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1.
Lancet Public Health ; 6(1): e1, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1030236
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(2): 56-57, 2021 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1029766

ABSTRACT

In July 2020, the Florida Department of Health was alerted to three Candida auris bloodstream infections and one urinary tract infection in four patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who received care in the same dedicated COVID-19 unit of an acute care hospital (hospital A). C. auris is a multidrug-resistant yeast that can cause invasive infection. Its ability to colonize patients asymptomatically and persist on surfaces has contributed to previous C. auris outbreaks in health care settings (1-7). Since the first C. auris case was identified in Florida in 2017, aggressive measures have been implemented to limit spread, including contact tracing and screening upon detection of a new case. Before the COVID-19 pandemic, hospital A conducted admission screening for C. auris and admitted colonized patients to a separate dedicated ward.


Subject(s)
/therapy , Candida/isolation & purification , Candidiasis/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Hospital Units , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Florida/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(50): e23298, 2020 Dec 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1029726

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Good communication strategies are essential in times of crisis, such as the coronavirus pandemic. The dissemination of inaccurate information and the need for social isolation to control coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have shown a negative impact on the population, causing damage to mental health, with the appearance or worsening of symptoms of stress, fear, anxiety, and depression. Thus, the systematic review study is intended to gather evidence on the impact of information about COVID-19 on the mental health of the population. METHODS: This systematic review protocol is conducted using the guidelines of the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses protocols and the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. The review aims to include published studies that address the exposure of the general population to information about COVID-19, through observational and experimental studies, which consider the following outcomes: fear, stress, anxiety, and depression. Thus, a comprehensive research strategy will be conducted in the following databases: PubMed / Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, EMBASE, Science Direct, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL). Two independent reviewers will perform all procedures, such as study selection, data collection, and methodological evaluation. Disagreements will be forwarded to a third reviewer. RevMan 5.3 software will be used for data analysis. RESULTS: This systematic review will provide evidence of the influence of access to and consumption of media and scientific information about COVID-19 on the mental health of the population. It will consider information about the characterization of the study and the population studied, clinical and epidemiological information on mental health, and data on access to and consumption of media and scientific information. DISCUSSION: The results should inform about the consequences of communication about the new coronavirus on the emergence or worsening of psychological and psychiatric symptoms, allowing to develop strategies to achieve effective communication of information to promote the mental health of the population. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO CRD42020182918.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Health Communication/methods , Mass Media/statistics & numerical data , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Fear/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , Research Design , Social Isolation , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
4.
Nurse Pract ; 46(1): 27-55, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1029714

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: In a year unlike any other in recent history, healthcare workers, including advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs), faced challenges and triumphs as the frontline in the battle against COVID-19. This 33rd Annual Legislative Update covers the scope of practice changes and legislative decisions that most impacted APRNs across the US in 2020.


Subject(s)
Advanced Practice Nursing/legislation & jurisprudence , Nurse Practitioners/legislation & jurisprudence , Practice Patterns, Nurses'/legislation & jurisprudence , /epidemiology , Humans , United States/epidemiology
7.
Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can ; 40(11-12): 336-341, 2020 12 09.
Article in English, French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1029022

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Research has shown that during the 2003 SARS pandemic, emergency department (ED) visits among the pediatric population decreased. We set out to investigate if this was also true for injury-related ED visits during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Using data from the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP), we looked at 28 years of injury-related ED visits at the Montreal Children's Hospital, a provincially designated Pediatric Trauma Centre. We compared data from a two-month period during the COVID-19 lockdown (16 March to 15 May) to the same period in previous years (1993-2019) to determine whether the 2020 decrease in ED visit numbers was unprecedented (i.e. a similar decrease had never occurred) for different age groups, nature of injuries, mechanisms and severity. RESULTS: The 2020 decrease was unprecedented across all age groups between 1993 and 2019. When compared with the 2015 to 2019 average, the decrease was smallest in children aged 2 to 5 years (a 35% decrease), and greatest in the group aged 12 to 17 years (83%). Motor vehicle collisions and sports-related injuries practically vanished during the COVID-19 lockdown. Surprisingly, more children aged 6 to 17 years presented with less urgent injuries during the COVID-19 lockdown than in previous years. CONCLUSION: As was the case with SARS in 2003, COVID-19 acted as a deterrent for pediatric ED visits. The lockdown in particular had a profound impact on injury-related visits. The de-confinement period will be monitored to determine the impact in both the short and the long term.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Accidents, Traffic/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Athletic Injuries/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hospitals, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Protective Factors , Quebec/epidemiology , Wounds and Injuries/etiology
8.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200106, 2021.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1028612

