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1.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(12)2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024546

ABSTRACT

Worldwide COVID-19 epidemiology data indicate differences in disease incidence amongst sex and gender demographic groups. Specifically, male patients are at a higher death risk than female patients, and the older population is significantly more affected than young individuals. Whether this difference is a consequence of a pre-existing differential response to the virus, has not been studied in detail. We created DeCovid, an R shiny app that combines gene expression (GE) data of different human tissue from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project along with the COVID-19 Disease Map and COVID-19 related pathways gene collections to explore basal GE differences across healthy demographic groups. We used this app to study differential gene expression of COVID-19 associated genes in different age and sex groups. We identified that healthy women show higher expression-levels of interferon genes. Conversely, healthy men exhibit higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Additionally, young people present a stronger complement system and maintain a high level of matrix metalloproteases than older adults. Our data suggest the existence of different basal immunophenotypes amongst different demographic groups, which are relevant to COVID-19 progression and may contribute to explaining sex and age biases in disease severity. The DeCovid app is an effective and easy to use tool for exploring the GE levels relevant to COVID-19 across demographic groups and tissues.


Subject(s)
Databases, Nucleic Acid , Sex Characteristics , Software , Transcription, Genetic/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , /immunology , Female , Humans , Interferons/genetics , Interferons/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , /immunology
3.
J Infect Dis ; 222(12): 1985-1996, 2020 11 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024105

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An unbiased approach to SARS-CoV-2-induced immune dysregulation has not been undertaken so far. We aimed to identify previously unreported immune markers able to discriminate COVID-19 patients from healthy controls and to predict mild and severe disease. METHODS: An observational, prospective, multicentric study was conducted in patients with confirmed mild/moderate (n = 7) and severe (n = 19) COVID-19. Immunophenotyping of whole-blood leukocytes was performed in patients upon hospital ward or intensive care unit admission and in healthy controls (n = 25). Clinically relevant associations were identified through unsupervised analysis. RESULTS: Granulocytic (neutrophil, eosinophil, and basophil) markers were enriched during COVID-19 and discriminated between patients with mild and severe disease. Increased counts of CD15+CD16+ neutrophils, decreased granulocytic expression of integrin CD11b, and Th2-related CRTH2 downregulation in eosinophils and basophils established a COVID-19 signature. Severity was associated with emergence of PD-L1 checkpoint expression in basophils and eosinophils. This granulocytic signature was accompanied by monocyte and lymphocyte immunoparalysis. Correlation with validated clinical scores supported pathophysiological relevance. CONCLUSIONS: Phenotypic markers of circulating granulocytes are strong discriminators between infected and uninfected individuals as well as between severity stages. COVID-19 alters the frequency and functional phenotypes of granulocyte subsets with emergence of CRTH2 as a disease biomarker.


Subject(s)
/immunology , Granulocytes/immunology , Receptors, Immunologic/metabolism , Receptors, Prostaglandin/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/metabolism , CD11b Antigen/immunology , /diagnosis , Female , France , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocytes/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/immunology , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
4.
J Infect Dis ; 222(12): 1974-1984, 2020 11 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024104

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Convalescent plasma therapy is a leading treatment for conferring temporary immunity to COVID-19-susceptible individuals or for use as post-exposure prophylaxis. However, not all recovered patients develop adequate antibody titers for donation and the relationship between avidity and neutralizing titers is currently not well understood. METHODS: SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike and anti-nucleocapsid IgG titers and avidity were measured in a longitudinal cohort of COVID-19 hospitalized patients (n = 16 individuals) and a cross-sectional sample of convalescent plasma donors (n = 130). Epidemiologic correlates of avidity were examined in donors by linear regression. The association of avidity and a high neutralizing titer (NT) were also assessed in donors using modified Poisson regression. RESULTS: Antibody avidity increased over duration of infection and remained elevated. In convalescent plasma donors, higher levels of anti-spike avidity were associated with older age, male sex, and hospitalization. Higher NTs had a stronger positive correlation with anti-spike IgG avidity (Spearman ρ = 0.386; P < .001) than with anti-nucleocapsid IgG avidity (Spearman ρ = 0.211; P = .026). Increasing levels of anti-spike IgG avidity were associated with high NT (≥160) (adjusted prevalence ratio = 1.58 [95% confidence interval = 1.19-2.12]), independent of age, sex, and hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 antibody avidity correlated with duration of infection and higher neutralizing titers, suggesting a potential alternative screening parameter for identifying optimal convalescent plasma donors.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Viral/administration & dosage , Antibody Affinity , Immunoglobulin G/administration & dosage , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Blood Donors , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Linear Models , Male , Middle Aged , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Young Adult
6.
Nat Biotechnol ; 38(9): 1073-1078, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023948

