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1.
Am J Rhinol Allergy ; 36(6): 733-740, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2084686

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of topical corticosteroids is limited in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) due to rapid clearance from the nasal cavity and insufficient drug delivery to inflamed sinonasal passages. LYR-210 is an implantable corticosteroid matrix designed to provide up to 24 weeks of treatment to patients with CRS by locally delivering mometasone furoate (MF) to the sinonasal mucosa. In a randomized, controlled, dose-ranging LANTERN study, LYR-210 (7500 µg) achieved clinically relevant improvement in CRS cardinal symptom composite scores, the 22-item Sinonasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22), ethmoid opacification, and the need for rescue treatment at 24 weeks. OBJECTIVE: As the plasma MF concentrations of LYR-210 (2500 µg) and LYR-210 (7500 µg) were evaluated at weeks 4, 12, and 24 in the LANTERN study (data on file at Lyra Therapeutics, Inc.), this study aims to characterize the pharmacokinetic profiles of both doses of LYR-210 at earlier timepoints post-placement in patients with CRS. METHODS: Twenty-four surgically naïve adult patients with CRS were enrolled in an open-label, multicenter study and underwent in-office bilateral administration of LYR-210 (2500 µg) (n = 12 patients) or LYR-210 (7500 µg) (n = 12 patients) into the middle meatus. Plasma MF concentrations were determined pre-placement and 1-h post-placement (day 1), and on days 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, and 56 by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Both LYR-210 doses were well-tolerated with no serious adverse events. Systemic MF levels were dose-dependent and lower than reported values of other respiratory MF products. Plasma MF concentrations showed steady drug release from LYR-210 (2500 µg) and LYR-210 (7500 µg) that persisted through day 56. CONCLUSION: LYR-210 achieved dose-dependent, continuous local MF delivery at a steady rate with low systemic exposure for months.


Subject(s)
Pregnadienediols , Sinusitis , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Chronic Disease , Drug Liberation , Humans , Mometasone Furoate/therapeutic use , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Pregnadienediols/adverse effects , Pregnadienediols/pharmacokinetics , Sinusitis/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome
2.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 66(10): e0063222, 2022 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019711

ABSTRACT

Ensitrelvir is a novel selective inhibitor of the 3C-like protease of SARS-CoV-2, which is essential for viral replication. This phase 1 study of ensitrelvir assessed its safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of single (part 1, n = 50) and multiple (part 2, n = 33) ascending oral doses. Effect of food on the pharmacokinetics of ensitrelvir, differences in pharmacokinetics of ensitrelvir between Japanese and white participants, and effect of ensitrelvir on the pharmacokinetics of midazolam (a cytochrome P450 3A [CYP3A] substrate) were also assessed. In part 1, Japanese participants were randomized to placebo or ensitrelvir at doses of 20, 70, 250, 500, 1,000, or 2,000 mg. In part 2, Japanese and white participants were randomized to placebo or once-daily ensitrelvir at loading/maintenance dose 375/125 mg or 750/250 mg for 5 days. Most treatment-related adverse events observed were mild in severity and were resolved without treatment. Plasma exposures showed almost dose proportionality, and geometric mean half-life of ensitrelvir following the single dose was 42.2 to 48.1 h. Food intake reduced Cmax and delayed Tmax of ensitrelvir but did not impact the area under the curve (AUC), suggesting suitability for administration without food restriction. Compared with Japanese participants, plasma exposures were slightly lower for white participants. Ensitrelvir affected the pharmacokinetics of CYP3A substrates because of increase in AUC of midazolam coadministered with ensitrelvir 750/250 mg on day 6. In conclusion, ensitrelvir was well-tolerated and demonstrated favorable pharmacokinetics, including a long half-life, supporting once-daily oral dosing. These results validate further assessments of ensitrelvir in participants with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Indazoles , Triazines , Adult , Humans , Administration, Oral , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Double-Blind Method , Enzyme Inhibitors , Healthy Volunteers , Midazolam/therapeutic use , Peptide Hydrolases , Protease Inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2 , Indazoles/pharmacokinetics , Indazoles/therapeutic use , Triazines/pharmacokinetics , Triazines/therapeutic use , Triazoles/pharmacokinetics , Triazoles/therapeutic use
3.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 60(1): 106603, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1977347

