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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 934264, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952335

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), responsible for COVID-19, has caused a global pandemic. Observational studies revealed a condition, herein called as Long-COVID syndrome (PC), that affects both moderately and severely infected patients, reducing quality-of-life. The mechanism/s underlying the onset of fibrotic-like changes in PC are still not well defined. The goal of this study was to understand the involvement of the Absent in melanoma-2 (AIM2) inflammasome in PC-associated lung fibrosis-like changes revealed by chest CT scans. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from PC patients who did not develop signs of lung fibrosis were not responsive to AIM2 activation by Poly dA:dT. In sharp contrast, PBMCs from PC patients with signs of lung fibrosis were highly responsive to AIM2 activation, which induced the release of IL-1α, IFN-α and TGF-ß. The recognition of Poly dA:dT was not due to the activation of cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase, a stimulator of interferon response (cGAS-STING) pathways, implying a role for AIM2 in PC conditions. The release of IFN-α was caspase-1- and caspase-4-dependent when AIM2 was triggered. Instead, the release of pro-inflammatory IL-1α and pro-fibrogenic TGF-ß were inflammasome independent because the inhibition of caspase-1 and caspase-4 did not alter the levels of the two cytokines. Moreover, the responsiveness of AIM2 correlated with higher expression of the receptor in circulating CD14+ cells in PBMCs from patients with signs of lung fibrosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , DNA-Binding Proteins , Pulmonary Fibrosis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Carrier Proteins , Caspase 1/immunology , DNA-Binding Proteins/blood , DNA-Binding Proteins/immunology , Humans , Inflammasomes/blood , Inflammasomes/immunology , Interferon-alpha/metabolism , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/blood , Pulmonary Fibrosis/immunology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism
2.
BMC Neurol ; 22(1): 185, 2022 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951107

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic and development of new vaccines, the issue of post-vaccination exacerbation or manifestation of demyelinating central nervous system (CNS) disorders has gained increasing attention. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a 68-year-old woman previously diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS) since the 1980s who suffered a rapidly progressive severe sensorimotor paraparesis with loss of bladder and bowel control due to an acute longitudinal extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) after immunization with the mRNA Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. Detection of Aquaporin-4-antibodies (AQP4) in both serum and CSF led to diagnosis of AQP4-antibody positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). Treatment with intravenous corticosteroids and plasmapheresis led to a slight improvement of the patient's symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Pathogenic mechanisms of post-vaccination occurrence of NMOSD are still unknown. However, cases like this should make aware of rare neurological disorders manifesting after vaccination and potentially contribute to improvement of management of vaccinating patients with inflammatory CNS disorders in the future. So far two cases of AQP4-antibody positive NMOSD have been reported in association with viral vector COVID-19 vaccines. To our knowledge, we report the first case of AQP4-antibody positive NMOSD after immunization with an mRNA COVID-19-vaccine.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Myelitis, Transverse , Neuromyelitis Optica , Aged , Aquaporin 4/blood , Aquaporin 4/cerebrospinal fluid , Autoantibodies/blood , Autoantibodies/cerebrospinal fluid , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , BNT162 Vaccine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/blood , Multiple Sclerosis/cerebrospinal fluid , Multiple Sclerosis/complications , Myelitis, Transverse/chemically induced , Myelitis, Transverse/diagnosis , Myelitis, Transverse/etiology , Neuromyelitis Optica/blood , Neuromyelitis Optica/cerebrospinal fluid , Neuromyelitis Optica/diagnosis , Neuromyelitis Optica/etiology , Pandemics , RNA, Messenger , Vaccination/adverse effects
3.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 2755246, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1950379

