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2.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 85(2): 123-126, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1806747

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 disease has spread globally and was declared a pandemic on March 11, 2020, by the World Health Organization. On March 10, the State of Michigan confirmed its first 2 cases of COVID-19, and the number of confirmed cases has reached 47,182 as of May 11, 2020, with 4555 deaths. SETTING: Currently, little is known if patients living with HIV (PLWH) are at a higher risk of severe COVID-19 or if their antiretrovirals are protective. This study presents epidemiologic and clinical features of COVID-19 infected PLWH in Detroit, Michigan. METHODS: This is a case series that included 14 PLWH with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection who were evaluated at Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit, Michigan, between March 20, 2020, and April 30, 2020. RESULTS: Fourteen PLWH were diagnosed with COVID-19. Twelve patients were men and 2 were women; 13 patients were virally suppressed. Eight patients were hospitalized, and 6 patients were told to self-quarantine at home after their diagnoses. Three patients who were admitted expired during their hospital stay. No patient required bilevel positive airway pressure or nebulizer use in the emergency department, and none developed acute respiratory distress syndrome, pulmonary embolism, deep venous thrombosis, or a cytokine storm while on therapy for COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Although the clinical spectrum of COVID-19 among PLWH cannot be fully ascertained by this report, it adds to the data that suggest that HIV-positive patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection are not at a greater risk of severe disease or death as compared to HIV-negative patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , HIV Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , African Americans , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/ethnology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology
3.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0260367, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793557

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The world is awash with claims about the effects of health interventions. Many of these claims are untrustworthy because the bases are unreliable. Acting on unreliable claims can lead to waste of resources and poor health outcomes. Yet, most people lack the necessary skills to appraise the reliability of health claims. The Informed Health Choices (IHC) project aims to equip young people in Ugandan lower secondary schools with skills to think critically about health claims and to make good health choices by developing and evaluating digital learning resources. To ensure that we create resources that are suitable for use in Uganda's secondary schools and can be scaled up if found effective, we conducted a context analysis. We aimed to better understand opportunities and barriers related to demand for the resources, how the learning content overlaps with existing curriculum and conditions in secondary schools for accessing and using digital resources, in order to inform resource development. METHODS: We used a mixed methods approach and collected both qualitative and quantitative data. We conducted document analyses, key informant interviews, focus group discussions, school visits, and a telephone survey regarding information communication and technology (ICT). We used a nominal group technique to obtain consensus on the appropriate number and length of IHC lessons that should be planned in a school term. We developed and used a framework from the objectives to code the transcripts and generated summaries of query reports in Atlas.ti version 7. FINDINGS: Critical thinking is a key competency in the lower secondary school curriculum. However, the curriculum does not explicitly make provision to teach critical thinking about health, despite a need acknowledged by curriculum developers, teachers and students. Exam oriented teaching and a lack of learning resources are additional important barriers to teaching critical thinking about health. School closures and the subsequent introduction of online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated teachers' use of digital equipment and learning resources for teaching. Although the government is committed to improving access to ICT in schools and teachers are open to using ICT, access to digital equipment, unreliable power and internet connections remain important hinderances to use of digital learning resources. CONCLUSIONS: There is a recognized need for learning resources to teach critical thinking about health in Ugandan lower secondary schools. Digital learning resources should be designed to be usable even in schools with limited access and equipment. Teacher training on use of ICT for teaching is needed.


Subject(s)
Health Behavior/physiology , Health Education/methods , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice/ethnology , Adolescent , Choice Behavior/physiology , Curriculum , Digital Technology , Female , Focus Groups , Humans , Information Dissemination/ethics , Information Dissemination/methods , Learning , Male , Reproducibility of Results , Schools/trends , Students , Thinking , Uganda/ethnology
4.
Front Public Health ; 10: 778110, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775983

