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1.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 764, 2022 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967632

ABSTRACT

Mammalian organs are individually controlled by autonomous circadian clocks. At the molecular level, this process is defined by the cyclical co-expression of both core transcription factors and their downstream targets across time. While interactions between these molecular clocks are necessary for proper homeostasis, these features remain undefined. Here, we utilize integrative analysis of a baboon diurnal transcriptome atlas to characterize the properties of gene networks under circadian control. We found that 53.4% (8120) of baboon genes are oscillating body-wide. Additionally, two basic network modes were observed at the systems level: daytime and nighttime mode. Daytime networks were enriched for genes involved in metabolism, while nighttime networks were enriched for genes associated with growth and cellular signaling. A substantial number of diseases only form significant disease modules at either daytime or nighttime. In addition, a majority of SARS-CoV-2-related genes and modules are rhythmically expressed, which have significant network proximities with circadian regulators. Our data suggest that synchronization amongst circadian gene networks is necessary for proper homeostatic functions and circadian regulators have close interactions with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gene Regulatory Networks , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , Circadian Rhythm/genetics , Mammals/genetics , Primates/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 766, 2022 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967631

ABSTRACT

Studying the antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 informs on how the human immune system can respond to antigenic variants as well as other SARS-related viruses. Here, we structurally identified a YYDRxG motif encoded by IGHD3-22 in CDR H3 that facilitates antibody targeting to a functionally conserved epitope on the SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain. A computational search for a YYDRxG pattern in publicly available sequences uncovered 100 such antibodies, many of which can neutralize SARS-CoV-2 variants and SARS-CoV. Thus, the YYDRxG motif represents a common convergent solution for the human humoral immune system to target sarbecoviruses including the Omicron variant. These findings suggest an epitope-targeting strategy to identify potent and broadly neutralizing antibodies for design of pan-sarbecovirus vaccines and antibody therapeutics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Epitopes/genetics , Humans , Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13069, 2022 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967624

ABSTRACT

Reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assays are gold standard in diagnosing SARS-CoV-2 infection and play a major role in viral subtyping for rapid detection and monitoring of important mutations, containing the spread of new virus variants. We wanted to compare RT-qPCR melting curve analysis assays to Sanger Sequencing for detection of variants within the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein and examined their sensitivity and specificity. Samples positive for SARS-CoV-2 (n = 663 + 82) were subtyped using both Sanger sequencing and five RT-qPCR melting curve analysis assays specific for the mutations N501Y, P681H, E484K, K417N/T, and N439K. The results of the two methods were compared. The training cohort and the clinical validation cohort showed equally, or significantly better sensitivity of the assays compared to the Sanger sequencing. The agreement of the Sanger sequencing and the assays ranged from 92.6 to 100% for the training cohort and 99.4-100% for the clinical validation. The sensitivity, specificity, and turn-around time of the RT-qPCR melting curve analysis assays are well-suited for clinical monitoring of VOCs, making the assays an important tool in contact tracing and risk stratification. Furthermore, the assays were able to indicate the presence of new mutations in the complementary sequence to the mutation-specific probes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/genetics , Humans , Mutation , Reverse Transcription , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
4.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4422, 2022 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967602

ABSTRACT

Studies are needed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccination during pregnancy, and the levels of protection provided to their newborns through placental transfer of antibodies. Here, we evaluate the transplacental transfer of mRNA vaccine products and functional anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies during pregnancy and early infancy in a cohort of 20 individuals vaccinated during late pregnancy. We find no evidence of mRNA vaccine products in maternal blood, placenta tissue, or cord blood at delivery. However, we find time-dependent efficient transfer of IgG and neutralizing antibodies to the neonate that persists during early infancy. Additionally, using phage immunoprecipitation sequencing, we find a vaccine-specific signature of SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein epitope binding that is transplacentally transferred during pregnancy. Timing of vaccination during pregnancy is critical to ensure transplacental transfer of protective antibodies during early infancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Infant, Newborn , Placenta , Pregnancy , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
5.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 261, 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967592