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To perform a survival analysis of individuals diagnosed with COVID-19 identified by health information systems, analyzing the factors associated with the highest risk of death. METHODS: Survival analysis of individuals notified with COVID-19 in Rio Grande do Norte State using data from the Health Information Systems for the surveillance of cases of and deaths from COVID-19. The dependent variable was the period until the outcome occurrence. The independent variables were sex, self-reported skin color, age group, residence in the capital, and the presence of comorbidities. For data analysis the Kaplan-Meyer method and Cox-time-dependent Regression Model for multivariate analysis were used, with the covariable "period since the event notification recorded in days". RESULTS: Highest risk of death were observed in individuals aged 80 or older (HR = 8.06; p < 0.001), male (HR = 1.45, p < 0.001), non-white skin color (HR = 1.13; p < 0.033) or with no information (HR = 1.29; p < 0.001), with comorbidities (HR = 10.44; p < 0.001) or presence of comorbidities not reported (HR = 10.87; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The highest risk of occurrence of deaths from COVID-19 was observed in older adults, especially those over 80, patients who have comorbidities, men, and of non-white skin color. From the identification of the profile of patients with a higher risk of death with the identification by the health system, specific strategies of health care must be taken to prevent the evolution to death in these cases.


Subject(s)
/mortality , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brazil/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Continental Population Groups , Female , Humans , Male , Risk Factors , Sex Factors
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(2): 58-62, 2021 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1028601

ABSTRACT

As cases and deaths from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Europe rose sharply in late March, most European countries implemented strict mitigation policies, including closure of nonessential businesses and mandatory stay-at-home orders. These policies were largely successful at curbing transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 (1), but they came with social and economic costs, including increases in unemployment, interrupted education, social isolation, and related psychosocial outcomes (2,3). A better understanding of when and how these policies were effective is needed. Using data from 37 European countries, the impact of the timing of these mitigation policies on mortality from COVID-19 was evaluated. Linear regression was used to assess the association between policy stringency at an early time point and cumulative mortality per 100,000 persons on June 30. Implementation of policies earlier in the course of the outbreak was associated with lower COVID-19-associated mortality during the subsequent months. An increase by one standard deviation in policy stringency at an early timepoint was associated with 12.5 cumulative fewer deaths per 100,000 on June 30. Countries that implemented stringent policies earlier might have saved several thousand lives relative to those countries that implemented similar policies, but later. Earlier implementation of mitigation policies, even by just a few weeks, might be an important strategy to reduce the number of deaths from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
/mortality , Public Policy , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Public Health Practice
10.
Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can ; 40(11-12): 342-349, 2020 12 09.
Article in English, French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1028502

ABSTRACT

As the effects of COVID-19 have been unfolding, growing attention has been paid to the intersection of COVID-19 and substance use and the related harms. However, there are few theories and little empirical evidence to guide investigations in this area. To advance this emerging area of inquiry, we present a conceptual model that synthesizes evidence, information and knowledge on substance use and related harms in the context of the pandemic. The conceptual model offers a visual representation of the connections between the pandemic and substance use and related harms, and can be used to identify areas for future research.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics , Substance-Related Disorders/complications , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Adaptation, Psychological , /transmission , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Mental Health , Mental Health Services , Risk Factors , Social Stigma , Social Support , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy
11.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(1)2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1028441

ABSTRACT

We report on the public health response generated by an outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) that occurred during March 2020 at Bach Mai Hospital (BMH) in Hanoi, northern Vietnam's largest hospital complex. On March 18, a total of 3 distinct clusters of COVID-19 cases were identified at BMH. Diagnosis of the initial 3 COVID-19 cases led to contact tracing, symptom screening, and testing of 495 persons and limited quarantine of affected institutes or departments. When 27 staff members in the catering company tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, the entire BMH staff (7,664 persons) was put under quarantine. Contact tracing in the community resulted in an additional 52,239 persons being quarantined. After 3 weeks, the hospital outbreak was contained; no further spread occurred in the hospital. Rapid screening of cases, extensive testing, prompt quarantine, contact tracing, and social distancing contributed to prevent community transmission in Hanoi and northern Vietnam.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Cross Infection , Hospitals , /transmission , Cities , Contact Tracing/methods , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Public Health , Vietnam/epidemiology
12.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(24)2020 Dec 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1028179