ABSTRACT

This study determined the pharmacokinetics of cefepime in patients requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support to guide dosage selection. Cefepime population pharmacokinetics where characterized in Pmetrics for R for six critically ill patients receiving ECMO. Simulation was employed to determine the fT>MIC and total trough concentration of varying regimens in each patient to evaluate ability to achieve optimal pharmacodynamic exposure and thresholds for cefepime-associated neurotoxicity. Of the six participants, two required continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) while four had a CrCL between 92-199 ml/min. All patients received 2 g q8h as a 3h infusion. A two-compartment model fitted the data best with median (range) parameter estimates as follows: clearance, 5.99 (4.10-10.29) L/h; volume of central compartment, 10.08 (2.45-15.14) L; and intercompartment transfer constants (k12), 3.58 (2.01-4.99) h-1 and k21, 1.70 (1.00-2.88) h-1. The 2g q8h (3h infusion) regimen resulted in >70% fT>MIC in all patients up to an MIC of 16 µg/mL, whereas 2g q12h (0.5h) resulted in 5/6 patients achieving 70% ƒT>MIC at 8 µg/mL but only 1/6 at 16 µg/mL. Aggressive dosing regimens resulted in trough concentrations exceeding conservative neurotoxicity thresholds. No patient demonstrated signs or symptoms of neurotoxicity during treatment. For ECMO patients with normal to augmented renal clearance similar to those presented here, or those receiving CVVHDF, these data support dosing regimens of 2g q8h (3h infusions) to empirically target MICs up to 16 µg/mL. Larger studies are needed to determine how ECMO affects cefepime pharmacokinetics.


Subject(s)
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Cefepime/pharmacokinetics , Critical Illness/therapy , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
4.
Paediatr Anaesth ; 32(10): 1091-1099, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1949757

ABSTRACT

The protease inhibitor, ritonavir, is a strong inhibitor of CYP 3A. The drug is used for management of the human immunovirus and is currently part of an oral antiviral drug combination (nirmatrelvir-ritonavir) for the early treatment of SARS-2 COVID-19-positive patients aged 12 years and over who have recognized comorbidities. The CYP 3A enzyme system is responsible for clearance of numerous drugs used in anesthesia (e.g., alfentanil, fentanyl, methadone, rocuronium, bupivacaine, midazolam, ketamine). Ritonavir will have an impact on drug clearances that are dependent on ritonavir concentration, anesthesia drug intrinsic hepatic clearance, metabolic pathways, concentration-response relationship, and route of administration. Drugs with a steep concentration-response relationship (ketamine, midazolam, rocuronium) are mostly affected because small changes in concentration have major changes in effect response. An increase in midazolam concentration is observed after oral administration because CYP 3A in the gastrointestinal wall is inhibited, causing a large increase in relative bioavailability. Fentanyl infusion may be associated with a modest increase in plasma concentration and effect, but the large between subject variability of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic concentration changes suggests it will have little impact on an individual patient, especially when used with adverse effect monitoring. It has been proposed that drugs that have no or only a small metabolic pathway involving the CYP 3A enzyme be used during anesthesia, for example, propofol, atracurium, remifentanil, and the volatile agents. That anesthesia approach denies children of drugs with considerable value. It is better that the inhibitory changes in clearance of these drugs are understood so that rational drug choices can be made to tailor drug use to the individual patient. Altered drug dose, anticipation of duration of effect, timing of administration, use of reversal agents and perioperative monitoring would better behoove children undergoing anesthesia.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , COVID-19 , Ketamine , Alfentanil , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/drug therapy , Child , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A/metabolism , Drug Interactions , Enzyme Inhibitors , Humans , Midazolam , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Ritonavir/pharmacokinetics , Rocuronium
5.
Eur J Neurol ; 29(11): 3317-3328, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1927583

