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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(7): 501, 2022 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1888923

ABSTRACT

The research assessed the challenges associated with household solid waste management during COVID-19 lockdown period. A mixed method approach was used triangulating both quantitative and qualitative methods. Ten-percent sample size of 1690 households (target population) participated in the research. Stratified random and purposive sampling methods were used to select the participants. Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 16 and content analysis were used to analyze the data. Chi-square test was used to test whether education level determines the disposal strategy used during the COVID-19 lockdown period. Research findings demonstrates that compulsive use of personal protection equipment such as masks, spending more time at home, bulk buying, and storage of food has skewed the trend of waste generation resulting in the increase in quantity of waste produced daily. COVID-19 lockdown period resulted in reduced waste collection since waste refuse collectors were not operating during lockdown period leading to illegal dumping and burning of waste. On average amount of waste produced weekly per household level was 73 kg (organic waste 35.2 kg, toxic waste 10 kg, and recyclable waste 26.8 kg). A chi-square p value of 0.35 was obtained, showing that there is a relationship between waste disposal strategy used during COVID-19 lockdown period and level of education of the respondents. The research concludes that COVID-19 has greatly affected waste management strategies from generation, collection, transportation, and disposal. It is recommended that the responsible authorities must prioritize collection of waste during the lockdown period as well as ensuring that waste recyclers and collectors are among the essential service providers during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Refuse Disposal , Waste Management , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Refuse Disposal/methods , Solid Waste , Waste Management/methods , Zimbabwe/epidemiology
4.
New Microbiol ; 45(2): 115-123, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1887517

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases still register significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Surveillance through a mandatory notification system allows the continuous analysis of the situation even at a local level and its importance has been highlighted by the recent COVID-19 pandemic. This paper aimed to outline the importance of the mandatory notification system as a Public Health tool in the continuous monitoring of infectious diseases. To this aim, we carried out a cross-sectional study examining the notifications reported in the Italian territory of Messina, Sicily, in the period 2001-2020. The institutional websites were examined and the notification data were used to obtain the incidences. Overall, a significant reduction of the incidence notification trend was observed. Chickenpox was by far the most notified infectious disease, followed by scabies, pediculosis, and brucellosis. Outbreaks of brucellosis, measles and hepatitis A occurred. All the diseases decreased over time, except syphilis, for which a significant increase was observed. Surveillance of infectious diseases through a mandatory notification system remains a bulwark of public health despite underreporting. Our study reflects the situation of a typical high-income area, although some unexpected criticisms are highlighted. Continuous information about correct behaviors through education campaigns are crucial in order to improve the situation. Keywords: mandatory notifications, infectious diseases, surveillance, public health Corresponding author: Alessio Facciolà, Department of Biomedical and Dental Sciences and Morphofunctional Imaging, University of Messina, Italy. Email: afacciola@unime.it.


Subject(s)
Brucellosis , COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Brucellosis/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Notification , Humans , Pandemics , Population Surveillance/methods , Sicily
5.
Acta Gastroenterol Belg ; 85(2): 269-275, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1887473

ABSTRACT

Background and study aim: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the use of standard personal protective equipment (SPPE) reduces transmission risks during endoscopic procedures. Our aim was to assess the effect of enhanced personal protective equipment (EPPE) on colonoscopy performance and pain linked to the procedure compared with SPPE. Patients and methods: During two similar periods with three-month duration (in 2019 and in 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic), electronic medical records and colonoscopy reports were investigated for sequential patients undergoing colonoscopy. SPPE was used in 2019 and EPPE in 2020. The patients' clinical data and information related to the procedure were collected and analyzed. Primary outcomes were the duration to intubate the cecum, total procedure duration and patient pain score at the end of the procedure. Secondary outcomes were adenoma detection rate (ADR), polyp detection rate (PDR) and cecal intubation rate (CIR). Results: A total of 426 patients with colonoscopy performed were analyzed. The demographic features and indications for colonoscopy were similar for patients in both groups. The EPPE group had higher values for the parameters assessed as primary endpoints of cecal intubation time, withdrawal time, total procedure time and pain at the end of the procedure compared to the SPPE group and the differences were statistically significant. Conclusion: Our findings show that though the use of EPPE negatively affected colonoscopy performance and patient pain at the end of the procedure, it had no effect on the colonoscopy quality indices such as ADR, PDR and CIR.