ABSTRACT

Background: To investigate the association between interleukins (IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10) and the disease severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Materials and Methods: We systematically searched records investigating the role of interleukins (IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10) in COVID-19 patients in Web of Science, Pubmed, and Embase through December 2020. Data were extracted and pooled, and the weighted mean difference (WMD) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. The funnel plot and the nonparametric trim and fill method were used to visualize and adjust the publication bias. Results: In total, 61 studies enrolled 14,136 subjects (14,041 patients and 95 healthy subjects) were enrolled in this meta-analysis. Our results showed that serum IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10 levels were elevated in COVID-19 patients compared to healthy controls, and IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 levels were increased in severe COVID-19 cases compared to nonsevere patients. Additionally, the levels of IL-1ß, IL-6, and IL-8 were elevated in nonsurvivor patients compared to survivors. For patients in the intensive care unit (ICU), IL-6 and IL-8 levels were increased than that in non-ICU patients. Conclusions: Elevated levels of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 were associated with the disease severity of COVID-19, and elevated levels of IL-1ß, IL-6, and IL-8 were related to the prognosis of COVID-19 patients, which could be used to evaluate COVID-19 patients' disease severity and prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interleukins , COVID-19/blood , Humans , Interleukins/blood , Severity of Illness Index
4.
Arch Dis Child ; 107(8): 747-751, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1950042

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) guidelines on coeliac disease (CD) recommend that children who have IgA-based antitissue transglutaminase (TGA-IgA) titre ≥10× upper limit of normal (ULN) and positive antiendomysial antibody, can be reliably diagnosed with CD via the no-biopsy pathway. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between TGA-IgA ≥5×ULN and histologically confirmed diagnosis of CD. METHODS: Data including TGA-IgA levels at upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and histological findings from children diagnosed with CD following endoscopy from 2006 to 2021 were analysed. CD was confirmed by Marsh-Oberhuber histological grading 2 to 3 c. Statistical analysis was performed using χ² analysis (p<0.05= significant). RESULTS: 722 of 758 children had histological confirmation of CD. 457 children had TGA-IgA ≥5×ULN and 455 (99.5%) of these had histological confirmation for CD; the two that did not had eventual diagnosis of CD based on clinicopathological features. 114 of 457 had between TGA-IgA ≥5×ULN and <10×ULN, all had confirmed CD. The likelihood of a positive biopsy with TGA-IgA ≥5×ULN (455/457) compared with TGA-IgA <5×ULN (267/301) has strong statistical significance (p<0.00001). The optimal TGA-IgA cut-off from receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was determined to be below 5×ULN for the two assays used. CONCLUSION: 99.5% of children with TGA-IgA ≥5×ULN had histological confirmation of CD, suggesting that CD diagnosis can be made securely in children with TGA-IgA ≥5×ULN. If other studies confirm this finding, there is a case to be made to modify the ESPGHAN guidelines to a lower threshold of TGA-IgA for serological diagnosis of CD.


Subject(s)
Celiac Disease , Transglutaminases , Autoantibodies , Biopsy , Celiac Disease/diagnosis , Child , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Transglutaminases/blood
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(31): e2204336119, 2022 Aug 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1947765

ABSTRACT

The durability of vaccine-mediated immunity to SARS-CoV-2, the durations to breakthrough infection, and the optimal timings of booster vaccination are crucial knowledge for pandemic response. Here, we applied comparative evolutionary analyses to estimate the durability of immunity and the likelihood of breakthrough infections over time following vaccination by BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech), mRNA-1273 (Moderna), ChAdOx1 (Oxford-AstraZeneca), and Ad26.COV2.S (Johnson & Johnson/Janssen). We evaluated anti-Spike (S) immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels elicited by each vaccine relative to natural infection. We estimated typical trajectories of waning and corresponding infection probabilities, providing the distribution of times to breakthrough infection for each vaccine under endemic conditions. Peak antibody levels elicited by messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines mRNA-1273 and BNT1262b2 exceeded that of natural infection and are expected to typically yield more durable protection against breakthrough infections (median 29.6 mo; 5 to 95% quantiles 10.9 mo to 7.9 y) than natural infection (median 21.5 mo; 5 to 95% quantiles 3.5 mo to 7.1 y). Relative to mRNA-1273 and BNT1262b2, viral vector vaccines ChAdOx1 and Ad26.COV2.S exhibit similar peak anti-S IgG antibody responses to that from natural infection and are projected to yield lower, shorter-term protection against breakthrough infection (median 22.4 mo and 5 to 95% quantiles 4.3 mo to 7.2 y; and median 20.5 mo and 5 to 95% quantiles 2.6 mo to 7.0 y; respectively). These results leverage the tools from evolutionary biology to provide a quantitative basis for otherwise unknown parameters that are fundamental to public health policy decision-making.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Time Factors
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(30): e2203659119, 2022 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1947764