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Recent findings document a blunted humoral response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients on anti-CD20 treatment. Although most patients develop a cellular response, it is still important to identify predictors of seroconversion to optimize vaccine responses. METHODS: We determined antibody responses after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in a real-world cohort of multiple sclerosis patients (n = 94) treated with anti-CD20, mainly rituximab, with variable treatment duration (median = 2.9, range = 0.4-9.6 years) and time from last anti-CD20 infusion to vaccination (median = 190, range = 60-1032 days). RESULTS: We find that presence of B cells and/or rituximab in blood predict seroconversion better than time since last infusion. Using multiple logistic regression, presence of >0.5% B cells increased probability of seroconversion with an odds ratio (OR) of 5.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0-28.1, p = 0.055), whereas the corresponding OR for ≥6 months since last infusion was 1.45 (95% CI = 0.20-10.15, p = 0.705). In contrast, detectable rituximab levels were negatively associated with seroconversion (OR = 0.05, 95% CI = 0.002-0.392, p = 0.012). Furthermore, naïve and memory IgG+ B cells correlated with antibody levels. Although retreatment with rituximab at 4 weeks or more after booster depleted spike-specific B cells, it did not noticeably affect the rate of decline in antibody titers. Interferon-γ and/or interleukin-13 T-cell responses to the spike S1 domain were observed in most patients, but with no correlation to spike antibody levels. CONCLUSIONS: These findings are relevant for providing individualized guidance to patients and planning of vaccination schemes, in turn optimizing benefit-risk with anti-CD20.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Antibodies, Viral , B-Lymphocytes/cytology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Interferon-gamma , Interleukin-13 , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Rituximab/pharmacokinetics , Rituximab/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccine Efficacy
6.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 112(4): 803-807, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1925900

ABSTRACT

Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with cardiovascular diseases who are at higher risk of progressing to critical illness should be treated with nirmatrelvir/ritonavir (Paxlovid). Ritonavir, the booster in nirmatrelvir/ritonavir, modulates multiple drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters, complicating its use in real-world clinics. We aimed to apply physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling to simulate the complex drug-drug interactions (DDIs) of ritonavir with two anticoagulants, rivaroxaban and racemic warfarin, to address this important clinical conundrum. Simulations were implemented within Simcyp Simulator. Compound and population models were adopted from Simcyp and our previous studies. Upon verification and validation of the PBPK model of ritonavir, prospective DDI simulations with the anticoagulants were performed in both the general population (20-65 years) and geriatric subjects (65-85 years) with or without moderate renal impairment. Elevated rivaroxaban concentrations were simulated with nirmatrelvir/ritonavir treatment, where the impact was more profound among geriatric subjects with renal impairment. The overexposure of rivaroxaban was restored to normal range on day 4 post-discontinuation of nirmatrelvir/ritonavir, corroborating with the recovery of enzyme activity. A lower 10 mg daily dose of rivaroxaban could effectively maintain acceptable systemic exposure of rivaroxaban during nirmatrelvir/ritonavir treatment. Treatment of ritonavir marginally declined simulated S-warfarin concentrations, but substantially elevated that of R-warfarin, resulting in a decrease in the international normalized ratio (INR). As INR only recovered 2 weeks post-nirmatrelvir/ritonavir treatment, a longer surveillance INR for warfarin becomes important. Our PBPK-guided simulations evaluated clinically important yet untested DDIs and supports clinical studies to ensure proper anticoagulation management of patients with COVID-19 with chronic coagulative abnormalities when initiating nirmatrelvir/ritonavir therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ritonavir , Aged , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Combinations , Drug Interactions , Humans , Lactams , Leucine , Nitriles , Proline , Prospective Studies , Ritonavir/pharmacokinetics , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Rivaroxaban/pharmacokinetics , Warfarin
7.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 112(5): 1033-1039, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1913780

ABSTRACT

Midazolam is a benzodiazepine frequently used for sedation in patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit (ICU) for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This drug is primarily metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) isoenzymes. Several studies have suggested that inflammation, frequently observed in these patients, could modulate CYP3A activity. The objective of this work was to study the impact of inflammation on midazolam pharmacokinetics in patients with COVID-19. Forty-eight patients hospitalized in the ICU for COVID-19 and treated with midazolam administered by continuous infusion were included in this study. Midazolam and α-hydroxymidazolam concentrations were measured and patient data, including the use of CYP3A inhibitors, were collected. Total and unbound concentrations of midazolam and α-hydroxymidazolam were measured in plasma using a validated liquid-chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry method. Inflammatory condition was evaluated by C-reactive protein (CRP) level measurement. Both drug concentrations and CRP measurements were performed on 354 plasma samples. CRP elevation was significantly associated with the α-hydroxymidazolam/midazolam plasma ratio decrease, whether for the unbound fraction or for the total fraction. Conversely, inflammation was not associated with protein binding modifications. Logically, α-hydroxymidazolam/midazolam plasma ratio was significantly reduced when patients were treated with CYP3A inhibitors. In this study, we showed that inflammation probably reduces the metabolism of midazolam by CYP3A. These results suggest that molecules with narrow therapeutic margins and metabolized by CYP3A should be administrated with care in case of massive inflammatory situations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Midazolam , Humans , Midazolam/pharmacokinetics , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , Isoenzymes , C-Reactive Protein , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors
8.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 66(7): e0059022, 2022 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909571