ABSTRACT

A robust serological test to detect neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 is urgently needed to determine not only the infection rate, herd immunity and predicted humoral protection, but also vaccine efficacy during clinical trials and after large-scale vaccination. The current gold standard is the conventional virus neutralization test requiring live pathogen and a biosafety level 3 laboratory. Here, we report a SARS-CoV-2 surrogate virus neutralization test that detects total immunodominant neutralizing antibodies targeting the viral spike (S) protein receptor-binding domain in an isotype- and species-independent manner. Our simple and rapid test is based on antibody-mediated blockage of the interaction between the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor protein and the receptor-binding domain. The test, which has been validated with two cohorts of patients with COVID-19 in two different countries, achieves 99.93% specificity and 95-100% sensitivity, and differentiates antibody responses to several human coronaviruses. The surrogate virus neutralization test does not require biosafety level 3 containment, making it broadly accessible to the wider community for both research and clinical applications.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Antibodies/immunology , Antibodies/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Neutralization Tests , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
7.
Nat Biotechnol ; 38(8): 970-979, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023942

ABSTRACT

To investigate the immune response and mechanisms associated with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), we performed single-cell RNA sequencing on nasopharyngeal and bronchial samples from 19 clinically well-characterized patients with moderate or critical disease and from five healthy controls. We identified airway epithelial cell types and states vulnerable to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. In patients with COVID-19, epithelial cells showed an average three-fold increase in expression of the SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor ACE2, which correlated with interferon signals by immune cells. Compared to moderate cases, critical cases exhibited stronger interactions between epithelial and immune cells, as indicated by ligand-receptor expression profiles, and activated immune cells, including inflammatory macrophages expressing CCL2, CCL3, CCL20, CXCL1, CXCL3, CXCL10, IL8, IL1B and TNF. The transcriptional differences in critical cases compared to moderate cases likely contribute to clinical observations of heightened inflammatory tissue damage, lung injury and respiratory failure. Our data suggest that pharmacologic inhibition of the CCR1 and/or CCR5 pathways might suppress immune hyperactivation in critical COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Respiratory System/pathology , Single-Cell Analysis , Transcriptome , Adult , Aged , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , Cell Communication , Cell Differentiation , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Epithelial Cells/pathology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Female , Humans , Immune System/pathology , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/pathology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory System/immunology , Respiratory System/virology , Severity of Illness Index
9.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 44(8): 1793-1799, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023842

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Recent clinical trials have demonstrated that colchicine may have metabolic and cardiovascular and benefits in at-risk patients; however, the mechanisms through which colchicine may improve outcomes are still unclear. We sought to examine colchicine's effects on circulating inflammatory and metabolic molecules in adults with obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS). METHODS: Blood samples were collected pre- and post-intervention during a double-blind randomized controlled trial in which 40 adults with obesity and MetS were randomized to colchicine 0.6 mg or placebo twice-daily for 3 months. Serum samples were analyzed for 1305 circulating factors using the SomaScan Platform. The Benjamini-Hochberg procedure was used to adjust the false discovery rate (FDR) for multiple testing. RESULTS: At baseline, age (48.0 ± 13.8 vs. 44.7 ± 10.3 years) and BMI (39.8 ± 6.4 vs. 41.8 ± 8.2 kg/m2) were not different between groups. After controlling for the FDR, 34 molecules were significantly changed by colchicine. Colchicine decreased concentrations of multiple inflammatory molecules, including C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, and resistin, in addition to vascular-related proteins (e.g., oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor, phosphodiesterase 5A). Conversely, relative to placebo, colchicine significantly increased concentrations of eight molecules including secreted factors associated with metabolism and anti-thrombosis. CONCLUSIONS: In adults with obesity, colchicine significantly affected concentrations of proteins involved in the innate immune system, endothelial function and atherosclerosis, uncovering new mechanisms behind its cardiometabolic effects. Further research is warranted to investigate whether colchicine's IL-6 suppressive effects may be beneficial in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Metabolic Syndrome/complications , Metabolic Syndrome/immunology , Obesity/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adult , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , C-Reactive Protein , Colchicine/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Male , Metabolic Syndrome/drug therapy , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Obesity/drug therapy , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
10.
Respir Med ; 175: 106204, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023739