ABSTRACT

This study analyzed whole blood samples (n = 56) retrieved from 30 patients at 1 to 21 (median 9) mo after verified COVID-19 to determine the polarity and duration of antigen-specific T cell reactivity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-derived antigens. Multimeric peptides spanning the entire nucleocapsid protein triggered strikingly synchronous formation of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-12, IL-13, and IL-17 ex vivo until ∼70 d after confirmed infection, whereafter this reactivity was no longer inducible. In contrast, levels of nucleocapsid-induced IL-2 and interferon-γ remained stable and highly correlated at 3 to 21 mo after infection. Similar cytokine dynamics were observed in unvaccinated, convalescent patients using whole-blood samples stimulated with peptides spanning the N-terminal portion of the spike 1 protein. These results unravel two phases of T cell reactivity following natural COVID-19: an early, synchronous response indicating transient presence of multipolar, antigen-specific T helper (TH) cells followed by an equally synchronous and durable TH1-like reactivity reflecting long-lasting T cell memory.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokines , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Convalescence , Cytokines/blood , Humans , Interferon-gamma/blood , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology
7.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(9): 1310-1316, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1945651

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the factors affecting seropositivity and antibody levels after SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in patients with cancer because they were excluded from clinical studies of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. METHODS: This prospective, observational, single-center study included 290 patients with solid tumors followed up in our medical oncology clinic between March 2021 and August 2021. SARS-CoV-2 antibody status was determined before the first dose of vaccine. Fifty-one patients with positive prevaccine baseline antibody tests were excluded from the study, regardless of whether they had previously confirmed SARS-CoV-2 PCR positivity. To determine the quantitative IgG antibody response of the vaccines, blood samples were collected at least 28 days after each dose of vaccine. Quantitative IgG levels against virus spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD) were measured using chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLIA). Demographic and clinical features affecting seropositivity were analyzed. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty-one (69.3%) patients were vaccinated with two doses of CoronaVac followed by one dose of BNT162b2 (Biontech) (group 1). Sixty-seven (30.7%) patients were vaccinated with three doses of BNT162b2 (group 2). The proportion of patients who developed seropositivity was significantly higher in group 2 (78.6% vs. 54.9%, p < 0.012). Antibody response increased significantly after the second dose of vaccine in both groups. Female sex, being younger than 65 years, and chemotherapy status were significantly related to higher anti-SARS-CoV-2 S antibody levels (p = 0.033, p = 0.036, and p = 0.047, respectively). Antibody levels were significantly higher in patients who had previously received chemotherapy than in patients receiving active chemotherapy (p = 0.042). CONCLUSIONS: Our study is the first to evaluate basal SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels before the first dose of vaccine and after three doses in patients with solid tumors. The rate of development of seropositivity with two doses of mRNA vaccine was found to be higher than with two doses of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. More attention should be paid to preventive measures in addition to vaccination in patients aged over 65 years and men with cancer diagnoses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
8.
Cytokine ; 154: 155874, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1944749

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus has infected and killed millions of people, but little is known about the risk factors that lead to the development of severe, mild or asymptomatic conditions after infection. The individual immune response and the balance of cytokines and chemokines have been shown to be important for the prognosis of patients. Additionally, it is essential to understand how the production of specific antibodies with viral neutralizing capacity is established. In this context, this study aimed to identify positive individuals for IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 in a large population of blood donors (n = 7837) to establish their immune response profile and to evaluate its viral neutralization capacity. The prevalence found for IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 was 5.6% (n = 441), with male blood donors (61.9%) being more prevalent among the positive ones. The results showed that positive individuals for IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 have high serum concentrations of chemokines, TNF, IFN-γ and IL-10. The analyses showed that the positivity index for IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 is associated with the neutralizing capacity of the antibodies, which, in turn, is significantly related to lower serum concentrations of CCL5 and CXCL10. The results allow us to hypothesize that the development and maintenance of IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in infected individuals occurs in a pro-inflammatory microenvironment well regulated by IL-10 with great capacity for recruiting cells from the innate and adaptive immune systems.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral , Blood Donors , COVID-19 , Immunoglobulin G , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Chemokines , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Interferon-gamma , Interleukin-10 , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
9.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 22(1): 185, 2022 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938308