ABSTRACT

Apolipoprotein E (APOE) plays a pivotal role in lipid including cholesterol metabolism. The APOE ε4 (APOE4) allele is a major genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's and cardiovascular diseases. Although APOE has recently been associated with increased susceptibility to infections of several viruses, whether and how APOE and its isoforms affect SARS-CoV-2 infection remains unclear. Here, we show that serum concentrations of APOE correlate inversely with levels of cytokine/chemokine in 73 COVID-19 patients. Utilizing multiple protein interaction assays, we demonstrate that APOE3 and APOE4 interact with the SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2; and APOE/ACE2 interactions require zinc metallopeptidase domain of ACE2, a key docking site for SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein. In addition, immuno-imaging assays using confocal, super-resolution, and transmission electron microscopies reveal that both APOE3 and APOE4 reduce ACE2/Spike-mediated viral entry into cells. Interestingly, while having a comparable binding affinity to ACE2, APOE4 inhibits viral entry to a lesser extent compared to APOE3, which is likely due to APOE4's more compact structure and smaller spatial obstacle to compete against Spike binding to ACE2. Furthermore, APOE ε4 carriers clinically correlate with increased SARS-CoV-2 infection and elevated serum inflammatory factors in 142 COVID-19 patients assessed. Our study suggests a regulatory mechanism underlying SARS-CoV-2 infection through APOE interactions with ACE2, which may explain in part increased COVID-19 infection and disease severity in APOE ε4 carriers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Apolipoprotein E3/metabolism , Apolipoprotein E4/genetics , Apolipoprotein E4/metabolism , Apolipoproteins E/genetics , Apolipoproteins E/metabolism , Binding Sites , COVID-19/genetics , Humans , Inflammation/genetics , Protein Binding , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
6.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 257, 2022 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967591

ABSTRACT

Highly divergent SARS-CoV-2 variants have continuously emerged and spread around the world, and updated vaccines and innovative vaccination strategies are urgently needed to address the global SARS-COV2 pandemic. Here, we established a series of Ad5-vectored SARS-CoV-2 variant vaccines encoding multiple spike proteins derived from the Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Epsilon, Kappa, Delta and Omicron lineages and analyzed the antibody immune responses induced by single-dose and prime-boost vaccination strategies against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs). Single-dose vaccination with SARS-CoV-2 variant vaccines tended to elicit the optimal self-matched neutralizing effects, and Ad5-B.1.351 produced more broad-spectrum cross-neutralizing antibodies against diverse variants. In contrast, prime-boost vaccination further strengthened and broadened the neutralizing antibody responses against highly divergent SARS-CoV-2 variants. The heterologous administration of Ad5-B.1.617.2 and Ad5-B.1.429 to Ad5-WT-primed mice resulted in superior antibody responses against most VOCs. In particular, the Omicron spike could only stimulate self-matched neutralizing antibodies with infrequent cross-reactivities to other variants used in single-dose vaccination strategies; moreover, with prime-boost regimens, this vaccine elicited an optimal specific neutralizing antibody response to Omicron, and prompted cross-antibody responses against other VOCs that were very similar to those obtained with Ad5-WT booster. Overall, this study delineated the unique characteristics of antibody responses to the SARS-CoV-2 VOC spikes with the single-dose or prime-boost vaccination strategies and provided insight into the vaccine development of next SARS-CoV-2 VOCs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Mice , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
7.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(5): 564-565, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967527
8.
Virol Sin ; 37(3): 418-426, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967215

ABSTRACT

The global spread of enteroviruses (EVs) has become more frequent, severe and life-threatening. Intereron (IFN) I has been proved to control EVs by regulating IFN-stimulated genes (ISG) expression. 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetases 3 (OAS3) is an important ISG in the OAS/RNase L antiviral system. The relationship between OAS3 and EVs is still unclear. Here, we reveal that OAS3, superior to OAS1 and OAS2, significantly inhibited EV71 replication in vitro. However, EV71 utilized autologous 3C protease (3Cpro) to cleave intracellular OAS3 and enhance viral replication. Rupintrivir, a human rhinovirus 3C protease inhibitor, completely abolished the cleavage of EV71 3Cpro on OAS3. And the proteolytically deficient mutants H40G, E71A, and C147G of EV71 3Cpro also lost the ability of OAS3 cleavage. Mechanistically, the Q982-G983 motif in C-terminal of OAS3 was identified as a crucial 3Cpro cutting site. Further investigation indicated that OAS3 inhibited not only EV71 but also Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16), Enterovirus D68 (EVD68), and Coxsackievirus A6 (CA6) subtypes. Notably, unlike other four subtypes, CA16 3Cpro could not cleave OAS3. Two key amino acids variation Ile36 and Val86 in CA16 3Cpro might result in weak and delayed virus replication of CA16 because of failure of OAS and 3AB cleavage. Our works elucidate the broad anti-EVs function of OAS3, and illuminate a novel mechanism by which EV71 use 3Cpro to escape the antiviral effect of OAS3. These findings can be an important entry point for developing novel therapeutic strategies for multiple EVs infection.