Subject(s)
Adenoma , COVID-19 , Colonic Polyps , Colorectal Neoplasms , Adenoma/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cecum , Colonic Polyps/diagnosis , Colonoscopy/adverse effects , Colonoscopy/methods , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Humans , Pain/etiology , Pain/prevention & control , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment
6.
Neurol Neurochir Pol ; 56(2): 118-130, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1887304

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Neuropathological brain and spinal cord post mortem examination is a distinct procedure that still plays an important role in modern medicine. In front of increasing amounts of clinical and genetic data, together with important developments in the field of neuroimaging, the Polish Association of Neuropathologists have updated their recommendations regarding central nervous system (CNS) examination. These guidelines are aimed at neuropathologists, pathologists and clinicians. AIM OF THE STUDY: Presentation of the outlined recommendations as their goal is to improve the quality, informativity, and cost effectiveness of CNS post mortem examinations. A comprehensive study of the literature was conducted to provide a clinical background of neuropathological autopsy. There are numerous open questions in neuroscience, and new strategies are required to foster research in CNS diseases. These include the challenge of organizing brain banks tasked with managing and protecting detailed multidisciplinary information about their resources. Complex neuropathological analyses of post mortem series are also important to assess the effectiveness of diagnostics and therapy, identify environmental impact on the development of neurological disorders, and improve public health policy. The recommendations outline the need for collaboration between multiple specialists to establish the proper diagnosis and to broaden knowledge of neurological disorders.


Subject(s)
Central Nervous System Diseases , Neuropathology , Autopsy/methods , Brain/pathology , Central Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Humans , Neuroimaging
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(12)2022 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1887191

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At an international level, the risk assessment and management process of violent offenders follows a standard method that implies well-defined theoretical models and the use of scientifically validated tools. In Italy, this process is still highly discretionary. The aim of this study is to highlight the advantages deriving from the use of risk assessment tools within the framework of a single case study; Methods: Recidivism risk and social dangerousness of an Italian woman perpetrator of filicide were assessed through the administration of the Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (LS/CMI) instrument supported by Historical Clinical Risk-20 Version 3 (HCR-20 V3); Results: The administration of LS/CMI showed that, in this single case, the subcomponents represent a criminogenic risk/need factor are: Family/Marital, Companions, Alcohol and Drug Problem and Leisure; while constituting strengths: employment and the absence of a Pro-criminal Orientation and an Antisocial Pattern; Conclusions: Data collected through LS/CMI indicated life areas of a single case, which should be emphasised not only to assess the risk of re-offending and social dangerousness but also for a social rehabilitation programme more suited to the subject. This study demonstrates that the LS/CMI assessment tool is suitable for the Italian context.


Subject(s)
Criminals , Recidivism , Female , Humans , Italy , Risk Assessment/methods , Violence
8.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269798, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1887028