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The global COVID-19 pandemic requires urgent development of new vaccines. Endocrinological adverse effects following the new mRNA vaccine against COVID-19 have been reported in several cases. Specific to the involvement of pituitary function; however, only a single case with hypophysis has been reported. This is the first case of isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency (IAD) following mRNA vaccination against COVID-19. CASE PRESENTATION: A healthy 31-year-old man received the BNT162b2 SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine. The first injection was uneventful. One day after the second injection, he noticed general fatigue and fever. In the following several days, he additionally developed headaches, nausea, and diarrhea. Four days after the vaccine injection, he visited a hospital with worsening of these symptoms. Physical examination revealed slight disorientation but no other deficits. Laboratory tests revealed hyponatremia, hypoglycemia, and extremely low plasma ACTH and serum cortisol levels (ACTH < 1.5 pg/ml, cortisol 1.6 µg/dl). He was diagnosed with adrenal crisis and was emergently treated with hydrocortisone. The symptoms responded well and he recovered within a few days. Magnetic resonance images after the replacement with hydrocortisone revealed an atrophic pituitary gland. The patient was referred to our tertiary hospital for further endocrinological examination. Pituitary endocrine load tests revealed isolated adrenocortical response deficiency. After other clinical assessments, he was diagnosed as having isolated ACTH deficiency. After initiation of hydrocortisone replacement, there has been no recurrence of symptoms related to adrenocortical insufficiency nor involvement of other pituitary functions. CONCLUSION: This is the first reported case of IAD potentially associated with COVID-19 immunization. Recent reports have emphasized the importance of adjuvants in the mRNA vaccine that induce the endocrinological adverse effects through disturbance of the autoimmune system, but details are still unclear. Given the broad and rapid spread of vaccinations against COVID-19, it is clinically important to consider that there could be cases with a rare but emergent adrenal crisis even among those who present common symptoms of adverse effects following inactive SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Insufficiency , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Endocrine System Diseases , Hypoglycemia , Adrenal Insufficiency/chemically induced , Adrenal Insufficiency/drug therapy , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone/deficiency , Adult , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Endocrine System Diseases/chemically induced , Endocrine System Diseases/drug therapy , Humans , Hydrocortisone/blood , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , Hypoglycemia/chemically induced , Hypoglycemia/drug therapy , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
10.
Saudi Med J ; 43(7): 723-729, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934738

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To examine D-dimer, coagulation profile, and platelet count among patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) and compare them to findings from non-COVID-19 subjects. METHODS: The participants in this retrospective hospital-based observational study design included 112 confirmed diagnosed with COVID-19 who were admitted to King Khaled Hospital, Najran, Saudi Arabia, and another 112 non-COVID-19 subjects as a comparative group. Laboratory investigations, demographic and clinical records were obtained from participants' electronic indexed medical records. Coronavirus disease-19 diagnosis was confirmed according to positive real time polymerase chain reaction assay carried out at the hospital's central laboratory, where samples were extracted from a nasopharyngeal swab. Pneumonia related to COVID-19 is classified as critical, severe, moderate, mild, and asymptomatic whereas thrombocytopenia was marked when the platelet count was <150.00×109/L. Suitable statistical analysis was applied to determine possible differences between the findings from the 2 groups. RESULTS: The D-dimer and activated partial thromboplastin clotting time mean values were significantly elevated (p<0.001). The international normalized ratio and platelet count mean values confirmed a significant decrease (p<0.001). Thrombocytopenia was found 9 times in COVID-19 higher than in the non-COVID-19. D-dimer and prothrombin time mean values increased significantly among the COVID-19 patients with all patterns of symptoms on admission (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: D-dimer mean values increased significantly in deceased COVID-19 and in hospitalized intensive care unit (ICU) wards patients (p<0.001), indicating a potential predictive and prognostic severity marker, particularly among COVID-19 patients in the ICU.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Thrombocytopenia , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Thrombocytopenia/blood , Thrombocytopenia/virology
11.
Lipids Health Dis ; 21(1): 15, 2022 Jan 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933141