ABSTRACT

On 21 February 2020, a violent COVID-19 outbreak, which was initially concentrated in Lombardy before infecting some surrounding regions exploded in Italy. Shortly after, on 9 March, the Italian Government imposed severe restrictions on its citizens, including a ban on traveling to other parts of the country. No travel, no virus spread. Many regions, such as those in southern Italy, were spared. Then, in June 2020, under pressure for the economy to reopen, many lockdown measures were relaxed, including the ban on interregional travel. As a result, the virus traveled for hundreds of kilometers, from north to south, with the effect that areas without infections, receiving visitors from infected areas, became infected. This resulted in a sharp increase in the number of infected people; i.e., the daily count of new positive cases, when comparing measurements from the beginning of July to those from at the middle of September, rose significantly in almost all the Italian regions. Upon confirmation of the effect of Italian domestic tourism on the virus spread, three computational models of increasing complexity (linear, negative binomial regression, and cognitive) have been compared in this study, with the aim of identifying the one that better correlates the relationship between Italian tourist flows during the summer of 2020 and the resurgence of COVID-19 cases across the country. Results show that the cognitive model has more potential than the others, yet has relevant limitations. The models should be considered as a relevant starting point for the study of this phenomenon, even if there is still room to further develop them up to a point where they become able to capture all the various and complex spread patterns of this disease.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Travel/statistics & numerical data , Computer Simulation , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , /pathogenicity
13.
Otolaryngol Clin North Am ; 53(6): 1159-1170, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1027957

ABSTRACT

This review explores the changes to practice associated with COVID-19 for providers treating patients with head and neck cancer and laryngeal pathology. The aim of the review is to highlight some of the challenges and considerations associated with treating this patient population during the pandemic. Additionally, it seeks to discuss some of the areas of concern related to ramping up clinical volume.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Elective Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Head and Neck Neoplasms/surgery , Infection Control/methods , Laryngectomy/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Elective Surgical Procedures/methods , Female , Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnosis , Humans , Laryngectomy/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Health/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Patient Safety/statistics & numerical data , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Safety Management , Telemedicine/methods , United States
14.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(2): 52-55, 2021 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1027950

ABSTRACT

During the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, nursing homes were identified as congregate settings at high risk for outbreaks of COVID-19 (1,2). Their residents also are at higher risk than the general population for morbidity and mortality associated with infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, in light of the association of severe outcomes with older age and certain underlying medical conditions (1,3). CDC's National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) launched nationwide, facility-level COVID-19 nursing home surveillance on April 26, 2020. A federal mandate issued by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), required nursing homes to commence enrollment and routine reporting of COVID-19 cases among residents and staff members by May 25, 2020. This report uses the NHSN nursing home COVID-19 data reported during May 25-November 22, 2020, to describe COVID-19 rates among nursing home residents and staff members and compares these with rates in surrounding communities by corresponding U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) region.* COVID-19 cases among nursing home residents increased during June and July 2020, reaching 11.5 cases per 1,000 resident-weeks (calculated as the total number of occupied beds on the day that weekly data were reported) (week of July 26). By mid-September, rates had declined to 6.3 per 1,000 resident-weeks (week of September 13) before increasing again, reaching 23.2 cases per 1,000 resident-weeks by late November (week of November 22). COVID-19 cases among nursing home staff members also increased during June and July (week of July 26 = 10.9 cases per 1,000 resident-weeks) before declining during August-September (week of September 13 = 6.3 per 1,000 resident-weeks); rates increased by late November (week of November 22 = 21.3 cases per 1,000 resident-weeks). Rates of COVID-19 in the surrounding communities followed similar trends. Increases in community rates might be associated with increases in nursing home COVID-19 incidence, and nursing home mitigation strategies need to include a comprehensive plan to monitor local SARS-CoV-2 transmission and minimize high-risk exposures within facilities.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Nursing Homes/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Humans , Incidence , United States/epidemiology
15.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200105, 2021.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1027801