ABSTRACT

Clinical evidence for asymptomatic cases of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has reinforced the significance of effective surveillance testing programs. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assays are considered the 'gold standard' for detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA. However, the labor and resource requirements can be prohibitive with respect to large testing volumes associated with the pandemic. Pooled testing algorithms may serve to increase testing capacity with more efficient resource utilization. Due to the lack of carefully curated cohorts, there is limited evidence for the applicability of RT-PCR pooling in asymptomatic COVID-19 cases. In this study, we compared the analytical sensitivity of the TaqMan™ SARS-CoV-2 Pooling Assay to detect one positive sample in a pool of five anterior nares swabs in symptomatic and asymptomatic cohorts at an institute of higher education. Positive pools were deconvoluted and each individual sample was retested using the TaqPath™ COVID-19 Combo Kit. Both assays target the open reading frame (ORF) 1ab, nucleocapsid (N), and spike (S) gene of the strain that originated in Wuhan, Hubei, China. Qualitative results demonstrated absolute agreement between pooled and deconvoluted samples in both cohorts. Independent t-test performed on Ct shifts supported an insignificant difference between cohorts with p-values of 0.306 (Orf1ab), 0.147 (N), and 0.052 (S). All negative pools were correctly reported as negative. Pooled PCR testing up to five samples is a valid method for surveillance testing of students and staff in a university setting, especially when the prevalence is expected to be low.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
9.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0268586, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1887012

ABSTRACT

Contact tracing is a key component of successful management of COVID-19. Contacts of infected individuals are asked to quarantine, which can significantly slow down (or prevent) community spread. Contact tracing is particularly effective when infections are detected quickly, when contacts are traced with high probability, when the initial number of cases is low, and when social distancing and border restrictions are in place. However, the magnitude of the individual contribution of these factors in reducing epidemic spread and the impact of population immunity (due to either previous infection or vaccination), in determining contact tracing outputs is not fully understood. We present a delayed differential equation model to investigate how the immunity status and the relaxation of social distancing requirements affect contact tracing practices. We investigate how the minimal contact tracing efficiency required to keep an outbreak under control depends on the contact rate and on the proportion of immune individuals. Additionally, we consider how delays in outbreak detection and increased case importation rates affect the number of contacts to be traced daily. We show that in communities that have reached a certain immunity status, a lower contact tracing efficiency is required to avoid a major outbreak, and delayed outbreak detection and relaxation of border restrictions do not lead to a significantly higher risk of overwhelming contact tracing. We find that investing in testing programs, rather than increasing the contact tracing capacity, has a larger impact in determining whether an outbreak will be controllable. This is because early detection activates contact tracing, which will slow, and eventually reverse exponential growth, while the contact tracing capacity is a threshold that will easily become overwhelmed if exponential growth is not curbed. Finally, we evaluate quarantine effectiveness in relation to the immunity status of the population and for different viral variants. We show that quarantine effectiveness decreases with increasing proportion of immune individuals, and increases in the presence of more transmissible variants. These results suggest that a cost-effective approach is to establish different quarantine rules for immune and nonimmune individuals, where rules should depend on viral transmissibility after vaccination or infection. Altogether, our study provides quantitative information for contact tracing downsizing in vaccinated populations or in populations that have already experienced large community outbreaks, to guide COVID-19 exit strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Contact Tracing , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Contact Tracing/methods , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2
10.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 149, 2022 Jun 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886962

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many people suffered from emotional distress especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. In order to alleviate emotional distress, more accessible psychological intervention programs, such as online intervention programs, are needed. The study aimed to investigate the efficacy and the potential mechanism of a 4-week, online, self-help mindfulness-based intervention to manage emotional distress during the COVID-19 pandemic between February 3 and May 20, 2020. METHODS: A total of 302 individuals with high emotional distress completed a self-help mindfulness course, which lasted 30-60 min per day for 28 consecutive days. Participants who registered in the program later were included in the analyses as the control group (n = 315). Levels of mindfulness, perceived stress, emotional distress, anxiety and depression were assessed at baseline(T1), week 1(T2), week 2(T3), week 3(T4) and week 4(T5). RESULTS: Significant Group by Time interaction effects were found on mindfulness, perceived stress, emotional distress, anxiety and depression (p < 0.001). Compared to the control group, the intervention group had a greater increase in changes of all outcome variables (p < 0.001). Random intercept cross-lagged analyses showed that compared with control group, mindfulness at T2 and T4 negatively predicted stress at T3 and T5, and mindfulness at T2 and T4 negatively predicted depression at T3 and T5 while depression at T3 predicted mindfulness at T4 in the mindfulness group. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that a 4-week self-help online mindfulness intervention improved mindfulness and reduced stress, emotional distress, anxiety and depression symptoms. Compared to the control group, changes in mindfulness preceded changes in stress, and mindfulness and depression reciprocally influenced each other during the intervention. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR2000034539. Registered 9 July 2020-Retrospectively registered, http://www.chictr.org.cn/edit.aspx?pid=55721&htm=4 .


