike the pandemic until today, the COVID-19 has spread to broader geographies and affected many animal species. With the reports that the SARS-CoV-2 - was first transmitted from bats to humans, this viral agent has been accepted as zoonotic, but a complete transmission route has not been shown for its transmission from other animals to humans except bats. It is reported that there is no significant risk of transmission of the virus, which is transmitted primarily by the respiratory route, from both pets and edible foods to humans. Although there are many reports in terrestrial animals, studies on the presence of SARS-CoV-2 - in aquatic animals or aquatic environments and COVID-19 transmission in aquatic animals have doubts. Here we reviewed the viability of the SARS-CoV-2 - in the aquatic environment, transmission to the aquatic ecosystem and aquatic animals, and therefore the risks to humans through water or aquatic products.

13.
Zoonoses ; 2(20), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2025751

ABSTRACT

While the COVID-19 pandemic continues, the world is on high alert regarding the second public health threat of a global monkeypox outbreak. Monkeypox, a relative of smallpox, is a zoonotic disease that was initially restricted to Africa. However, a novel outbreak has occurred in Europe, a non-endemic region, starting in May 2022. In the face of this unprecedented event, people should be aware of several crucial facts regarding monkeypox to support global public health prevention and control of the outbreak, including pathogenetic epidemiological and diagnostic aspects. As the cases outside Africa rapidly increase, including in a large proportion of men who have sex with men, thinking about the potential effects on global public health, as well as the shifting epidemiological trends of monkeypox and the insights from this novel outbreak, will be crucial.

14.
Zoonoses ; 2(9), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2025744

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis is a zoonotic disease that is caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and can infect humans, livestock, and wildlife. It spreads primarily through the respiratory tract and was the leading cause of death due to a single infectious disease before the COVID-19 pandemic. TB is a global public health emergency that has reemerged over the past few decades. Substantial efforts are needed to achieve the goals of the End TB Strategy. The World Health Organization has estimated that approximately 9.9 million people worldwide contracted TB in 2020 and that approximately 140,000 of the 10 million new cases of active TB in 2019 were zoonotic TB. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of new TB diagnoses and reports decreased sharply, from 7.1 million in 2019 to 5.8 million in 2020, returning to 2012 levels far below the approximately 10 million TB cases in 2020. Simultaneously, the global decrease in the absolute number of TB deaths until 2019 was followed by an increase in 2020 in four of the six WHO regions and most of the 30 high-TB-burden countries. Therefore, extensive immediate actions worldwide are required to restore the health system, and innovations are needed to accelerate progress toward a tuberculosis-free world.

15.
Zoonoses ; 1(6), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2025742

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, a disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 that produces major symptoms of pneumonia, has been a disaster worldwide. The traceability of SARSCoV- 2 and the discovery of susceptible animal species is crucial to halt viral transmission and explore the mechanism of cross-species transmission. We selected 82 representative ACE2 sequences from the 1000 sequences with the closest homology to the hACE2 protein. All selected ACE2 proteins were subjected to homology modeling. Potential natural and intermediate hosts, as well as animal species susceptible to SARS-CoV-2, were analyzed systematically by calculation of the binding free energy of ACE2 protein to the RBD of SARSCoV- 2. Primates, some wild Felidae, civets, goats, spotted hyenas and golden hamsters are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 and may be potential intermediate hosts, whereas pangolins, birds and reptiles are unlikely to be intermediate hosts. Mice, rats and guinea pig are not susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. Given their possible susceptibility, non-human primates, goats and golden hamsters could potentially be used as experimental models to examine SARS-CoV-2 infection without transgenesis. Herein, possible candidates for the natural and intermediate hosts of SARS-CoV-2 are suggested, to provide guidance for subsequent studies.

16.
Journal of Tropical Medicine ; 20(10):1367-1370, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2012910

ABSTRACT

Objective: To examine the impact of the outbreak of novel Coronavirus disease (COVlD-19) upon public health-related knowledge. belief and practice among the public in China for providing references to public health decision-making.