ABSTRACT

Tebipenem pivoxil hydrobromide (TBP-PI-HBr) is an oral carbapenem prodrug being developed for the treatment of serious bacterial infections. The active moiety, tebipenem, has broad-spectrum activity against common Enterobacterales pathogens, including extended-spectrum-ß-lactamase (ESBL)-producing multidrug-resistant strains. This study evaluated the intrapulmonary pharmacokinetics (PK) and epithelial lining fluid (ELF) and alveolar macrophage (AM) concentrations of tebipenem relative to plasma levels in nonsmoking, healthy adult subjects. Thirty subjects received oral TBP-PI-HBr at 600 mg every 8 h for five doses. Serial blood samples were collected following the last dose. Each subject underwent one standardized bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) 1, 2, 4, 6, or 8 h after the fifth dose of TBP-PI-HBr. The tebipenem area under the concentration-time curve for the 8-h dosing interval (AUC0-8) values in plasma, ELF, and AMs were calculated using the mean concentration at each BAL sampling time. Ratios of AUC0-8 values for total ELF and AMs to those for unbound plasma were determined, using a plasma protein binding value of 42%. Mean values ± standard deviations (SD) of tebipenem maximum (Cmax) and minimum (Cmin) total plasma concentrations were 11.37 ± 3.87 mg/L and 0.043 ± 0.039 mg/L, respectively. Peak tebipenem concentrations in plasma, ELF, and AMs occurred at 1 h and then decreased over 8 h. Ratios of tebipenem AUC0-8 values for ELF and AMs to those for unbound plasma were 0.191 and 0.047, respectively. Four (13.3%) subjects experienced adverse events (diarrhea, fatigue, papule, and coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19]); all resolved, and none were severe or serious. Tebipenem is distributed into the lungs of healthy adults, which supports the further evaluation of TBP-PI-HBr for the treatment of lower respiratory tract bacterial infections caused by susceptible pathogens. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under identifier NCT04710407.).


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , COVID-19 , Administration, Oral , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacokinetics , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Carbapenems/metabolism , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Monobactams/metabolism
9.
EBioMedicine ; 76: 103856, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1894987

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many repurposed drugs have progressed rapidly to Phase 2 and 3 trials in COVID19 without characterisation of Pharmacokinetics /Pharmacodynamics including safety data. One such drug is nafamostat mesylate. METHODS: We present the findings of a phase Ib/IIa open label, platform randomised controlled trial of intravenous nafamostat in hospitalised patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonitis. Patients were assigned randomly to standard of care (SoC), nafamostat or an alternative therapy. Nafamostat was administered as an intravenous infusion at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg/h for a maximum of seven days. The analysis population included those who received any dose of the trial drug and all patients randomised to SoC. The primary outcomes of our trial were the safety and tolerability of intravenous nafamostat as an add on therapy for patients hospitalised with COVID-19 pneumonitis. FINDINGS: Data is reported from 42 patients, 21 of which were randomly assigned to receive intravenous nafamostat. 86% of nafamostat-treated patients experienced at least one AE compared to 57% of the SoC group. The nafamostat group were significantly more likely to experience at least one AE (posterior mean odds ratio 5.17, 95% credible interval (CI) 1.10 - 26.05) and developed significantly higher plasma creatinine levels (posterior mean difference 10.57 micromol/L, 95% CI 2.43-18.92). An average longer hospital stay was observed in nafamostat patients, alongside a lower rate of oxygen free days (rate ratio 0.55-95% CI 0.31-0.99, respectively). There were no other statistically significant differences in endpoints between nafamostat and SoC. PK data demonstrated that intravenous nafamostat was rapidly broken down to inactive metabolites. We observed no significant anticoagulant effects in thromboelastometry. INTERPRETATION: In hospitalised patients with COVID-19, we did not observe evidence of anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant or antiviral activity with intravenous nafamostat, and there were additional adverse events. FUNDING: DEFINE was funded by LifeArc (an independent medical research charity) under the STOPCOVID award to the University of Edinburgh. We also thank the Oxford University COVID-19 Research Response Fund (BRD00230).