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, the novel coronavirus pandemic, has already spread around the globe affecting more than 18 million people. As previously observed with other coronaviruses, SARS-CoV-2 deeply dysregulate the immune system eliciting respiratory failure and a state of systemic hyperinflammation in severely ill individuals. Immunotherapy is often used to downgrade the detrimental effects of the disease sustained by high-level of cytokines. Those treatments, however, are known to undermine patients' ability to contain tuberculosis (TB) infection. This study aims to describe interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) results in severe COVID-19 patients eligible for immunosuppressive treatment. Aggregate data were gathered from five hospitals in Milan, Italy, from March 1 to May 15, 2020 and retrospectively analyses. Results were summarized using absolute frequencies and percentages and compared using a two-sided Chi-squared test. Overall, 462 COVID-19 patients were eligible for immunosuppressive therapy, among which 335 were tested using IGRA testing. More than one-third of them (122/335; 36.4%) had an indeterminate IGRA result because of insufficient immune response to mitogen control, 19 (5.7%) tested positive and 194 (57.9) negative. The majority of patients with lymphocytopenia (i.e., total lymphocyte count [TLC] below 1000 cells/mm3) had indeterminate IGRAs (81/155; 52.3%). The proportion becomes even higher in patients with severe lymphocytopenia (i.e., TLC<500 cells/mm3) (36/57; 63%). Our results suggest a possible negative impact of COVID-19 related immune dysregulation on TB infection assessment and management. Close monitoring of individuals with or without retesting of individuals with indeterminate IGRAs and further basic science investigations should to be sought to better comprehend their implication on TB epidemiology.


Subject(s)
/therapy , Immunosuppression/methods , Interferon-gamma Release Tests/methods , Latent Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , /epidemiology , Female , Humans , Immunity/physiology , Interferon-gamma Release Tests/statistics & numerical data , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Italy/epidemiology , Latent Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Latent Tuberculosis/immunology , Latent Tuberculosis/prevention & control , Lymphopenia/immunology , Male , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
11.
Life Sci ; 253: 117723, 2020 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023706

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has quickly progressed to a global health emergency. Respiratory illness is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients with the disease spectrum ranging from asymptomatic subclinical infection, to severe pneumonia progressing to acute respiratory distress syndrome. There is growing evidence describing pathophysiological resemblance of SARS-CoV-2 infection with other coronavirus infections such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Angiotensin Converting Enzyme-2 receptors play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of the virus. Disruption of this receptor leads to cardiomyopathy, cardiac dysfunction, and heart failure. Patients with cardiovascular disease are more likely to be infected with SARS-CoV-2 and they are more likely to develop severe symptoms. Hypertension, arrhythmia, cardiomyopathy and coronary heart disease are amongst major cardiovascular disease comorbidities seen in severe cases of COVID-19. There is growing literature exploring cardiac involvement in SARS-CoV-2. Myocardial injury is one of the important pathogenic features of COVID-19. As a surrogate for myocardial injury, multiple studies have shown increased cardiac biomarkers mainly cardiac troponins I and T in the infected patients especially those with severe disease. Myocarditis is depicted as another cause of morbidity amongst COVID-19 patients. The exact mechanisms of how SARS-CoV-2 can cause myocardial injury are not clearly understood. The proposed mechanisms of myocardial injury are direct damage to the cardiomyocytes, systemic inflammation, myocardial interstitial fibrosis, interferon mediated immune response, exaggerated cytokine response by Type 1 and 2 helper T cells, in addition to coronary plaque destabilization, and hypoxia.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Myocardium/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Humans , Myocarditis/virology , Myocytes, Cardiac/pathology , Myocytes, Cardiac/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology
12.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 165(Pt A): 18-43, 2020 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023591

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the global pandemic caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus has motivated scientists to find a definitive treatment or a vaccine against it in the shortest possible time. Current efforts towards this goal remain fruitless without a full understanding of the behavior of the virus and its adaptor proteins. This review provides an overview of the biological properties, functional mechanisms, and molecular components of SARS-CoV-2, along with investigational therapeutic and preventive approaches for this virus. Since the proteolytic cleavage of the S protein is critical for virus penetration into cells, a set of drugs, such as chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, camostat mesylate have been tested in clinical trials to suppress this event. In addition to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, the role of CD147 in the viral entrance has also been proposed. Mepolizumab has shown to be effective in blocking the virus's cellular entrance. Antiviral drugs, such as remdesivir, ritonavir, oseltamivir, darunavir, lopinavir, zanamivir, peramivir, and oseltamivir, have also been tested as treatments for COVID-19. Regarding preventive vaccines, the whole virus, vectors, nucleic acids, and structural subunits have been suggested for vaccine development. Mesenchymal stem cells and natural killer cells could also be used against SARS-CoV-2. All the above-mentioned strategies, as well as the role of nanomedicine for the diagnosis and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection, have been discussed in this review.