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bile acids (BAs) not only play an important role in lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis but also have antiapoptotic and neuroprotective effects. However, few studies have focused on the relationship of the total bile acid (TBA) levels with the severity and prognosis of acute ischemic stroke (AIS). OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential associations of the fasting serum TBA levels on admission with the stroke severity, in-hospital complication incidence and 3 -month all-cause mortality in patients with AIS. METHODS: A total of 777 consecutive AIS patients were enrolled in this study and were divided into four groups according to the quartiles of the serum TBA levels on admission. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to explore the relationship between the fasting TBA levels and the stroke severity, in-hospital complications, and 3-month mortality in AIS patients. RESULTS: Patients in group Q3 had the lowest risk of severe AIS (NIHSS > 10) regardless of the adjustments for confounders (P < 0.05). During hospitalization, 115 patients (14.8%) had stroke progression (NIHSS score increased by ≥ 2), and 222 patients (28.6%) developed at least one complication, with no significant difference among the four groups (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference in the incidence of pneumonia, urinary tract infection (UTI), hemorrhagic transformation (HT), gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB), seizures or renal insufficiency (RI) among the four groups (P > 0.05). A total of 114 patients (14.7%) died from various causes (including in-hospital deaths) at the 3-month follow-up, including 42 (21.3%), 26 (13.3%), 19 (9.9%) and 27 (13.9%) patients in groups Q1, Q2, Q3 and Q4 respectively, with significant differences (P = 0.013). After adjusting for confounding factors, the risk of death decreased (P -trend < 0.05) in groups Q2, Q3, and Q4 when compared with group Q1, and the OR values were 0.36 (0.16-0.80), 0.30 (0.13-0.70), and 0.29 (0.13-0.65), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: TBA levels were inversely associated with the 3-month mortality of AIS patients but were not significantly associated with the severity of stroke or the incidence of complications.


Subject(s)
Bile Acids and Salts/blood , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Aged , Female , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/blood , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Prognosis , Risk Factors
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5458, 2022 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931453

ABSTRACT

Type III interferons (IFNs) play an important role in respiratory viral infections, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. This study aimed to determine whether the expression of serum type III IFNs predicted disease severity among patients with the coronavirus disease (COVID-19). A retrospective cohort study was conducted of patients admitted to a single hospital between March 21, 2020, and March 31, 2021. Patients were divided into mild to moderate I (MM) and moderate II to severe (MS) groups based on the COVID-19 severity classification developed by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. A total of 257 patients were included in the analysis. Human interleukin-28A (IL-28A/IFN-λ2) expression was significantly lower, and interleukin (IL)-6 expression was significantly higher in the MS group than in the MM group (both p < 0.001). In addition, IL-28A/IFN-λ2 was statistically significantly inversely correlated with the time from disease onset to negative SARS-CoV-2 PCR results (p = 0.049). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that IL-28A/IFN-λ2 was an independent predictor of disease severity (p = 0.021). The low expression of IL-28A/IFN-λ2 may serve as a serum biomarker that predicts the severity of COVID-19, possibly through the mechanism of delayed viral elimination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interleukins , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines , Humans , Interleukins/blood , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
13.
Small Methods ; 5(5): e2001108, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1930144

ABSTRACT

During the global outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic, "cytokine storm" conditions are regarded as the fatal step resulting in most mortality. Hemoperfusion is widely used to remove cytokines from the blood of severely ill patients to prevent uncontrolled inflammation induced by a cytokine storm. This article discoveres, for the first time, that 2D Ti3 C2 Tx MXene sheet demonstrates an ultrahigh removal capability for typical cytokine interleukin-6. In particular, MXene shows a 13.4 times higher removal efficiency over traditional activated carbon absorbents. Molecular-level investigations reveal that MXene exhibits a strong chemisorption mechanism for immobilizing cytokine interleukin-6 molecules, which is different from activated carbon absorbents. MXene sheet also demonstrates excellent blood compatibility without any deleterious side influence on the composition of human blood. This work can open a new avenue to use MXene sheets as an ultraefficient hemoperfusion absorbent to eliminate the cytokine storm syndrome in treatment of severe COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Hemoperfusion/methods , Nanostructures/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Titanium/administration & dosage , Adsorption , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Humans , Interleukin-6/immunology , Nanostructures/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Titanium/chemistry
14.
J Biomed Sci ; 29(1): 52, 2022 Jul 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928188