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Benzamidines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Guanidines/therapeutic use , Administration, Intravenous , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacokinetics , Benzamidines/adverse effects , Benzamidines/pharmacokinetics , Biomarkers/blood , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Guanidines/adverse effects , Guanidines/pharmacokinetics , Half-Life , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load
10.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 79(18): 1586-1591, 2022 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890868

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To describe the implementation and operationalization of a ß-lactam (BL) therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) program at a large academic center. SUMMARY: BLs are the most used class of antibiotics. Suboptimal antibiotic exposure is a significant concern in hospitalized patients, particularly in those with altered pharmacokinetics. BL-TDM provides clinicians the opportunity to optimize drug concentrations to ensure maximal therapeutic efficacy while minimizing toxicity. However, BL-TDM has not been widely adopted due to the lack of access to assays. The University of Florida Shands Hospital developed a BL-TDM program in 2015. This is a consultative service primarily run by pharmacists and is conducted in all patient care areas. An analysis was performed on the first BL-TDM encounter for 1,438 patients. BL-TDM was most frequently performed for cefepime (61%, n = 882), piperacillin (15%, n = 218), and meropenem (11%, n = 151). BL-TDM was performed a median of 3 days (interquartile range, 1-5 days) from BL initiation. Among patients with available minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values and trough concentrations, the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) target of 100% fT>MIC was attained in 308 patients (88%). BL-TDM resulted in a dosage adjustment in 25% (n = 361) of patients. CONCLUSION: Implementation of a BL-TDM program requires the concerted efforts of physicians, pharmacists, nursing staff, phlebotomists, and personnel in the analytical laboratory. Standard antibiotic dosing failed to achieve optimal PK/PD targets in all patients; utilizing BL-TDM, dose adjustments were made in 1 of every 4 patients.


Subject(s)
Drug Monitoring , Lactams , Academic Medical Centers , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Critical Illness/therapy , Drug Monitoring/methods , Humans , beta-Lactams/pharmacokinetics , beta-Lactams/therapeutic use
11.
Curr Med Sci ; 42(4): 863-870, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1889002

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Lianhuaqingwen and Shuanghuanglian are drug treatment options for Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). In China, use of traditional Chinese medicine with Shuanghuanglian or Lianhuaqingwen (for them, forsythiaside is the active antiviral and antibacterial component) in combination with azithromycin is common for the treatment of pediatric pneumonia. It is important to understand the reason why the combination of these compounds is better than a single drug treatment. This study aimed to explore the pharmacokinetic interaction between forsythiaside and azithromycin. METHODS: Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into an experimental group (Forsythia suspensa extract and azithromycin) and a control group (a single dose of Forsythia suspensa extract in 5% glucose solution). Plasma samples were collected at scheduled time points, and the high-performance liquid chromatography combined with ultraviolet method was used to determine the plasma forsythiaside concentration. Non-compartmental analysis and population pharmacokinetic methods were used to investigate the forsythiaside pharmacokinetic difference between the experimental and control group. RESULTS: Compared with a single administration, the area under the curve and half-life of forsythiaside increased, and forsythiaside clearance decreased significantly after co-administration with azithromycin. The in vivo behavior of forsythiaside could be described by the one compartment model. The forsythiaside clearance decreased when combined with azithromycin. Visual evaluation and bootstrap results suggested that the final model was precise and stable. CONCLUSION: Co-administration of azithromycin can significantly decrease the forsythiaside clearance and increase drug exposure. A lower dose of azithromycin can obtain sufficient forsythiaside concentration to provide antiviral and antibacterial activity.