Subject(s)
Enterovirus A, Human , Enterovirus Infections , Enterovirus , 2',5'-Oligoadenylate Synthetase/genetics , 2',5'-Oligoadenylate Synthetase/metabolism , 2',5'-Oligoadenylate Synthetase/pharmacology , 3C Viral Proteases , Adenine Nucleotides , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Enterovirus/metabolism , Enterovirus A, Human/genetics , Humans , Ligases/pharmacology , Oligoribonucleotides , Peptide Hydrolases/pharmacology , Virus Replication
9.
Clin Chim Acta ; 532: 181-187, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966413

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 is an RNA virus that primarily causes respiratory disease; however, infection of other tissue has been reported. Evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 in tissue specimens may increase understanding of SARS-CoV-2 pathobiology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A qualitative test for detection of SARS-CoV-2 in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues was developed and validated using droplet digital PCR (ddPCR), which has a lower limit of detection than reverse transcription (RT)-qPCR. After extraction of total RNA from unstained FFPE tissue, SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N1, N2) target sequences were amplified and quantified, along with human RPP30 as a control using the Bio-Rad SARS-CoV-2 ddPCR kit. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 was detected in all 21 known positive samples and none of the 16 negative samples. As few as approximately 5 viral copies were reliably detected. Since January 2021, many tissue types have been clinically tested. Of the 195 clinical specimens, the positivity rate was 35% with placenta and fetal tissue showing the highest percentage of positive cases. CONCLUSION: This sensitive FFPE-based assay has broad clinical utility with applications as diverse as pregnancy loss and evaluation of liver transplant rejection. This assay will aid in understanding atypical presentations of COVID-19 as well as long-term sequelae.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , RNA, Viral , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Formaldehyde , Humans , Paraffin Embedding , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
10.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 214: 114501, 2022 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966386

ABSTRACT

On-site and real-time clinical monitoring have been progressed dramatically by integrating biosensor science with portable digital electronic technology. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) with association of RNA-guided nucleases (CrRNA-Cas enzymes) have achieved novel CRISPR/Cas biosensing science as a promising revolutionized diagnostic technology for portable and on-site healthcare monitoring and diagnostics. Among several available CRISPR/Cas systems, CRISPR/Cas12a and CRISPR/Cas13a conjugates are utilized broadly in biosensor design, because of their capability to cleave both target and non-target sequences. With the advantages of portability, cost-effectiveness, facile operation, high durability, and reproducibility, CRISPR/Cas-based biosensing techniques are a perfect choice for designing ultra-sensitive point-of-care diagnostic devices with amplified response signals. In the present review, we summarize the advances in the CRISPR/Cas-based biosensors with the focus on healthcare and diagnostic purposes. The cooperation of nanomaterial engineering with CRISPR/Cas biosensors is also represented to attain a promising viewpoint for offering novel user-friendly test kits for announcing ultra-low levels of diverse targets in the future.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , CRISPR-Cas Systems , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Reproducibility of Results , Ribonucleases/metabolism
11.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1219: 340036, 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966259

ABSTRACT

Rapid, sensitive and accurate diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is of great need for effective quarantining and treatment. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction requiring thermocyling has been commonly used for diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 though it may take two to 4 h before lengthy sample pretreatment process and require bulky apparatus and well-trained personnel. Since multiple reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (multiple RT-LAMP) process without thermocycling is sensitive, specific and fast, an electromagnetically-driven microfluidic chip (EMC) was developed herein to lyse SARS-CoV-2 viruses, extract their RNAs, and perform qualitative analysis of three marker genes by on-chip multiple RT-LAMP in an automatic format within 82 min at a limit of detection of only ∼5000 copies per reaction (i.e. 200 virus/ µL). This compact EMC may be especially promising for SARS-CoV-2 diagnostics in resource-limited countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Humans , Microfluidics , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reverse Transcription , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
12.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(8): 536, 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966133