ABSTRACT

Background: Schistosomiasis among migrant populations in Europe is an underdiagnosed infection, yet delayed treatment may have serious long-term consequences. In this study we aimed to characterize the clinical manifestations of Schistosoma infection among migrant women, and the degree of underdiagnosis. Methods: We carried out a prospective cross-sectional study among a migrant population living in the North Metropolitan Barcelona area and coming from schistosomiasis-endemic countries. We obtained clinical, laboratory and socio-demographic data from electronic clinical records, as well as information about years of residence and previous attendance at health services. Blood sample was obtained and schistosomiasis exposure was assessed using a specific ELISA serological test. Results: Four hundred and five patients from schistosomiasis-endemic regions were screened, of whom 51 (12.6%) were female. Seropositivity prevalence was 54.8%, but considering women alone we found a prevalence of 58.8% (30 out of 51). The median age of the 51 women was 41.0 years [IQR (35-48)] and the median period of residence in the European Union was 13 years [IQR (10-16)]. Schistosoma-positive women (N = 30) showed a higher prevalence of gynecological signs and symptoms compared to the seronegative women (96.4 vs. 66.6%, p = 0.005). Among seropositive women, the median number of visits to Sexual and Reproductive Health unit prior to diagnosis of schistosomiasis was 41 [IQR (18-65)]. Conclusion: The high prevalence of signs and symptoms among seropositive women and number of previous visits suggest a high rate of underdiagnosis and/or delayed diagnosis of Schistosoma infection, particularly female genital schistosomiasis, among migrant females.


Subject(s)
Genital Diseases, Female , Schistosomiasis , Transients and Migrants , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Genital Diseases, Female/diagnosis , Genital Diseases, Female/ethnology , Genital Diseases, Female/parasitology , Humans , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Schistosomiasis/diagnosis , Schistosomiasis/ethnology
5.
Front Public Health ; 10: 766943, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775976

ABSTRACT

Objectives: There are controversies regarding the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes among immigrants from conflict-zone countries. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to investigate the risk of perinatal and neonatal outcomes among immigrants from conflict-zone countries compared to native-origin women in host countries. Methods: A systematic search on the databases of PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science was carried out to retrieve studies on perinatal and neonatal outcomes among immigrants from Somalia, Iraq, Afghanistan, Yemen, Syria, Nigeria, Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kosovo, Ukraine, and Pakistan. Only peer-reviewed articles published in the English language were included in the data analysis and research synthesis. The odds ratio and forest plots were constructed for assessing the outcomes of interests using the DerSimonian and Laird, and the inverse variance methods. The random-effects model and the Harbord test were used to account for heterogeneity between studies and assess publication bias, respectively. Further sensitivity analysis helped with the verification of the reliability and stability of our review results. Results: The search process led to the identification of 40 eligible studies involving 215,718 pregnant women, with an immigration background from the conflict zone, and 12,806,469 women of native origin. The adverse neonatal outcomes of the risk of small for gestational age (Pooled OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.6, 2.1), a 5-min Apgar score <7 (Pooled OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.0, 2.1), stillbirth (Pooled OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.2, 3.0), and perinatal mortality (Pooled OR = 2, 95% CI = 1.6, 2.5) were significantly higher in the immigrant women compared to the women of native-origin. The risk of maternal outcomes, including the cesarean section (C-S) and emergency C-S, instrumental delivery, preeclampsia, and gestational diabetes was similar in both groups. Conclusion: Although the risk of some adverse maternal outcomes was comparable in the groups, the immigrant women from conflict-zone countries had a higher risk of neonatal mortality and morbidity, including SGA, a 5-min Apgar score <7, stillbirth, and perinatal mortality compared to the native-origin population. Our review results show the need for the optimization of health care and further investigation of long-term adverse pregnancy outcomes among immigrant women.


Subject(s)
Armed Conflicts , Emigrants and Immigrants , Pregnancy Outcome , Cesarean Section , Emigration and Immigration , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/ethnology , Reproducibility of Results
6.
Front Public Health ; 9: 788285, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775954