Subject(s)
Azithromycin , COVID-19 , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents , Azithromycin/pharmacokinetics , COVID-19/drug therapy , Glycosides , Humans , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
12.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 66(6): e0025422, 2022 06 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874495

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to describe the population pharmacokinetics of remdesivir and GS-441524 in hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. A prospective observational pharmacokinetic study was performed in non-critically ill hospitalized COVID-19 patients with hypoxemia. For evaluation of the plasma concentrations of remdesivir and its metabolite GS-441524, samples were collected on the first day of therapy. A nonlinear mixed-effects model was developed to describe the pharmacokinetics and identify potential covariates that explain variability. Alternative dosing regimens were evaluated using Monte Carlo simulations. Seventeen patients were included. Remdesivir and GS-441524 pharmacokinetics were best described by a one-compartment model. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) on GS-441524 clearance was identified as a clinically relevant covariate. The interindividual variability in clearance and volume of distribution for both remdesivir and GS-441524 was high (remdesivir, 38.9% and 47.9%, respectively; GS-441525, 47.4% and 42.9%, respectively). The estimated elimination half-life for remdesivir was 0.48 h, and that for GS-441524 was 26.6 h. The probability of target attainment (PTA) of the in vitro 50% effective concentration (EC50) for GS-441524 in plasma can be improved by shortening the dose interval of remdesivir and thereby increasing the total daily dose (PTA, 51.4% versus 94.7%). In patients with reduced renal function, the metabolite GS-441524 accumulates. A population pharmacokinetic model for remdesivir and GS-441524 in COVID-19 patients was developed. Remdesivir showed highly variable pharmacokinetics. The elimination half-life of remdesivir in COVID-19 patients is short, and the clearance of GS-441524 is dependent on the eGFR. Alternative dosing regimens aimed at optimizing the remdesivir and GS-441524 concentrations may improve the effectiveness of remdesivir treatment in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacokinetics , COVID-19/drug therapy , Critical Illness/therapy , Furans , Humans , Monte Carlo Method , Triazines
13.
CPT Pharmacometrics Syst Pharmacol ; 11(5): 628-639, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1858907

ABSTRACT

Bedaquiline (BDQ) is recommended for treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) for the majority of patients. Given its long terminal half-life and safety concerns, such as QTc-prolongation, re-introducing BDQ after multiple dose interruption is not intuitive and there are currently no existing guidelines. In this simulation-based study, we investigated different loading dose strategies for BDQ re-introduction, taking safety and efficacy into account. Multiple scenarios of time and length of interruption as well as BDQ re-introduction, including no loading dose, 1- and 2-week loading doses (200 mg and 400 mg once daily), were simulated from a previously published population pharmacokinetic (PK) model describing BDQ and its main metabolite M2 PK in patients with MDR-TB. The efficacy target was defined as 95.0% of the average BDQ concentration without dose interruption during standard treatment. Because M2 is the main driver for QTc-prolongation, the safety limit was set to be below the maximal average M2 metabolite concentration in a standard treatment. Simulations suggest that dose interruptions between treatment weeks 3 and 72 (interruption length: 1 to 6 weeks) require a 2-week loading dose of 200 mg once daily in the typical patient. If treatment was interrupted for longer than 8 weeks, a 2-week loading dose (400 mg once daily) was needed to reach the proposed efficacy target, slightly exceeding the safety limit. In conclusion, we here propose a strategy for BDQ re-introduction providing guidance to clinicians for safe and efficacious BDQ dosing.


Subject(s)
Long QT Syndrome , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Antitubercular Agents , Diarylquinolines/pharmacokinetics , Humans , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy
15.
ACS Appl Bio Mater ; 5(2): 483-491, 2022 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805546

ABSTRACT

Interleukin-mediated deep cytokine storm, an aggressive inflammatory response to SARS-CoV-2 virus infection in COVID-19 patients, is correlated directly with lung injury, multi-organ failure, and poor prognosis of severe COVID-19 patients. Curcumin (CUR), a phenolic antioxidant compound obtained from turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), is well-known for its strong anti-inflammatory activity. However, its in vivo efficacy is constrained due to poor bioavailability. Herein, we report that CUR-encapsulated polysaccharide nanoparticles (CUR-PS-NPs) potently inhibit the release of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors associated with damage of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (CoV2-SP)-stimulated liver Huh7.5 and lung A549 epithelial cells. Treatment with CUR-PS-NPs effectively attenuated the interaction of ACE2 and CoV2-SP. The effects of CUR-PS-NPs were linked to reduced NF-κB/MAPK signaling which in turn decreased CoV2-SP-mediated phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, p42/44 MAPK, and p65/NF-κB as well as nuclear p65/NF-κB expression. The findings of the study strongly indicate that organic NPs of CUR can be used to control hyper-inflammatory responses and prevent lung and liver injuries associated with CoV2-SP-mediated cytokine storm.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Curcumin/pharmacology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , MAP Kinase Signaling System/drug effects , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacokinetics , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chemokines/biosynthesis , Curcumin/chemistry , Curcumin/pharmacokinetics , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Humans , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/biosynthesis , Phosphorylation , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/physiology
16.
J Clin Pharmacol ; 62(10): 1285-1296, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1802328