Subject(s)
/therapy , Clinical Trials as Topic , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , /immunology , Humans , /immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology
13.
EBioMedicine ; 62: 103101, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023542

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Reliable high-throughput serological assays for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies are urgently needed for the effective containment of the COVID-19 pandemic, as it is of crucial importance to understand the strength and duration of immunity after infection, and to make informed decisions concerning the activation or discontinuation of physical distancing restrictions. METHODS: In 184 serum samples from 130 COVID-19 patients and 54 SARS-CoV-2 negative subjects, the analytical and clinical performances of four commercially available chemiluminescent assays (Abbott SARS-Cov-2 IgG, Roche Elecsys anti-SARS-CoV-2, Ortho SARS-CoV-2 total and IgG) and one enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Diesse ENZY-WELL SARS-CoV-2 IgG) were evaluated and compared with the neutralization activity achieved using the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). FINDINGS: Precision results ranged from 0.9% to 11.8% for all assays. Elecsys anti-SARS-CoV-2 demonstrated linearity of results at concentrations within the cut-off value. Overall, sensitivity ranged from 78.5 to 87.7%, and specificity, from 97.6 to 100%. On limiting the analysis to samples collected 12 days after onset of symptoms, the sensitivity of all assays increased, the highest value (95.2%) being obtained with VITRO Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Total and Architect SARS-CoV-2 IgG. The strongest PRNT50 correlation with antibody levels was obtained with ENZY-Well SARS-CoV-2 IgG (R2adj = 0.569). INTERPRETATION: The results confirmed that all immunoassays had an excellent specificity, whereas sensitivity varied across immunoassays, depending strongly on the time interval between symptoms onset and sample collection. Further studies should be conducted to achieve a stronger correlation between antibody measurement and PRNT50 in order to obtain useful information for providing a better management of COVID-19 patients, effective passive antibody therapy, and developing a vaccine against the SARS-CoV-2 virus. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , /immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , /metabolism
14.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 99(1): 115197, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023527

ABSTRACT

Automated assays for detecting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) diagnostics have recently come available. We compared the performance of the Elecsys® Anti-SARS-CoV-2 and LIAISON® SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 IgG tests. The seroconversion panel comprised of 120 samples from 13 hospitalized COVID-19 patients. For the sensitivity and specificity testing, samples from COVID-19 outpatients >15 days after positive nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) result (n = 35) and serum control samples collected before the COVID-19 era (n = 161) were included in the material. Samples for the detection of possible cross-reactions were also tested. Based on our results, the SARS-CoV-2 antibodies can be quite reliably detected 2 weeks after NAAT positivity and 3 weeks after the symptom onset with both tests. However, since some COVID-19 patients were positive only with Elecsys®, the antibodies should be screened against N-antigen (Elecsys®) and reactive samples confirmed with S antigen (LIAISON®), but both results should be reported. In some COVID-19 patients, the serology can remain negative.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , /immunology , /immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Aged , /diagnosis , Cross Reactions , Female , Humans , Kinetics , Male , Middle Aged , Phosphoproteins/immunology , /isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroconversion , Young Adult
15.
Cytokine ; 137: 155312, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023525

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19, as a newly-emerged viral infection has now spread all over the world after originating in Wuhan, China. Pneumonia is the hallmark of the disease, with dyspnea in half of the patients and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in up to one -third of the cases. Pulmonary edema, neutrophilic infiltration, and inflammatory cytokine release are the pathologic signs of this disease. The anti-inflammatory effect of the photobiomodulation (PBM) has been confirmed in many previous studies. Therefore, this review study was conducted to evaluate the direct effect of PBM on the acute lung inflammation or ARDS and also accelerating the regeneration of the damaged tissues. The indirect effects of PBM on modulation of the immune system, increasing the blood flow and oxygenation in other tissues were also considered. METHODOLOGY: The databases of PubMed, Cochrane library, and Google Scholar were searched to find the relevant studies. Keywords included the PBM and related terms, lung inflammation, and COVID-19 -related signs. Studies were categorized with respect to the target tissue, laser parameters, and their results. RESULTS: Seventeen related papers were included in this review. All of them were in animal models. They showed that the PBM could significantly decrease the pulmonary edema, neutrophil influx, and generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1ß), interleukin 6 (IL-6), intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM), reactive oxygen species (ROS), isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2)). CONCLUSION: Our findings revealed that the PBM could be helpful in reducing the lung inflammation and promoting the regeneration of the damaged tissue. PBM can increase the oxygenation indirectly in order to rehabilitate the affected organs. Thus, the infra-red lasers or light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are recommended in this regard.