ABSTRACT

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a critical Indigenous health inequity rooted in experiences of colonization and marginalization including disproportionate exposure to stressors, disruption of traditional family and food systems, and attacks on cultural practices that have led to more sedentary lifestyles. Thus, an important step in redressing inequities is building awareness of and interventions attuned to unique Indigenous contexts influencing T2D and Indigenous culture as a pathway to community wellbeing. Using a dynamic, stage-based model of intervention development and evaluation, we detail the creation and evolution of a family-based, culturally centered T2D preventive intervention: Together on Diabetes (later Together Overcoming Diabetes) (TOD). The TOD program was built by and for Indigenous communities via community-based participatory research and has been implemented across diverse cultural contexts. The TOD curriculum approaches health through a holistic lens of spiritual, mental, physical and emotional wellness. Preliminary evidence suggests TOD is effective in reducing diabetes risk factors including lowering BMI and depressive symptoms, and the program is viewed favorably by participants and community members. We discuss lessons learned regarding collaborative intervention development and adaptation across Indigenous cultures, as well as future directions for TOD.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Community-Based Participatory Research , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/ethnology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Humans , Risk Factors
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(12): 466-473, 2022 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1761303

ABSTRACT

Beginning the week of December 19-25, 2021, the B.1.1.529 (Omicron) variant of SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) became the predominant circulating variant in the United States (i.e., accounted for >50% of sequenced isolates).* Information on the impact that booster or additional doses of COVID-19 vaccines have on preventing hospitalizations during Omicron predominance is limited. Data from the COVID-19-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET)† were analyzed to compare COVID-19-associated hospitalization rates among adults aged ≥18 years during B.1.617.2 (Delta; July 1-December 18, 2021) and Omicron (December 19, 2021-January 31, 2022) variant predominance, overall and by race/ethnicity and vaccination status. During the Omicron-predominant period, weekly COVID-19-associated hospitalization rates (hospitalizations per 100,000 adults) peaked at 38.4, compared with 15.5 during Delta predominance. Hospitalizations rates increased among all adults irrespective of vaccination status (unvaccinated, primary series only, or primary series plus a booster or additional dose). Hospitalization rates during peak Omicron circulation (January 2022) among unvaccinated adults remained 12 times the rates among vaccinated adults who received booster or additional doses and four times the rates among adults who received a primary series, but no booster or additional dose. The rate among adults who received a primary series, but no booster or additional dose, was three times the rate among adults who received a booster or additional dose. During the Omicron-predominant period, peak hospitalization rates among non-Hispanic Black (Black) adults were nearly four times the rate of non-Hispanic White (White) adults and was the highest rate observed among any racial and ethnic group during the pandemic. Compared with the Delta-predominant period, the proportion of unvaccinated hospitalized Black adults increased during the Omicron-predominant period. All adults should stay up to date (1) with COVID-19 vaccination to reduce their risk for COVID-19-associated hospitalization. Implementing strategies that result in the equitable receipt of COVID-19 vaccinations, through building vaccine confidence, raising awareness of the benefits of vaccination, and removing barriers to vaccination access among persons with disproportionately higher hospitalizations rates from COVID-19, including Black adults, is an urgent public health priority.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/ethnology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , United States/epidemiology
8.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 225, 2022 Mar 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745478

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Exclusive breastmilk feeding during the delivery hospitalization, a Joint Commission indicator of perinatal care quality, is associated with longer-term breastfeeding success. Marked racial and ethnic disparities in breastfeeding exclusivity and duration existed prior to COVID-19. The pandemic, accompanied by uncertainty regarding intrapartum and postpartum safety practices, may have influenced disparities in infant feeding practices. Our objective was to examine whether the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in New York City was associated with a change in racial and ethnic disparities in exclusive breastmilk feeding during the delivery stay. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of electronic medical records from 14,964 births in two New York City hospitals. We conducted a difference-in-differences (DID) analysis to compare Black-white, Latina-white, and Asian-white disparities in exclusive breastmilk feeding in a pandemic cohort (April 1-July 31, 2020, n=3122 deliveries) to disparities in a pre-pandemic cohort (January 1, 2019-February 28, 2020, n=11,842). We defined exclusive breastmilk feeding as receipt of only breastmilk during delivery hospitalization, regardless of route of administration. We ascertained severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection status from reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction tests from nasopharyngeal swab at admission. For each DID model (e.g. Black-white disparity), we used covariate-adjusted log binomial regression models to estimate racial and ethnic risk differences, pandemic versus pre-pandemic cohort risk differences, and an interaction term representing the DID estimator. RESULTS: Exclusive breastmilk feeding increased from pre-pandemic to pandemic among white (40.8% to 46.6%, p<0.001) and Asian (27.9% to 35.8%, p=0.004) women, but not Black (22.6% to 25.3%, p=0.275) or Latina (20.1% to 21.4%, p=0.515) women overall. There was an increase in the Latina-white exclusive breastmilk feeding disparity associated with the pandemic (DID estimator=6.3 fewer cases per 100 births (95% CI=-10.8, -1.9)). We found decreased breastmilk feeding specifically among SARS-CoV-2 positive Latina women (20.1% pre-pandemic vs. 9.1% pandemic p=0.013), and no change in Black-white or Asian-white disparities. CONCLUSIONS: We observed a pandemic-related increase in the Latina-white disparity in exclusive breastmilk feeding, urging hospital policies and programs to increase equity in breastmilk feeding and perinatal care quality during and beyond this health emergency.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding/ethnology , COVID-19/ethnology , Hospitalization , Adult , Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Milk, Human , New York City , Perinatal Care , Quality Indicators, Health Care , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3721, 2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735274