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), manifests as mild respiratory symptoms to severe respiratory failure and is associated with inflammation and other physiological changes. Of note, substantial increases in plasma concentrations of α1 -acid-glycoprotein and interleukin-6 have been observed among patients admitted to the hospital with advanced SARS-CoV-2 infection. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) approach is a useful tool to evaluate and predict disease-related changes on drug pharmacokinetics. A PBPK model of imatinib has previously been developed and verified in healthy people and patients with cancer. In this study, the PBPK model of imatinib was successfully extrapolated to patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection by accounting for disease-related changes in plasma α1 -acid-glycoprotein concentrations and the potential drug interaction between imatinib and dexamethasone. The model demonstrated a good predictive performance in describing total and unbound imatinib concentrations in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. PBPK simulations highlight that an equivalent dose of imatinib may lead to substantially higher total drug concentrations in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection compared to that in patients with cancer, while the unbound concentrations remain comparable between the 2 patient populations. This supports the notion that unbound trough concentration is a better exposure metric for dose adjustment of imatinib in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, compared to the corresponding total drug concentration. Potential strategies for refinement and generalization of the PBPK modeling approach in the patient population with SARS-CoV-2 are also provided in this article, which could be used to guide study design and inform dose adjustment in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Imatinib Mesylate , COVID-19/drug therapy , Glycoproteins , Humans , Imatinib Mesylate/pharmacokinetics , Imatinib Mesylate/therapeutic use , Models, Biological , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 111(6): 1324-1333, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1802136

ABSTRACT

Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) modulating therapies, including elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor, are primarily eliminated through cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A-mediated metabolism. This creates a therapeutic challenge to the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with nirmatrelvir-ritonavir in people with cystic fibrosis (CF) due to the potential for significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs). However, the population with CF is more at risk of serious illness following COVID-19 infection and hence it is important to manage the DDI risk and provide treatment options. CYP3A-mediated DDI of elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor was evaluated using a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling approach. Modeling was performed incorporating physiological information and drug-dependent parameters of elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor to predict the effect of ritonavir (the CYP3A inhibiting component of the combination) on the pharmacokinetics of elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor. The elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor models were verified using independent clinical pharmacokinetic and DDI data of elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor with a range of CYP3A modulators. When ritonavir was administered on Days 1 through 5, the predicted area under the curve (AUC) ratio of ivacaftor (the most sensitive CYP3A substrate) on Day 6 was 9.31, indicating that its metabolism was strongly inhibited. Based on the predicted DDI, the dose of elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor should be reduced when coadministered with nirmatrelvir-ritonavir to elexacaftor 200 mg-tezacaftor 100 mg-ivacaftor 150 mg on Days 1 and 5, with delayed resumption of full-dose elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor on Day 9, considering the residual inhibitory effect of ritonavir as a mechanism-based inhibitor. The simulation predicts a regimen of elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor administered concomitantly with nirmatrelvir-ritonavir in people with CF that will likely decrease the impact of the drug interaction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cystic Fibrosis , Aminophenols/pharmacology , Benzodioxoles/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chloride Channel Agonists/therapeutic use , Cystic Fibrosis/drug therapy , Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A/metabolism , Drug Combinations , Drug Interactions , Humans , Indoles/pharmacology , Lactams/pharmacokinetics , Leucine/pharmacokinetics , Mutation , Nitriles/pharmacokinetics , Proline/pharmacokinetics , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Pyridines/pharmacology , Pyrrolidines , Quinolines/pharmacology , Quinolones , Ritonavir/pharmacokinetics
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(8)2022 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785748