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Internet-Based Intervention , Mindfulness , Psychological Distress , COVID-19/therapy , Depression/psychology , Depression/therapy , Humans , Mindfulness/methods , Pandemics , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Stress, Psychological/therapy
11.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 179, 2022 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886956

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mechanically ventilated patients have experienced greater periods of prolonged deep sedation during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Multiple studies from the pre-COVID era demonstrate that early deep sedation is associated with worse outcome. Despite this, there is a lack of data on sedation depth and its impact on outcome for mechanically ventilated patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. We sought to characterize the emergency department (ED) and intensive care unit (ICU) sedation practices during the COVID-19 pandemic, and to determine if early deep sedation was associated with worse clinical outcomes. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Dual-center, retrospective cohort study conducted over 6 months (March-August, 2020), involving consecutive, mechanically ventilated adults. All sedation-related data during the first 48 h were collected. Deep sedation was defined as Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale of - 3 to - 5 or Riker Sedation-Agitation Scale of 1-3. To examine impact of early sedation depth on hospital mortality (primary outcome), we used a multivariable logistic regression model. Secondary outcomes included ventilator-, ICU-, and hospital-free days. RESULTS: 391 patients were studied, and 283 (72.4%) experienced early deep sedation. Deeply sedated patients received higher cumulative doses of fentanyl, propofol, midazolam, and ketamine when compared to light sedation. Deep sedation patients experienced fewer ventilator-, ICU-, and hospital-free days, and greater mortality (30.4% versus 11.1%) when compared to light sedation (p < 0.01 for all). After adjusting for confounders, early deep sedation remained significantly associated with higher mortality (adjusted OR 3.44; 95% CI 1.65-7.17; p < 0.01). These results were stable in the subgroup of patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The management of sedation for mechanically ventilated patients in the ICU has changed during the COVID pandemic. Early deep sedation is common and independently associated with worse clinical outcomes. A protocol-driven approach to sedation, targeting light sedation as early as possible, should continue to remain the default approach.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deep Sedation , Adult , Cohort Studies , Deep Sedation/methods , Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Retrospective Studies
12.
BMC Prim Care ; 23(1): 149, 2022 Jun 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886919

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: PCR testing is considered the gold standard for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis but its results are earliest available hours to days after testing. Rapid antigen tests represent a diagnostic tool enabling testing at the point of care. Rapid antigen tests have mostly been validated by the manufacturer or in controlled laboratory settings only. External validation at the point of care, particularly in general practice where the test is frequently used, is needed. Furthermore, it is unclear how well point of care tests are accepted by the practice staff. METHODS: In this prospective multicenter validation study in primary care, general practitioners included adult individuals presenting with symptoms suggesting COVID-19. Each patient was tested by the general practitioner, first with a nasopharyngeal swab for the point of care test (Roche SARS-CoV-2 Rapid Antigen Test) and then with a second swab for PCR testing. Using the RT-PCR result as a reference, we calculated specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value, with their 95% confidence intervals. General practitioners and medical assistants completed a survey to assess feasibility and usefulness of the point of care tests. RESULTS: In 40 practices in Würzburg, Germany, 1518 patients were recruited between 12/2020 and 06/2021. The point of care test achieved a sensitivity of 78.3% and a specificity of 99.5% compared to RT-PCR. With a prevalence of 9.5%, the positive predictive value was 93.9% and the negative predictive value was 97.8%. General practitioners rated the point of care test as a helpful tool to support diagnostics in patients with signs and symptoms suggestive for infection, particularly in situations where decision on further care is needed at short notice. CONCLUSION: The point of care test used in this study showed a sensitivity below the manufacturer's specification (Sensitivity 96.25%) in the practice but high values for specificity and high positive predictive value and negative predictive value. Although widely accepted in the practice, measures for further patient management require a sensitive interpretation of the point of care test results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , General Practice , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
13.
BMC Prim Care ; 23(1): 151, 2022 Jun 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886918