ABSTRACT

It is unclear if changes in public behaviours, developments in COVID-19 treatments, improved patient care, and directed policy initiatives have altered outcomes for minority ethnic groups in the second pandemic wave. This was a prospective analysis of patients aged ≥ 16 years having an emergency admission with SARS-CoV-2 infection between 01/09/2020 and 17/02/2021 to acute NHS hospitals in east London. Multivariable survival analysis was used to assess associations between ethnicity and mortality accounting for predefined risk factors. Age-standardised rates of hospital admission relative to the local population were compared between ethnic groups. Of 5533 patients, the ethnic distribution was White (n = 1805, 32.6%), Asian/Asian British (n = 1983, 35.8%), Black/Black British (n = 634, 11.4%), Mixed/Other (n = 433, 7.8%), and unknown (n = 678, 12.2%). Excluding 678 patients with missing data, 4855 were included in multivariable analysis. Relative to the White population, Asian and Black populations experienced 4.1 times (3.77-4.39) and 2.1 times (1.88-2.33) higher rates of age-standardised hospital admission. After adjustment for various patient risk factors including age, sex, and socioeconomic deprivation, Asian patients were at significantly higher risk of death within 30 days (HR 1.47 [1.24-1.73]). No association with increased risk of death in hospitalised patients was observed for Black or Mixed/Other ethnicity. Asian and Black ethnic groups continue to experience poor outcomes following COVID-19. Despite higher-than-expected rates of hospital admission, Black and Asian patients also experienced similar or greater risk of death in hospital since the start of the pandemic, implying a higher overall risk of COVID-19 associated death in these communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Intensive Care Units , London , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Survival Analysis
10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(3): e221754, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1733813

ABSTRACT

Importance: The increased hospital mortality rates from non-SARS-CoV-2 causes during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic are incompletely characterized. Objective: To describe changes in mortality rates after hospitalization for non-SARS-CoV-2 conditions during the COVID-19 pandemic and how mortality varies by characteristics of the admission and hospital. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study from January 2019 through September 2021 using 100% of national Medicare claims, including 4626 US hospitals. Participants included 8 448 758 individuals with non-COVID-19 medical admissions with fee-for-service Medicare insurance. Main Outcomes and Measures: Outcome was mortality in the 30 days after admission with adjusted odds generated from a 3-level (admission, hospital, and county) logistic regression model that included diagnosis, demographic variables, comorbidities, hospital characteristics, and hospital prevalence of SARS-CoV-2. Results: There were 8 448 758 non-SARS-CoV-2 medical admissions in 2019 and from April 2020 to September 2021 (mean [SD] age, 73.66 [12.88] years; 52.82% women; 821 569 [11.87%] Black, 438 453 [6.34%] Hispanic, 5 351 956 [77.35%] White, and 307 218 [4.44%] categorized as other). Mortality in the 30 days after admission increased from 9.43% in 2019 to 11.48% from April 1, 2020, to March 31, 2021 (odds ratio [OR], 1.20; 95% CI, 1.19-1.21) in multilevel logistic regression analyses including admission and hospital characteristics. The increase in mortality was maintained throughout the first 18 months of the pandemic and varied by race and ethnicity (OR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.23-1.30 for Black enrollees; OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.23-1.27 for Hispanic enrollees; and OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.17-1.19 for White enrollees); Medicaid eligibility (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.24-1.27 for Medicaid eligible vs OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.16-1.18 for noneligible); and hospital quality score, measured on a scale of 1 to 5 stars with 1 being the worst and 5 being the best (OR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.22-1.31 for 1 star vs OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.08-1.15 for 5 stars). Greater hospital prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 was associated with greater increases in odds of death from the prepandemic period to the pandemic period; for example, comparing mortality in October through December 2020 with October through December 2019, the OR was 1.44 (95% CI, 1.39-1.49) for hospitals in the top quartile of SARS-CoV-2 admissions vs an OR of 1.19 (95% CI, 1.16-1.22) for admissions to hospitals in the lowest quartile. This association was mostly limited to admissions with high-severity diagnoses. Conclusions and Relevance: The prolonged elevation in mortality rates after hospital admission in 2020 and 2021 for non-SARS-CoV-2 diagnoses contrasts with reports of improvement in hospital mortality during 2020 for SARS-CoV-2. The results of this cohort study suggest that, with the continued impact of SARS-CoV-2, it is important to implement interventions to improve access to high-quality hospital care for those with non-SARS-CoV-2 diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization/trends , Medicare/statistics & numerical data , Mortality/trends , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , COVID-19/ethnology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Insurance Claim Review , Male , Socioeconomic Factors , United States/epidemiology
11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(3): e220984, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729076