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to explore if bovine coronavirus nucleocapsid (BCoV N) impacts IFN-ß production in the host cells and to reveal further molecular mechanism of BCoV pathogenesis. Human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 T cells were transiently transfected with pMyc-BCoV-N recombinant plasmids, then infected with the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Expression levels of beta interferon (IFN-ß) mRNA were detected using RT-qPCR. The results showed that BCoV N gene was 1347 bp that was consistent with the expected size. pMyc-BCoV-N recombinant protein was 1347 bp which was successfully transcribed and overexpressed in HEK 293 T cells. BCoV-N recombinant protein inhibited dose-dependently VSV-induced IFN-ß production (p < 0.01). MDA5, MAVS, TBK1 and IRF3 could promote transcription levels of IFN-ß mRNA. But, BCoV-N protein demoted IFN-ß transcription levels induced by MDA5, MAVS, TBK1 and IRF3. Furthermore, expression levels of MDA5, MAVS, TBK1 and IRF3 mRNAs were reduced in RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) pathway. In conclusion, BCoV-N reduced IFN-ß levels in RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) pathway in HEK 293 T cells which were induced by MDA5, MAVS, TBK1 and IRF3(5D). BCoV-N protein inhibited IFN-ß production and activation of RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) signal pathway. Our findings demonstrated BCoV N protein is an IFN-ß antagonist through inhibition of MDA5, MAVS, TBK1 and IRF3(5D) in RLRs pathway, also revealed a new mechanism of BCoV N protein to evade host innate immune response by inhibiting type I IFN production, which is beneficial to developing novel prevention strategy for BCoV disease in the animals and humans.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus, Bovine , Animals , Cattle , Coronavirus, Bovine/genetics , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Interferon-beta/genetics , Nucleocapsid , RNA, Messenger , Recombinant Proteins
13.
Virol J ; 19(1): 120, 2022 07 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1965846

ABSTRACT

Coxsackievirus A10 (CV-A10), the causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), caused a series of outbreaks in recent years and often leads to neurological impairment, but a clear understanding of the disease pathogenesis and host response remains elusive. Cellular microRNAs (miRNAs), a large family of non-coding RNA molecules, have been reported to be key regulators in viral pathogenesis and virus-host interactions. However, the role of host cellular miRNAs defensing against CV-A10 infection is still obscure. To address this issue, we systematically analyzed miRNA expression profiles in CV-A10-infected 16HBE cells by high-throughput sequencing methods in this study. It allowed us to successfully identify 312 and 278 miRNAs with differential expression at 12 h and 24 h post-CV-A10 infection, respectively. Among these, 4 miRNAs and their target genes were analyzed by RT-qPCR, which confirmed the sequencing data. Gene target prediction and enrichment analysis revealed that the predicted targets of these miRNAs were significantly enriched in numerous cellular processes, especially in regulation of basic physical process, host immune response and neurological impairment. And the integrated network was built to further indicate the regulatory roles of miRNAs in host-CV-A10 interactions. Consequently, our findings could provide a beneficial basis for further studies on the regulatory roles of miRNAs relevant to the host immune responses and neuropathogenesis caused by CV-A10 infection.


Subject(s)
Enterovirus A, Human , Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease , MicroRNAs , Benzeneacetamides , Enterovirus A, Human/genetics , Epithelial Cells , Humans , MicroRNAs/genetics , Piperidones
14.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 27(7): 217, 2022 Jul 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1965058

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus. It is enveloped by four structural proteins. The entry of the virus into the host cells is mediated by spike protein binding to the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and proteolytic cleavage by transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2). In this study, we analyzed the expression of the ACE2 receptor and TMPRSS2 in cases under investigation for SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: The study was carried out using the viral transport medium of consecutive nasopharyngeal swabs from 300 people under examination for SARS-CoV-2 infection. All samples underwent the SARS-CoV-2 transcriptase-mediated amplification assay (Procleix® SARS-CoV-2) to detect the virus. Immunocytochemistry was used in each sample to detect the presence of the SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein, the ACE2 receptor, and TMPRSS2. RESULTS: An immunocytochemical study with monoclonal antibody against SARS-CoV-2 viral nucleoprotein showed positivity in squamous cells. ACE2 were not detected in the squamous cells obtained from the nasopharyngeal samples. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 predominantly localizes to squamous cells in cytology samples of patients with positive transcriptase-mediated amplification SARS-CoV-2 assay results. The immunocytochemical negativity for ACE2 evidenced in the present study could be related to the cellular heterogeneity present in the nasopharyngeal smear samples and could be related to variations at the genomic level. Our results suggest that SARS-CoV-2 might be present in the nasopharyngeal region because viral cell junctions are weaker. This facilitates viral concentration, infective capacity and migration to specific organs, where SARS-CoV-2 infects target cells by binding to their receptors and then entering.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Nasopharynx/metabolism , Proteolysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism
15.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 27(7): 204, 2022 Jun 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1965057