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe changes in socioeconomic and health conditions of Brazilians during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODOLOGY: Cross-sectional study with data from a web-based behavioral survey carried out from April 24 to May 24, 2020, with 45,161 participants recruited by the chain sampling method. A descriptive analysis of the survey topics was performed: adherence to social restriction measures, diagnosis of the new coronavirus, work situation and income, difficulties in routine activities, presence of comorbidities, psychological issues, and access to health services. Prevalence and respective 95% confidence intervals were estimated. RESULTS: Approximately 74% of Brazilians adhered to social restrictions. As for flu symptoms, 28.1% reported having at least one flu symptom, but only 5.9% underwent testing for COVID-19. Regarding the socioeconomic impact, 55.1% reported a decrease in family income, and 7.0% were left without any income; 25.8% of the people lost their jobs, with the group of informal workers being the most affected (50.6%). As for health conditions, 29.4% reported worsening of health status; 45%, having sleep problems; 40% frequently presented feelings of sadness, and 52.5%, of anxiety; 21.7% sought health care, and, among them, 13.9% did not get care. CONCLUSION: The findings show the importance of controlling the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil, to mitigate the adverse effects on the socioeconomic and health conditions related to social restriction measures.


Subject(s)
/economics , Pandemics/economics , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Income , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
16.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243703, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1027759

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the first cases reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread worldwide. In Indonesia, the first case was reported in early March 2020, and the numbers of confirmed infections have been increasing until now. Efforts to contain the virus globally and in Indonesia are ongoing. This is the very first manuscript using a spatial-temporal model to describe the SARS-CoV-2 transmission in Indonesia, as well as providing a patient profile for all confirmed COVID-19 cases. METHOD: Data was collected from the official website of the Indonesia National Task Force for the Acceleration of COVID-19, from the period of 02 March 2020-02 August 2020. The data from RT-PCR confirmed, SARS-CoV-2 positive patients was categorized according to demographics, symptoms and comorbidities based on case categorization (confirmed, recovered, dead). The data collected provides granular and thorough information on time and geographical location for all 34 Provinces across Indonesia. RESULTS: A cumulative total of 111,450 confirmed cases of were reported in Indonesia during the study period. Of those confirmed cases 67.79% (75,551/111,450) were shown as recovered and 4.83% (5,382/111,450) of them as died. Patients were mostly male (50.52%; 56,300/111,450) and adults aged 31 to 45 years old (29.73%; 33,132/111,450). Overall patient presentation symptoms of cough and fever, as well as chronic disease comorbidities were in line with previously published data from elsewhere in South-East Asia. The data reported here, shows that from the detection of the first confirmed case and within a short time period of 40 days, all the provinces of Indonesia were affected by COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to provide detailed characteristics of the confirmed SARS-CoV-2 patients in Indonesia, including their demographic profile and COVID-19 presentation history. It used a spatial-temporal analysis to present the epidemic spread from the very beginning of the outbreak throughout all provinces in the country. The increase of new confirmed cases has been consistent during this time period for all provinces, with some demonstrating a sharp increase, in part due to the surge in national diagnostic capacity. This information delivers a ready resource that can be used for prediction modelling, and is utilized continuously by the current Indonesian Task Force in order to advise on potential implementation or removal of public distancing measures, and on potential availability of healthcare capacity in their efforts to ultimately manage the outbreak.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , /pathogenicity , /diagnosis , /virology , Female , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/virology , Humans , Indonesia/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/genetics
17.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents ; 34(6): 1977-1982, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1027415

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic emerged as a condition that changed our entire life and led us to develop new perspectives on diseases. Cancers are generally additional risk factors for COVID-19, and this has implications also for skin cancer patients. Those patients require special attention, due to situations such as an increased risk of infection as a result of visiting the hospital for treatment. It is imperative that the diagnosis and treatment of patients who have a cancer that progresses rapidly, such as malignant melanoma, high-risk squamous cell carcinoma and a high risk of metastasis, are delayed. Due to the relatively long-lasting nature of basal cell carcinoma and, as almost no metastasis would be expected, its treatment may be postponed, except for those that occur in areas such as the eyes and mouth. Diagnosis and treatment of skin cancers is a process that requires many procedures. Throughout this process, physicians should take appropriate precautions that are sufficient to protect both the patient and themselves in the best way without leading to any delay in the procedures.


Subject(s)
Melanoma , Skin Neoplasms , Humans , Melanoma/diagnosis , Melanoma/epidemiology , Melanoma/therapy , Pandemics , Skin Neoplasms/diagnosis , Skin Neoplasms/epidemiology , Skin Neoplasms/therapy
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