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus-induced disease 19 (COVID-19) infects more than three hundred and sixty million patients worldwide, and people with severe symptoms frequently die of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Recent studies indicated that excessive neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) contributed to immunothrombosis, thereby leading to extensive intravascular coagulopathy and multiple organ dysfunction. Thus, understanding the mechanism of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-induced NET formation would be helpful to reduce thrombosis and prevent ARDS in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. METHODS: We incubated SARS-CoV-2 with neutrophils in the presence or absence of platelets to observe NET formation. We further isolated extracellular vesicles from COVID-19 patients' sera (COVID-19-EVs) to examine their ability to induce NET formation. RESULTS: We demonstrated that antagonistic mAbs against anti-CLEC5A mAb and anti-TLR2 mAb can inhibit COVID-19-EVs-induced NET formation, and generated clec5a-/-/tlr2-/- mice to confirm the critical roles of CLEC5A and TLR2 in SARS-CoV-2-induced lung inflammation in vivo. We found that virus-free extracellular COVID-19 EVs induced robust NET formation via Syk-coupled C-type lectin member 5A (CLEC5A) and TLR2. Blockade of CLEC5A inhibited COVID-19 EVs-induced NETosis, and simultaneous blockade of CLEC5A and TLR2 further suppressed SARS-CoV-2-induced NETosis in vitro. Moreover, thromboinflammation was attenuated dramatically in clec5a-/-/tlr2-/- mice. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that SARS-CoV-2-activated platelets produce EVs to enhance thromboinflammation via CLEC5A and TLR2, and highlight the importance of CLEC5A and TLR2 as therapeutic targets to reduce the risk of ARDS in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lectins, C-Type , Neutrophils , Pneumonia , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis , Animals , Blood Platelets/immunology , Blood Platelets/pathology , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Lectins, C-Type/immunology , Mice , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/pathology , Neutrophils/virology , Pneumonia/immunology , Pneumonia/pathology , Pneumonia/virology , Receptors, Cell Surface , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/immunology , Thrombosis/virology , Toll-Like Receptor 2/immunology
15.
Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 21(3): 254-262, 2022 Jun 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924808

ABSTRACT

The role of microRNA (miR)200c-3p in regulating ACE2 gene expression in viral and bacterial respiratory diseases has been established. Since ACE2 reduces the acute inflammatory effects in lung diseases and acts as a coronavirus receptor to invade the lung cells, this study investigates the relationship between miR-200c-3p and ACE2 expression in COVID -19 patients. In this study, COVID-19 patients were divided into two groups: mild phase (PCR-positive and mild symptoms) and severe phase (PCR-positive with acute pulmonary symptoms and inflammation). Then, the subjects' demographic, clinical, and paraclinical characteristics were recorded using a prepared checklist. Total RNA was isolated from all samples according to the Trizol kit protocol to evaluate gene expression. Subsequently, the extracted product was analysed for miR-200c expression and ACE2 target gene expression by real-time PCR. The results of the checklist data showed that smoking, cough, and the factors ESR and HCT were statistically significant between the two groups of patients in the mild and acute phases. Also, the mean expression of the miR-200c gene in the mild and acute patients was 1.87±0.70 and 1.87±0.62, respectively, which was not statistically significant. Still, the mean expression of the ACE2 gene, which was 3.96±0.76 and 3.28±0.52 in the mild and acute disease groups, respectively, showed a significant difference between the two groups. This study showed that the expression levels of ACE2 were significantly reduced in people with severe inflammation compared to people with mild inflammation.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , MicroRNAs , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/biosynthesis , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/genetics , Gene Expression , Humans , MicroRNAs/blood , MicroRNAs/genetics
16.
Hosp Pediatr ; 12(7): e261-e265, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1923745