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 displays an increased mortality rate and higher risk of severe symptoms with increasing age, which is thought to be a result of the compromised immunity of elderly patients. However, the underlying mechanisms of aging-associated immunodeficiency against Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains unclear. Epigenetic modifications show considerable changes with age, causing altered gene regulations and cell functions during the aging process. The DNA methylation patterns among patients with coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) who had different ages were compared to explore the effect of aging-associated methylation modifications in SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: Patients with COVID-19 were divided into three groups according to age. Boruta was used on the DNA methylation profiles of the patients to remove irrelevant features and retain essential signature sites to identify substantial aging-associated DNA methylation changes in COVID-19. Next, these features were ranked using the minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR) method, and the feature list generated by mRMR was processed into the incremental feature selection method with decision tree (DT), random forest, k-nearest neighbor, and support vector machine to obtain the key methylation sites, optimal classifier, and decision rules. RESULTS: Several key methylation sites that showed distinct patterns among the patients with COVID-19 who had different ages were identified, and these methylation modifications may play crucial roles in regulating immune cell functions. An optimal classifier was built based on selected methylation signatures, which can be useful to predict the aging-associated disease risk of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Existing works and our predictions suggest that the methylation modifications of genes, such as NHLH2, ZEB2, NWD1, ELOVL2, FGGY, and FHL2, are closely associated with age in patients with COVID-19, and the 39 decision rules extracted with the optimal DT classifier provides quantitative context to the methylation modifications in elderly patients with COVID-19. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the epigenetic regulations of aging-associated COVID-19 symptoms and provide the potential methylation targets for intervention strategies in elderly patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , COVID-19/genetics , DNA Methylation , Humans , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Support Vector Machine
16.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 07 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964120

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Most new SARS-CoV-2 epidemics in France occurred following the importation from abroad of emerging viral variants. Currently, the risk of new variants being imported is controlled based on a negative screening test (PCR or antigenic) and proof of up-to-date vaccine status, such as the International Air Transport Association travel pass. METHODS: The wastewater from two planes arriving in Marseille (France) from Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) in December 2021 was tested by RT-PCR to detect SARS-CoV2 and screen for variants. These tests were carried out between landing and customs clearance and were then sequenced by MiSeq Illumina. Antigenic tests and sequencing by NovaSeq were carried out on respiratory samples collected from the 56 passengers on the second flight. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 RNA suspected of being from the Omicron BA.1 variant was detected in the aircraft's wastewater. SARS-CoV2 RNA was detected in 11 [20%) passengers and the Omicron BA.1 variant was identified. CONCLUSION: Our work shows the efficiency of aircraft wastewater testing to detect SARS-CoV-2 cases among travellers and to identify the viral genotype. It also highlights the low efficacy of the current control strategy for flights entering France from outside Europe, which combines a requirement to produce a vaccine pass and proof of a negative test before boarding.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aircraft , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , Ethiopia , Europe , Humans , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination , Waste Water
17.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 07 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964117

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 infection generates up to nine different sub-genomic mRNAs (sgRNAs), in addition to the genomic RNA (gRNA). The 5'UTR of each viral mRNA shares the first 75 nucleotides (nt.) at their 5'end, called the leader, but differentiates by a variable sequence (0 to 190 nt. long) that follows the leader. As a result, each viral mRNA has its own specific 5'UTR in term of length, RNA structure, uORF and Kozak context; each one of these characteristics could affect mRNA expression. In this study, we have measured and compared translational efficiency of each of the ten viral transcripts. Our data show that most of them are very efficiently translated in all translational systems tested. Surprisingly, the gRNA 5'UTR, which is the longest and the most structured, was also the most efficient to initiate translation. This property is conserved in the 5'UTR of SARS-CoV-1 but not in MERS-CoV strain, mainly due to the regulation imposed by the uORF. Interestingly, the translation initiation mechanism on the SARS-CoV-2 gRNA 5'UTR requires the cap structure and the components of the eIF4F complex but showed no dependence in the presence of the poly(A) tail in vitro. Our data strongly suggest that translation initiation on SARS-CoV-2 mRNAs occurs via an unusual cap-dependent mechanism.