ABSTRACT

Importance: Although social determinants of health (SDOH) are important factors in health inequities, they have not been explicitly associated with COVID-19 mortality rates across racial and ethnic groups and rural, suburban, and urban contexts. Objectives: To explore the spatial and racial disparities in county-level COVID-19 mortality rates during the first year of the pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study analyzed data for all US counties in 50 states and the District of Columbia for the first full year of the COVID-19 pandemic (January 22, 2020, to February 28, 2021). Counties with a high concentration of a single racial and ethnic population and a high level of COVID-19 mortality rate were identified as concentrated longitudinal-impact counties. The SDOH that may be associated with mortality rate across these counties and in urban, suburban, and rural contexts were examined. The 3 largest racial and ethnic groups in the US were selected: Black or African American, Hispanic or Latinx, and non-Hispanic White populations. Exposures: County-level characteristics and community health factors (eg, income inequality, uninsured rate, primary care physicians, preventable hospital stays, severe housing problems rate, and access to broadband internet) associated with COVID-19 mortality. Main Outcomes and Measures: Data on county-level COVID-19 mortality rates (deaths per 100 000 population) reported by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were analyzed. Four indexes were used to measure multiple dimensions of SDOH: socioeconomic advantage index, limited mobility index, urban core opportunity index, and mixed immigrant cohesion and accessibility index. Spatial regression models were used to examine the associations between SDOH and county-level COVID-19 mortality rate. Results: Of the 3142 counties included in the study, 531 were identified as concentrated longitudinal-impact counties. Of these counties, 347 (11.0%) had a large Black or African American population compared with other counties, 198 (6.3%) had a large Hispanic or Latinx population compared with other counties, and 33 (1.1%) had a large non-Hispanic White population compared with other counties. A total of 489 254 COVID-19-related deaths were reported. Most concentrated longitudinal-impact counties with a large Black or African American population compared with other counties were spread across urban, suburban, and rural areas and experienced numerous disadvantages, including higher income inequality (297 of 347 [85.6%]) and more preventable hospital stays (281 of 347 [81.0%]). Most concentrated longitudinal-impact counties with a large Hispanic or Latinx population compared with other counties were located in urban areas (114 of 198 [57.6%]), and 130 (65.7%) of these counties had a high percentage of people who lacked health insurance. Most concentrated longitudinal-impact counties with a large non-Hispanic White population compared with other counties were in rural areas (23 of 33 [69.7%]), included a large group of older adults (26 of 33 [78.8%]), and had limited access to quality health care (24 of 33 [72.7%]). In urban areas, the mixed immigrant cohesion and accessibility index was inversely associated with COVID-19 mortality (coefficient [SE], -23.38 [6.06]; P < .001), indicating that mortality rates in urban areas were associated with immigrant communities with traditional family structures, multiple accessibility stressors, and housing overcrowding. Higher COVID-19 mortality rates were also associated with preventable hospital stays in rural areas (coefficient [SE], 0.008 [0.002]; P < .001) and higher socioeconomic status vulnerability in suburban areas (coefficient [SE], -21.60 [3.55]; P < .001). Across all community types, places with limited internet access had higher mortality rates, especially in urban areas (coefficient [SE], 5.83 [0.81]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: This cross-sectional study found an association between different SDOH measures and COVID-19 mortality that varied across racial and ethnic groups and community types. Future research is needed that explores the different dimensions and regional patterns of SDOH to address health inequity and guide policies and programs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , Health Status Disparities , Spatial Analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies , District of Columbia/epidemiology , Humans , Regression Analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Determinants of Health
12.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264547, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724855