Subject(s)
/radiotherapy , Low-Level Light Therapy , Lung/radiation effects , Pneumonia/radiotherapy , /blood , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Lung/physiopathology , Macrophages/drug effects , Macrophages/immunology , Neutrophils/drug effects , Neutrophils/immunology , Pneumonia/immunology , Pneumonia/physiopathology , PubMed , Pulmonary Edema/immunology , Pulmonary Edema/physiopathology , Pulmonary Edema/radiotherapy , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , /radiotherapy
16.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1867(1): 165978, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023476

ABSTRACT

An epidemic caused by COVID-19 in China turned into pandemic within a short duration affecting countries worldwide. Researchers and companies around the world are working on all the possible strategies to develop a curative or preventive strategy for the same, which includes vaccine development, drug repurposing, plasma therapy, and drug discovery based on Artificial intelligence. Therapeutic approaches based on Computational biology and Machine-learning algorithms are specially considered, with a view that these could provide a fast and accurate outcome in the present scenario. As an effort towards developing possible therapeutics for COVID-19, we have used machine-learning algorithms for the generation of alignment kernels from diverse viral sequences of Covid-19 reported from India, China, Italy and USA. Using these diverse sequences we have identified the conserved motifs and subsequently a peptide library was designed against them. Of these, 4 peptides have shown strong binding affinity against the main protease of SARS-CoV-2 (Mpro) and also maintained their stability and specificity under physiological conditions as observed through MD Simulations. Our data suggest that these evolutionary peptides against COVID-19 if found effective may provide cross-protection against diverse Covid-19 variants.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Peptides/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , /prevention & control , Humans , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Peptide Library , Peptides/pharmacology , /isolation & purification , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Virus Replication/drug effects
17.
Arch Med Res ; 51(7): 608-612, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023468

ABSTRACT

Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is rapidly spreading all over the world. Excessive immune responses trigger life-threatening cytokine release syndrome (CRS) which can result in overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-1ß with different pro-inflammatory roles. Anecdotal evidence suggests that the modulation of systemic immune responses may have a potential role in the treatment of patients with COVID-19. Given the importance of the issue and the lack of therapeutic treatment or vaccine; anti-cytokine therapy such as IL-6, TNFα and IL-1 antagonists have been suggested for the alleviation of hyper-inflammation status in these patients. In this mini-review, we addressed the inflammatory pathways of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its relationship with the host cytokine storm. Furthermore, the proposed therapeutic options to reverse hyper-inflammation in infected patients were mentioned.


Subject(s)
Cytokine Release Syndrome , /complications , /physiopathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Humans , Immunotherapy , /immunology
20.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 18(1): 130, 2020 Sep 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-755216

ABSTRACT

Fast point-of-care (POC) diagnostics represent an unmet medical need and include applications such as lateral flow assays (LFAs) for the diagnosis of sepsis and consequences of cytokine storms and for the treatment of COVID-19 and other systemic, inflammatory events not caused by infection. Because of the complex pathophysiology of sepsis, multiple biomarkers must be analyzed to compensate for the low sensitivity and specificity of single biomarker targets. Conventional LFAs, such as gold nanoparticle dyed assays, are limited to approximately five targets-the maximum number of test lines on an assay. To increase the information obtainable from each test line, we combined green and red emitting quantum dots (QDs) as labels for C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) antibodies in an optical duplex immunoassay. CdSe-QDs with sharp and tunable emission bands were used to simultaneously quantify CRP and IL-6 in a single test line, by using a single UV-light source and two suitable emission filters for readout through a widely available BioImager device. For image and data processing, a customized software tool, the MultiFlow-Shiny app was used to accelerate and simplify the readout process. The app software provides advanced tools for image processing, including assisted extraction of line intensities, advanced background correction and an easy workflow for creation and handling of experimental data in quantitative LFAs. The results generated with our MultiFlow-Shiny app were superior to those generated with the popular software ImageJ and resulted in lower detection limits. Our assay is applicable for detecting clinically relevant ranges of both target proteins and therefore may serve as a powerful tool for POC diagnosis of inflammation and infectious events.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/analysis , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Immunoassay/methods , Interleukin-6/analysis , Quantum Dots/chemistry , Sepsis/diagnosis , Antibodies/immunology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , C-Reactive Protein/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Interleukin-6/immunology , Limit of Detection , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Point-of-Care Systems , Sepsis/metabolism , Software , Ultraviolet Rays
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