Subject(s)
RNA, Guide , SARS-CoV-2 , 5' Untranslated Regions , Genomics , Nucleic Acid Conformation , Protein Biosynthesis , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
18.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964114

ABSTRACT

The spike protein (S) plays a crucial role in porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection and induces neutralizing antibodies. Mutations of the S protein are supposed to provide the main antigenic shift leading to the antigenic escape of PEDVs. It is therefore a significant question how much accumulation of antigenic shift could lead to the antigenic escape of the variant PEDV. To provide an answer in the study, B cell epitopes (BCEs) on the S protein of the PEDV vaccine strain CV777 (SCV777) and variant strain SD2014 (SSD2014) were mapped using biosynthetic peptides and rabbit anti-PEDV S serum. Seventy-nine and 68 linear BCEs were identified from SCV777 and SSD2014, respectively. While 66.2% of the BCEs of SSD2014 could be recognized by anti-SCV777 serum and 67.1% of SCV777 BCEs could be recognized by anti-SSD2014 serum, more than 40% of the BCEs identified using anti-SCV777 serum on SCV777 could not be recognized by anti-SSD2014 serum and vice versa. The completely shared BCEs took low percentages of 29.4% and 25.3% for SSD2014 and SCV777, respectively. These results indicate a low conservation of antigenicity of the S protein compared to a relatively high amino acid sequence similarity of 92.2% between the two strains. The study provided a BCE shift reference of PEDV antigenic escape and surveillance control.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Epitope Mapping , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Rabbits , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Swine
19.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 06 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964113

ABSTRACT

Membrane fusion constitutes an essential step in the replication cycle of numerous viral pathogens, hence it represents an important druggable target. In the present study, we established a virus-free, stable reporter fusion inhibition assay (SRFIA) specifically designed to identify compounds interfering with virus-induced membrane fusion. The dual reporter assay is based on two stable Vero cell lines harboring the third-generation tetracycline (Tet3G) transactivator and a bicistronic reporter gene cassette under the control of the tetracycline responsive element (TRE3G), respectively. Cell-cell fusion by the transient transfection of viral fusogens in the presence of doxycycline results in the expression of the reporter enzyme secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) and the fluorescent nuclear localization marker EYFPNuc. A constitutively expressed, secreted form of nanoluciferase (secNLuc) functioned as the internal control. The performance of the SRFIA was tested for the quantification of SARS-CoV-2- and HSV-1-induced cell-cell fusion, respectively, showing high sensitivity and specificity, as well as the reliable identification of known fusion inhibitors. Parallel quantification of secNLuc enabled the detection of cytotoxic compounds or insufficient transfection efficacy. In conclusion, the SRFIA reported here is well suited for high-throughput screening for new antiviral agents and essentially will be applicable to all viral fusogens causing cell-cell fusion in Vero cells.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Herpesvirus 1, Human , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Genes, Reporter , Herpesvirus 1, Human/genetics , Humans , Membrane Fusion , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Tetracyclines , Vero Cells
20.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 06 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964110

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak has reminded us of the importance of viral evolutionary studies as regards comprehending complex viral evolution and preventing future pandemics. A unique approach to understanding viral evolution is the use of ancient viral genomes. Ancient viruses are detectable in various archaeological remains, including ancient people's skeletons and mummified tissues. Those specimens have preserved ancient viral DNA and RNA, which have been vigorously analyzed in the last few decades thanks to the development of sequencing technologies. Reconstructed ancient pathogenic viral genomes have been utilized to estimate the past pandemics of pathogenic viruses within the ancient human population and long-term evolutionary events. Recent studies revealed the existence of non-pathogenic viral genomes in ancient people's bodies. These ancient non-pathogenic viruses might be informative for inferring their relationships with ancient people's diets and lifestyles. Here, we reviewed the past and ongoing studies on ancient pathogenic and non-pathogenic viruses and the usage of ancient viral genomes to understand their long-term viral evolution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viruses , DNA, Ancient , Evolution, Molecular , Genome, Viral , Humans , Viruses/genetics
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