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The relationship between COVID-19 patient's clinical characteristics and disease manifestation remains incompletely understood. The impact of ethnicity on mortality of patients with COVID-19 infection is poorly addressed in the literature. Emerging evidence suggests that many risk factors are related to symptoms severity and mortality risk, emphasizing the necessity of fulfilling this knowledge gap that may help reducing mortality from COVID-19 infections through tackling the risk factors. AIMS: To explore epidemiological and demographic characteristics of hospitalized COVID-19 patients from different ethnic origins living in the UAE, compare them to findings reported across the globe and determine the impact of these characteristics and ethnicity on mortality during hospitalization. METHODS: A single center, retrospective chart review study of hospitalized COVID-19 patients was conducted in a large COVID-19 referral hospital in UAE. The following outcomes were assessed: patients' clinical characteristics, disease symptoms and severity, and association of ethnicity and other risk factors on 30-day in hospital mortality. RESULTS: A total of 3296 patients were recruited in this study with an average age of 44.3±13.4 years old. Preliminary data analysis indicated that 78.3% (n = 2582) of cases were considered mild. Average duration of hospital stay was 6.0±7.3 days and 4.3% (n = 143) were admitted to ICU. The most frequently reported symptoms were cough (32.6%, n = 1075) and fever (22.2%, n = 731). The 30-day mortality rate during hospitalization was 2.7% (n = 90). Many risk factors were associated with mortality during hospitalization including: age, respiratory rate (RR), creatinine, and C-reactive protein, oxygen saturation (SaO2), hemoglobin, hematocrit, ferritin, creatinine, C-reactive protein, anemia, COPD, Chronic kidney disease, dyslipidemia, Vitamin-D Deficiency, and ethnic origin (p <0.05). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that higher mortality rates during hospitalization was associated with anemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic kidney disease, and Middle Eastern origin (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: The results indicated that most COVID-19 cases were mild and morality rate was low compared to worldwide reported mortality. Mortality rate during hospitalization was higher in patients from Middle East origin with preexisting comorbidities especially anemia, COPD, and chronic kidney disease. Due to the relatively small number of mortality cases, other identified risk factors from univariate analysis such as age, respiratory rate, and Vitamin-D (VitD) deficiency should also be taken into consideration. It is crucial to stratify patients on admission based on these risk factors to help decide intensity and type of treatment which, possibly, will reduce the risk of death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , United Arab Emirates/epidemiology
13.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(5): 649-654, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726736