ABSTRACT

Theophylline (3-methyxanthine) is a historically prominent drug used to treat respiratory diseases, alone or in combination with other drugs. The rapid onset of the COVID-19 pandemic urged the development of effective pharmacological treatments to directly attack the development of new variants of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and possess a therapeutical battery of compounds that could improve the current management of the disease worldwide. In this context, theophylline, through bronchodilatory, immunomodulatory, and potentially antiviral mechanisms, is an interesting proposal as an adjuvant in the treatment of COVID-19 patients. Nevertheless, it is essential to understand how this compound could behave against such a disease, not only at a pharmacodynamic but also at a pharmacokinetic level. In this sense, the quickest approach in drug discovery is through different computational methods, either from network pharmacology or from quantitative systems pharmacology approaches. In the present review, we explore the possibility of using theophylline in the treatment of COVID-19 patients since it seems to be a relevant candidate by aiming at several immunological targets involved in the pathophysiology of the disease. Theophylline down-regulates the inflammatory processes activated by SARS-CoV-2 through various mechanisms, and herein, they are discussed by reviewing computational simulation studies and their different applications and effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Theophylline/pharmacology , Theophylline/therapeutic use
19.
Int J Pharm ; 620: 121739, 2022 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783428

ABSTRACT

As remdesivir, the first FDA-approved drug for SARS-CoV-2 infection, can be used only for hospitalized patients due to intravenous administration, there is an urgent need of effective oral antiviral formulations to be used at early stage of infection in an outpatient setting. The present paper reports on the comparative pharmacokinetics of the electrospun nanofiber remdesivir/sulfobutyl ether beta-cyclodextrin formulation after intravenous and buccal administration. It was postulated that oral transmucosal administration avoids remdesivir from metabolic transformation and intact remdesivir can be detected in plasma, but only the active metabolite GS-441524 could be experimentally detected at a significantly lower plasma level, than that provided by the intravenous route. In buccally treated animals, the metabolite GS-441524 appeared only at 1 h after treatment, while in intravenously treated animals, GS-441524 was possible to quantify even at the first time-point of blood collection. Further optimization of formulation is required to improve pharmacokinetics of remdesivir-sulfobutyl ether beta-cyclodextrin formulation upon buccal administration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Administration, Buccal , Administration, Intravenous , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Biological Availability , COVID-19/drug therapy , Furans , Humans , Pyrroles , Rabbits , Triazines
20.
Clin Pharmacokinet ; 61(7): 973-983, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783019

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Many patients treated for COVID-19 related acute respiratory distress syndrome in the intensive care unit are sedated with the benzodiazepine midazolam. Midazolam undergoes extensive metabolism by CYP3A enzymes, which may be inhibited by hyperinflammation. Therefore, an exaggerated proinflammatory response, as often observed in COVID-19, may decrease midazolam clearance. To develop a population pharmacokinetic model for midazolam in adult intensive care unit patients infected with COVID-19 and to assess the effect of inflammation, reflected by IL-6, on the pharmacokinetics of midazolam. METHODS: Midazolam blood samples were collected once a week between March 31 and April 30 2020. Patients were excluded if they concomitantly received CYP3A4 inhibitors, CYP3A4 inducers and/or continuous renal replacement therapy. Midazolam and metabolites were analyzed with an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. A population pharmacokinetic model was developed, using nonlinear mixed effects modelling. IL-6 and CRP, markers of inflammation, were analyzed as covariates. RESULTS: The data were described by a one-compartment model for midazolam and the metabolites 1-OH-midazolam and 1-OH-midazolam-glucuronide. The population mean estimate for midazolam clearance was 6.7 L/h (4.8-8.5 L/h). Midazolam clearance was reduced by increased IL-6 and IL-6 explained more of the variability within our patients than CRP. The midazolam clearance was reduced by 24% (6.7-5.1 L/h) when IL-6 increases from population median 116 to 300 pg/mL. CONCLUSIONS: Inflammation, reflected by high IL-6, reduces midazolam clearance in critically ill patients with COVID-19. This knowledge may help avoid oversedation, but further research is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Midazolam , Adult , COVID-19/drug therapy , Critical Illness/therapy , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A , Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Inflammation , Interleukin-6 , Midazolam/pharmacokinetics
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