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Our goals are to quantify the impact on acute care utilization of a specialized COVID-19 clinic with an integrated remote patient monitoring program in an academic medical center and further examine these data with stakeholder perceptions of clinic effectiveness and acceptability. METHODS: A retrospective cohort was drawn from enrolled and unenrolled ambulatory patients who tested positive in May through September 2020 matched on age, presence of comorbidities and other factors. Qualitative semi-structured interviews with patients, frontline clinician, and administrators were analyzed in an inductive-deductive approach to identify key themes. RESULTS: Enrolled patients were more likely to be hospitalized than unenrolled patients (N = 11/137 in enrolled vs 2/126 unenrolled, p = .02), reflecting a higher admittance rate following emergency department (ED) events among the enrolled vs unenrolled, though this was not a significant difference (46% vs 25%, respectively, p = .32). Thirty-eight qualitative interviews conducted June to October 2020 revealed broad stakeholder belief in the clinic's support of appropriate care escalation. Contrary to beliefs the clinic reduced inappropriate care utilization, no difference was seen between enrolled and unenrolled patients who presented to the ED and were not admitted (N = 10/137 in enrolled vs 8/126 unenrolled, p = .76). Administrators and providers described the clinic's integral role in allowing health services to resume in other areas of the health system following an initial lockdown. CONCLUSIONS: Acute care utilization and multi-stakeholder interviews suggest heightened outpatient observation through a specialized COVID-19 clinic and remote patient monitoring program may have contributed to an increase in appropriate acute care utilization. The clinic's role securing safe reopening of health services systemwide was endorsed as a primary, if unmeasured, benefit.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ambulatory Care Facilities , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Retrospective Studies
14.
Int J Artif Organs ; 45(7): 615-622, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886858

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Patients with severe manifestations of COVID-19 might exhibit characteristics of a sepsis-like syndrome that can progress to multiple organ failure and ultimately death. Underlying mechanism have been explored and suggest a profound dysregulation of the immune system associated with hyperinflammation, hemodynamic instability and respiratory failure. Besides standard intensive care treatment, approaches modulating the dysregulated immune response, such as CytoSorb hemoadsorption, have been used. However, data of ECMO-dependent patients in comparison to a control cohort remain scarce. METHODS: Included were 26 critically ill COVID-19 patients requiring high-flow veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (high-flow VV ECMO) therapy due to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), of whom 16 were additionally treated with an extracorporeal hemoadsorption device, and compared to a control group of 10 patients. Assessed were levels of inflammatory markers, vasopressor requirements, oxygenation parameters, as well as clinically relevant outcome variables. Data were prospectively recorded and retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: Treatment with the applied multimodal therapy approach resulted in a stabilization in hemodynamics, a control of the hyperinflammatory response as evidenced by a significant reduction in inflammatory mediators, as well as a marked improvement in lung function. No device related adverse events were observed while treatment appeared safe and feasible. CONCLUSION: Treatment of a critically ill COVID-19 ARDS patients with combined VV ECMO support and hemoadsorption therapy led to a rapid and sustained hemodynamic stabilization, a control of the uncontrolled inflammatory response and an improvement in oxygenation. Given these signals pointing toward a patient-oriented benefit of extracorporeal hemoadsorption therapy in those patients, future controlled, randomized studies should focus on the investigation of the appropriate timing and dosing of this promising treatment modality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9516, 2022 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886234