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Identifying occupational risk factors for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among health care workers (HCWs) can improve HCW and patient safety. OBJECTIVE: To quantify demographic, occupational, and community risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity among HCWs in a large health care system. DESIGN: A logistic regression model was fitted to data from a cross-sectional survey conducted in April to June 2020, linking risk factors for occupational and community exposure to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity. SETTING: A large academic health care system in the Atlanta, Georgia, metropolitan area. PARTICIPANTS: Employees and medical staff members elected to participate in SARS-CoV-2 serology testing offered to all HCWs as part of a quality initiative and completed a survey on exposure to COVID-19 and use of personal protective equipment. MEASUREMENTS: Demographic risk factors for COVID-19, residential ZIP code incidence of COVID-19, occupational exposure to HCWs or patients who tested positive on polymerase chain reaction test, and use of personal protective equipment as potential risk factors for infection. The outcome was SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity. RESULTS: Adjusted SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity was estimated to be 3.8% (95% CI, 3.4% to 4.3%) (positive, n = 582) among the 10 275 HCWs (35% of the Emory Healthcare workforce) who participated in the survey. Community contact with a person known or suspected to have COVID-19 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.9 [CI, 1.4 to 2.6]; 77 positive persons [10.3%]) and community COVID-19 incidence (aOR, 1.5 [CI, 1.0 to 2.2]) increased the odds of infection. Black individuals were at high risk (aOR, 2.1 [CI, 1.7 to 2.6]; 238 positive persons [8.3%]). LIMITATIONS: Participation rates were modest and key workplace exposures, including job and infection prevention practices, changed rapidly in the early phases of the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Demographic and community risk factors, including contact with a COVID-19-positive person and Black race, are more strongly associated with SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity among HCWs than is exposure in the workplace. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Emory COVID-19 Response Collaborative.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/ethnology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Georgia/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Diseases/ethnology , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(3): e220773, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718200

ABSTRACT

Importance: Women with recent gestational diabetes (GDM) have increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Objective: To investigate whether a resource-appropriate and context-appropriate lifestyle intervention could prevent glycemic deterioration among women with recent GDM in South Asia. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized, participant-unblinded controlled trial investigated a 12-month lifestyle intervention vs usual care at 19 urban hospitals in India, Sri Lanka, and Bangladesh. Participants included women with recent diagnosis of GDM who did not have type 2 diabetes at an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) 3 to 18 months postpartum. They were enrolled from November 2017 to January 2020, and follow-up ended in January 2021. Data were analyzed from April to July 2021. Interventions: A 12-month lifestyle intervention focused on diet and physical activity involving group and individual sessions, as well as remote engagement, adapted to local context and resources. This was compared with usual care. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was worsening category of glycemia based on OGTT using American Diabetes Association criteria: (1) normal glucose tolerance to prediabetes (ie, impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance) or type 2 diabetes or (2) prediabetes to type 2 diabetes. The primary analysis consisted of a survival analysis of time to change in glycemic status at or prior to the final patient visit, which occurred at varying times after 12 months for each patient. Secondary outcomes included new-onset type 2 diabetes and change in body weight. Results: A total of 1823 women (baseline mean [SD] age, 30.9 [4.9] years and mean [SD] body mass index, 26.6 [4.6]) underwent OGTT at a median (IQR) 6.5 (4.8-8.2) months postpartum. After excluding 160 women (8.8%) with type 2 diabetes, 2 women (0.1%) who met other exclusion criteria, and 49 women (2.7%) who did not consent or were uncontactable, 1612 women were randomized. Subsequently, 11 randomized participants were identified as ineligible and excluded from the primary analysis, leaving 1601 women randomized (800 women randomized to the intervention group and 801 women randomized to usual care). These included 600 women (37.5%) with prediabetes and 1001 women (62.5%) with normoglycemia. Among participants randomized to the intervention, 644 women (80.5%) received all program content, although COVID-19 lockdowns impacted the delivery model (ie, among 644 participants who engaged in all group sessions, 476 women [73.9%] received some or all content through individual engagement, and 315 women [48.9%] received some or all content remotely). After a median (IQR) 14.1 (11.4-20.1) months of follow-up, 1308 participants (81.2%) had primary outcome data. The intervention, compared with usual care, did not reduce worsening glycemic status (204 women [25.5%] vs 217 women [27.1%]; hazard ratio, 0.92; [95% CI, 0.76-1.12]; P = .42) or improve any secondary outcome. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that a large proportion of women in South Asian urban settings developed dysglycemia soon after a GDM-affected pregnancy and that a lifestyle intervention, modified owing to the COVID-19 pandemic, did not prevent subsequent glycemic deterioration. These findings suggest that alternate or additional approaches are needed, especially among high-risk individuals. Trial Registration: Clinical Trials Registry of India Identifier: CTRI/2017/06/008744; Sri Lanka Clinical Trials Registry Identifier: SLCTR/2017/001; and ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03305939.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Diabetes, Gestational/prevention & control , Diet , Exercise , Glycemic Control/methods , Life Style , Postpartum Period , Adult , Bangladesh , Blood Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/ethnology , Diabetes, Gestational/ethnology , Female , Glucose Tolerance Test , Humans , India , Pregnancy , Sri Lanka , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome , Urban Population
18.
Rural Remote Health ; 21(4): 7043, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1716366