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: N-terminal of probrain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels are often elevated in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) secondary to inflammation, myocardial dysfunction, or increased wall tension. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), accepted treatment of MIS-C, may transiently increase myocardial tension and contribute to an increase in NT-proBNP. We sought to study the association between pre- and post-IVIG levels of NT-proBNP and CRP and their clinical significance. METHODS: This single-center, retrospective, cohort study included consecutive children, aged ≤21 years, with diagnosis of MIS-C who received IVIG from April 2020 to October 2021. Data collection included clinical characteristics, laboratory tests, management, and outcomes. Study cohort consisted of patients who received IVIG and had NT-proBNP levels available pre- and post-IVIG. RESULTS: Among 35 patients with MIS-C, 30 met inclusion criteria. Twenty-four, 80%, showed elevation in NT-proBNP post-IVIG. The median NT-proBNP level pre-IVIG was 1921 pg/mL (interquartile range 548-3956), significantly lower than the post-IVIG median of 3756 pg/mL (interquartile range 1342-7634)) (P = .0010). The median pre-IVIG CRP level was significantly higher than the post-IVIG level (12 mg/dL vs 8 mg/dL, P = .0006). All but 1 recovered before discharge, and none had signs of worsening cardiac function post-IVIG. In those who recovered, NT-proBNP had normalized by discharge or 1-week follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that NT-proBNP levels often transiently increase immediately after IVIG therapy without signs of worsening myocardial function. These values should be interpreted in the context of CRP levels and clinical recovery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , Child , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments , Retrospective Studies , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy
17.
BMJ ; 374: n2132, 2021 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1923193

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether point-of care procalcitonin and lung ultrasonography can safely reduce unnecessary antibiotic treatment in patients with lower respiratory tract infections in primary care. DESIGN: Three group, pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial from September 2018 to March 2020. SETTING: 60 Swiss general practices. PARTICIPANTS: One general practitioner per practice was included. General practitioners screen all patients with acute cough; patients with clinical pneumonia were included. INTERVENTIONS: Randomisation in a 1:1:1 of general practitioners to either antibiotics guided by sequential procalcitonin and lung ultrasonography point-of-care tests (UltraPro; n=152), procalcitonin guided antibiotics (n=195), or usual care (n=122). MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary outcome was proportion of patients in each group prescribed an antibiotic by day 28. Secondary outcomes included duration of restricted activities due to lower respiratory tract infection within 14 days. RESULTS: 60 general practitioners included 469 patients (median age 53 years (interquartile range 38-66); 278 (59%) were female). Probability of antibiotic prescription at day 28 was lower in the procalcitonin group than in the usual care group (0.40 v 0.70, cluster corrected difference -0.26 (95% confidence interval -0.41 to -0.10)). No significant difference was seen between UltraPro and procalcitonin groups (0.41 v 0.40, -0.03 (-0.17 to 0.12)). The median number of days with restricted activities by day 14 was 4 days in the procalcitonin group and 3 days in the usual care group (difference 1 day (95% confidence interval -0.23 to 2.32); hazard ratio 0.75 (95% confidence interval 0.58 to 0.97)), which did not prove non-inferiority. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with usual care, point-of-care procalcitonin led to a 26% absolute reduction in the probability of 28 day antibiotic prescription without affecting patients' safety. Point-of-care lung ultrasonography did not further reduce antibiotic prescription, although a potential added value cannot be excluded, owing to the wide confidence intervals. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03191071.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Point-of-Care Testing , Procalcitonin/blood , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Ultrasonography/methods , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/analysis , Cluster Analysis , Drug Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data , Female , General Practice , Humans , Intention to Treat Analysis , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Primary Health Care/methods
18.
Ann Clin Lab Sci ; 52(3): 374-381, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1918736