17.
Zycie Weterynaryjne ; 95(9):554-559, 2020.
Article in Polish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2011448

ABSTRACT

Throughout the course of civilization, epidemics and pandemics have ravaged humanity, destroyed animal breeding and horticulture, and has also changed the course of history. It has been estimated that Justinian plague has affected half of the population of Europe and killed in three pandemics 50 million people, the avian-borne flu (Spanish flu), resulted in 50 million deaths worldwide in the years 1918-1919, and recently the COVID-19 is officially a pandemic, after barreling through 114 countries in just three months. In the past, rinderpest has hit Europe with three long panzootics, African swine fever (ASF), is still a threat to both the swine production industry and the health of wild boar populations. Several molecular changes occur in the pathogen that may trigger an epidemic or even pandemic. These include increase of virulence, introduction into a novel host, and changes in host susceptibility to the pathogen. Once the infectious disease threat reaches an epidemic or pandemic level, the goal of the response is to mitigate its impact and reduce its incidence, morbidity and mortality as well as disruptions to economic, political, and social systems. An epidemic curve shows progression of illnesses in an outbreak over time and the SIR, SI, SIRD and SEIR represent the simplest compartmental models that enable simplify the mathematical modelling of epidemics. This article throws a light on changing ideas in epidemiology of infectious diseases.

18.
Her Russ Acad Sci ; 92(4): 497-504, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008789

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has shown how serious the problem of re-emerging zoonotic infections is for our existence. Migrations of animals, which are natural reservoirs of a particular virus, play a colossal role in the spread of pathogens to new territories. Examples are the migrations of both land animals (carnivores, rodents, and ungulates) and many marine mammals (pinnipeds and cetaceans). Yet the most interesting from the point of view of the speed and range of the spread of viral infections are migrations associated with flights. In nature, these can be migrations of insects, bats, and, of course, birds. Unfortunately, there are very few studies on the migration of these animals in Russia. Considering the problems related to climate change and other environmental factors, it is important to obtain up-to-date data on the changing animal migration routes and, as a consequence, to develop domestic equipment, particularly transmitters, to fix them.

19.
Zycie Weterynaryjne ; 95(7):398-405, 2020.
Article in Polish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1999285

ABSTRACT

Family Coronaviridae (coronaviruses, CoVs), comprises enveloped, positive sense RNA viruses. They are largest RNA viruses identified so far. CoVs are known for over half a century as agents causing respiratory, alimentary or systemic infections in domestic and wild birds and mammals. Feline (FcoV) and canine coronaviruses (CCoV) are common in the populations of these animals and fetine infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), infection may often be fatal. The new human coronavirus, SARS-CoV-Z, causing COVID-19 (coronavirus disease-IQ), identified in 2019 and responsible for the ongoing pandemics, has raised concerns about its zoonotic potential. Since cats and dogs live in close contact with owners it is important to establish their possible role in COVlD-19 epidemiology. There have been reports of SAHS-Covo2 positive dogs and cats in the literature and on various websites, including OIE website. However, considering that despite that millions of people are infected and the virus is still spreading worldwide, while only few cases of SARS-CoV-19 in dogs and cats have been confirmed, these companion animals do not play a role as virus reservoirs, thus are not important in COVlD-19 pandemics.

20.
Zycie Weterynaryjne ; 95(7):405-413, 2020.
Article in Polish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1998970

ABSTRACT

This paper presents a review of most important zoonotic diseases that are threatening human World population in the first 20 years of XXI century. Zoonoses diseases naturally transmitted through several modes from vertebrate animal hosts to humans. SARS-CoV-Z - severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, was identified as the cause of an outbreak of COVID-2 pandemic in humans in 2019/2020. Coronavirus positive Chinese bats and an unrecognized yet natural reservoir of emerging SARS-Z, are indicated as a primary source of infection. So far, there is no evidence that companion or farm animals can become infected by contact with a sick/infected person, so SARS-2 virus strains isolated from humans are not zoonotic. This review contains a description of SARS-2 virus structure, genetic diversity, structure and function of viral proteins, including class I viral fusion protein S. The review also includes an assessment of epidemiology of SARS-2 infection, criteria and epidemiological interactions, perspectives on emerging zoonoti'c disease research in contact with public health service. More closed cooperation between different services, including Veterinary Services, with WHO and OIE international standards, as eg. One Health partnership, is essential to avoid or minimize risk of new infections in future.

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