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has devastated communities throughout the world and has required rapid paradigm changes in the manner in which health care is administered. Previous health models and practices have been modified and changed at a rapid pace. This commentary provides the experiences of a regional Victorian Aboriginal Community Controlled Organisation in a COVID-19 vaccination program led and managed by Aboriginal Health Practitioners.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Community Health Services , Health Services, Indigenous , Physician's Role , Vaccination , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Community Health Services/organization & administration , Health Services, Indigenous/organization & administration , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Victoria/epidemiology
19.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0264371, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709661

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emerging variants of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has claimed over 3000 lives in Nigeria and vaccination remains a means of reducing the death toll. Despite ongoing efforts by the government to ensure COVID-19 vaccination of most residents to attain herd immunity, myths and beliefs have adversely shaped the perception of most Nigerians, challenging the uptake of COVID-19 vaccine. This study aimed to assess the factors influencing the awareness, perception, and willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccine among Nigerian adults. METHODS: A cross-sectional online nationwide study was conducted from April to June 2021 among Nigerian adult population using the snowballing method. Descriptive analysis was used to summarise the data. Univariate and multivariate analysis was used to identify the predictors of COVID-19 uptake among the respondents. A p value <0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: A total of 1058 completed forms were analysed and 63.9% were females. The mean age was 40.8 years±12.2 years. Most of the respondents (740; 69.5%) had satisfactory awareness of the vaccination exercise. The media was the main source of information. Health workers reported higher level of awareness (aOR = 1.822, 95% CI: 1.388-2.524, p<0.001). Respondents that are Christians and Muslims had better awareness compared to the unaffiliated (aOR = 6.398, 95% CI: 1.918-21.338, P = 0.003) and (aOR = 7.595, 95% CI: 2.280-25.301, p<0.001) respectively. There is average score for perception statements (566; 53.2%) towards COVID-19 vaccination. Close to half of the respondents (44.2%) found the short period of COVID-19 production worrisome. Majority of the respondents were willing to get the vaccine (856; 80.9%). Those without a prior diagnosis of COVID-19 had a lower willingness to get vaccinated (aOR = 0.210 (95% CI: 0.082-0.536) P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: The study revealed a high level of awareness, willingness to receive the vaccine and moderate perception towards the vaccination activities. Influencing factors that significantly affects awareness were religion, occupation, education and prior diagnosis of COVID-19; for perception and willingness-occupation, and prior diagnosis of the COVID-19 were influencing factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , /psychology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice/ethnology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nigeria/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination , /trends
20.
Am J Public Health ; 112(3): 408-416, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706319

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To evaluate the occurrence of HIV and COVID-19 infections in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, through July 2020 and identify ecological correlates driving racial disparities in infection incidence. Methods. For each zip code tabulation area, we created citywide comparison Z-score measures of COVID-19 cases, new cases of HIV, and the difference between the scores. Choropleth maps were used to identify areas that were similar or dissimilar in terms of disease patterning, and weighted linear regression models helped identify independent ecological predictors of these patterns. Results. Relative to COVID-19, HIV represented a greater burden in Center City Philadelphia, whereas COVID-19 was more apparent in Northeast Philadelphia. Areas with a greater proportion of Black or African American residents were overrepresented in terms of both diseases. Conclusions. Although race is a shared nominal upstream factor that conveys increased risk for both infections, an understanding of separate structural, demographic, and economic risk factors that drive the overrepresentation of COVID-19 cases in racial/ethnic communities across Philadelphia is critical. Public Health Implications. Difference-based measures are useful in identifying areas that are underrepresented or overrepresented with respect to disease occurrence and may be able to elucidate effective or ineffective mitigation strategies. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(3):408-416. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306538).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Aged , COVID-19/ethnology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , HIV Infections/ethnology , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Philadelphia/epidemiology , Residence Characteristics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spatial Analysis , Young Adult
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