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Exploration of biomarkers to predict the severity of COVID-19 is important to reduce mortality. Upon COVID-19 infection, neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) are formed, which leads to a cytokine storm and host damage. Hence, the extent of NET formation may reflect disease progression and predict mortality in COVID-19. METHODS: We measured 4 NET parameters - cell-free double stranded DNA (cell-free dsDNA), neutrophil elastase, citrullinated histone H3 (Cit-H3), and histone - DNA complex - in 188 COVID-19 patients and 20 healthy controls. Survivors (n=166) were hospitalized with or without oxygen supplementation, while non-survivors (n=22) expired during in-hospital treatment. RESULTS: Cell-free dsDNA was significantly elevated in non-survivors in comparison with survivors and controls. The survival rate of patients with high levels of cell-free dsDNA, neutrophil elastase, and Cit-H3 was significantly lower than that of patients with low levels. These three markers significantly correlated with inflammatory markers (absolute neutrophil count and C-reactive protein). CONCLUSION: Since the increase in NET parameters indicates the unfavourable course of COVID-19 infection, patients predisposed to poor outcome can be rapidly managed through risk stratification by using these NET parameters.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracellular Traps , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cell-Free Nucleic Acids/blood , Cell-Free Nucleic Acids/metabolism , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Histones/blood , Histones/metabolism , Humans , Leukocyte Elastase/blood , Leukocyte Elastase/metabolism , Neutrophils/metabolism , Prognosis
19.
Biosci Rep ; 41(9)2021 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915305

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused the global pandemic of the Coronavirus disease in late 2019 (COVID-19). Vaccine development efforts have predominantly been aimed at 'Extra-viral' Spike (S) protein as vaccine vehicles, but there are concerns regarding 'viral immune escape' since multiple mutations may enable the mutated virus strains to escape from immunity against S protein. The 'Intra-viral' Nucleocapsid (N-protein) is relatively conserved among mutant strains of coronaviruses during spread and evolution. Herein, we demonstrate novel vaccine candidates against SARS-CoV-2 by using the whole conserved N-protein or its fragment/peptides. Using ELISA assay, we showed that high titers of specific anti-N antibodies (IgG, IgG1, IgG2a, IgM) were maintained for a reasonably long duration (> 5 months), suggesting that N-protein is an excellent immunogen to stimulate host immune system and robust B-cell activation. We synthesized three peptides located at the conserved regions of N-protein among CoVs. One peptide showed as a good immunogen for vaccination as well. Cytokine arrays on post-vaccination mouse sera showed progressive up-regulation of various cytokines such as IFN-γ and CCL5, suggesting that TH1 associated responses are also stimulated. Furthermore, vaccinated mice exhibited an elevated memory T cells population. Here, we propose an unconventional vaccine strategy targeting the conserved N-protein as an alternative vaccine target for coronaviruses. Moreover, we generated a mouse monoclonal antibody specifically against an epitope shared between SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, and we are currently developing the First-in-Class humanized anti-N-protein antibody to potentially treat patients infected by various CoVs in the future.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Epitopes/immunology , Humans , Immune Evasion , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Mice , Models, Animal , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sequence Homology, Amino Acid , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Th1 Cells/immunology , Vaccines, Subunit/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Subunit/genetics , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology
20.
Biomolecules ; 12(7)2022 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911171

ABSTRACT

The development of inexpensive, fast, and reliable screening tests for COVID-19 is, as yet, an unmet need. The present study was aimed at evaluating the usefulness of serum arylesterase activity of paraoxonase-1 (PON1) measurement as a screening test in patients with different severity levels of COVID-19 infection. We included 615 COVID-19-positive patients who were classified as asymptomatic, mildly symptomatic, severely symptomatic, or fatally symptomatic. Results were compared with 50 healthy volunteers, 330 patients with cancer, and 343 with morbid obesity. Results showed PON1 activity greatly decreased in COVID-19 compared to healthy volunteers; a receiver operating characteristics plot showed a high diagnostic accuracy. The degree of COVID-19 severity did not influence PON1 levels. Our results indicated that PON1 determination was efficient for disease diagnosis, but not for prognosis. Furthermore, patients with obesity or cancer presented alterations similar to those of COVID-19 patients. As such, elevated levels of PON1 indicate the absence of COVID-19, but low levels may be present in various other chronic diseases. The assay is fast and inexpensive. We suggest that PON1 measurement could be used as an initial, high cut-off point screening method, while lower values should be confirmed with the more expensive nucleic acid amplification test.


Subject(s)
Aryldialkylphosphatase , COVID-19 , Aryldialkylphosphatase/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/enzymology , Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases , Humans , Serum
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