ABSTRACT

During the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, several countries have implemented non-pharmacologic measures, mainly lockdowns and social distancing, to reduce the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. These strategies varied widely across nations, and their efficacy is currently being studied. This study explores demographic, socioeconomic, and epidemiological factors associated with the duration of lockdowns applied in Chile between March 25th and December 25th, 2020. Joint models for longitudinal and time-to-event data were used. In this case, the number of days under lockdown for each Chilean commune and longitudinal information were modeled jointly. Our results indicate that overcrowding, number of active cases, and positivity index are significantly associated with the duration of lockdowns, being identified as risk factors for longer lockdown duration. In short, joint models for longitudinal and time-to-event data permit the identification of factors associated with the duration of lockdowns in Chile. Indeed, our findings suggest that demographic, socioeconomic, and epidemiological factors should be used to define both entering and exiting lockdown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Chile/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9581, 2022 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886226

ABSTRACT

Long-term sequelae of symptomatic infection caused by SARS-CoV-2 are largely undiscovered. We performed a prospective cohort study on consecutively hospitalized Sars-CoV-2 patients (March-May 2020) for evaluating COVID-19 outcomes at 6 and 12 months. After hospital discharge, patients were addressed to two follow-up pathways based on respiratory support needed during hospitalization. Outcomes were assessed by telephone consultation or ambulatory visit. Among 471 patients, 80.9% received no respiratory support during hospitalization; 19.1% received non-invasive ventilation (NIV) or invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). 58 patients died during hospitalization, therefore 413 were enrolled for follow-up. At 6 months, among 355 patients, the 30.3% had any symptoms, 18.0% dyspnea, 6.2% neurological symptoms. Fifty-two out of 105 had major damages in interstitial computed tomography images. NIV/IMV patients had higher probability to suffer of symptoms (aOR = 4.00, 95%CI:1.99-8.05), dyspnea (aOR = 2.80, 95%CI:1.28-6.16), neurological symptoms (aOR = 9.72, 95%CI:2.78-34.00). At 12 months, among 344, the 25.3% suffered on any symptoms, 12.2% dyspnea, 10.1% neurological symptoms. Severe interstitial lesions were present in 37 out of 47 investigated patients. NIV/IMV patients in respect to no respiratory support, had higher probability of experiencing symptoms (aOR = 3.66, 95%CI:1.73-7.74), neurological symptoms (aOR = 8.96, 95%CI:3.22-24.90). COVID-19 patients showed prolonged sequelae up to 12 months, highlighting the need of follow-up pathways for post-COVID-19 syndrome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Dyspnea/etiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Prospective Studies , Referral and Consultation , Respiration, Artificial/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Telephone
17.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1758, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886207

ABSTRACT

Fluorescence techniques dominate the field of live-cell microscopy, but bleaching and motion blur from too long integration times limit dynamic investigations of small objects. High contrast, label-free life-cell imaging of thousands of acquisitions at 160 nm resolution and 100 Hz is possible by Rotating Coherent Scattering (ROCS) microscopy, where intensity speckle patterns from all azimuthal illumination directions are added up within 10 ms. In combination with fluorescence, we demonstrate the performance of improved Total Internal Reflection (TIR)-ROCS with variable illumination including timescale decomposition and activity mapping at five different examples: millisecond reorganization of macrophage actin cortex structures, fast degranulation and pore opening in mast cells, nanotube dynamics between cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts, thermal noise driven binding behavior of virus-sized particles at cells, and, bacterial lectin dynamics at the cortex of lung cells. Using analysis methods we present here, we decipher how motion blur hides cellular structures and how slow structure motions cover decisive fast motions.


Subject(s)
Actins , Lighting , Fibroblasts , Microscopy, Fluorescence/methods
18.
Minerva Cardiol Angiol ; 70(2): 273-284, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884909

ABSTRACT

Myocarditis is an inflammatory heart muscle disease characterized by heterogeneous clinical presentation and outcome. Clinical heterogeneity of myocarditis, ranging from acute onset chest pain with electrocardiographic changes resembling an acute coronary syndrome, to arrhythmic storm and chronic decompensated heart failure, makes diagnosis challenging. However, a correct diagnosis is fundamental to proper patients' management and should always be seeked. Although a definite diagnosis is only provided by endomyocardial biopsy, the European Society of Cardiology task force on myocardial and pericardial diseases provided specific criteria for the diagnosis of clinically suspected myocarditis, which has been facilitated by the advent of noninvasive imaging tests (i.e. cardiovascular magnetic resonance based myocardial tissue characterization). Due to the heterogeneous presentation and disease course of myocarditis, a tailored treatment would be the best strategy, but a standardized management is still not available. However, over the years, new, promising therapies, such as antiviral and immune-suppressive treatment, have come side by side to the standard pharmacological heart treatment, i.e. antiheart failure medications. In this paper we will review the basic principles of myocarditis management in clinical practice, including diagnostic work-up, conventional and disease-specific therapy and patients' follow-up.


Subject(s)
Heart Failure , Myocarditis , Biopsy/methods , Chest Pain/pathology , Disease Progression , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/therapy , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/pathology , Myocarditis/therapy , Myocardium/pathology
19.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884383

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic demonstrated how rapidly various molecular methods can be adapted for a Public Health Emergency. Whether a need arises for whole-genome studies (next-generation sequencing), fast and high-throughput diagnostics (reverse-transcription real-time PCR) or global immunization (construction of mRNA or viral vector vaccines), the scientific community has been able to answer all these calls. In this study, we aimed at the assessment of effectiveness of the commercially available solution for full-genome SARS-CoV-2 sequencing (AmpliSeq™ SARS-CoV-2 Research Panel and Ion AmpliSeq™ Library Kit Plus, Thermo Fisher Scientific). The study is based on 634 samples obtained from patients from Poland, with varying viral load, assigned to a number of lineages. Here, we also present the results of protocol modifications implemented to obtain high-quality genomic data. We found that a modified library preparation protocol required less viral RNA input in order to obtain the optimal library quantity. Concurrently, neither concentration of cDNA nor reamplification of libraries from low-template samples improved the results of sequencing. On the basis of the amplicon success rates, we propose one amplicon to be redesigned, namely, the r1_1.15.1421280, for which less than 50 reads were produced by 44% of samples. Additionally, we found several mutations within different SARS-CoV-2 lineages that cause the neighboring amplicons to underperform. Therefore, due to constant SARS-CoV-2 evolution, we support the idea of conducting ongoing sequence-based surveillance studies to continuously validate commercially available RT-PCR and whole-genome sequencing solutions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Genome, Viral , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Technology
20.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(12)2022 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884320

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a worldwide health anxiety. The rapid dispersion of the infection globally results in unparalleled economic, social, and health impacts. The pathogen that causes COVID-19 is known as a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). A fast and low-cost diagnosis method for COVID-19 disease can play an important role in controlling its proliferation. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a quick, non-destructive, non-invasive, and inexpensive technique for profiling the chemical and physical structures of a wide range of samples. Furthermore, the NIRS has the advantage of incorporating the internet of things (IoT) application for the effective control and treatment of the disease. In recent years, a significant advancement in instrumentation and spectral analysis methods has resulted in a remarkable impact on the NIRS applications, especially in the medical discipline. To date, NIRS has been applied as a technique for detecting various viruses including zika (ZIKV), chikungunya (CHIKV), influenza, hepatitis C, dengue (DENV), and human immunodeficiency (HIV). This review aims to outline some historical and contemporary applications of NIRS in virology and its merit as a novel diagnostic technique for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chikungunya virus , Dengue Virus , Dengue , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , COVID-19/diagnosis , Dengue/diagnosis , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared/methods , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis
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