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1.
Nutrients ; 14(11)2022 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884292

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of a specific oral nutritional supplement among patients recovered from COVID-19 but suffering symptoms of fatigue. METHODS: This is an observational case-control study involving a sample of 66 COVID-19 survivors divided in two groups, 33 subjects in the intervention group who received the nutritional supplement and 33 subjects in the control group. The nutritional supplement received by subjects in the active group was based on amino acids; vitamin B6 and B1; and malic, succinic and citric acids. After an 8-week follow-up, the main outcomes considered were skeletal muscle index (measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis), physical performance measures (handgrip strength, one-minute chair-stand test, six-minute walking test), and quality of life (using EuroQol visual analogue scale). RESULTS: All the considered areas increased significantly in the subjects receiving the active treatment with oral nutritional supplement in comparison with the baseline values. After adjusting for age, gender, and baseline values, skeletal muscle index, handgrip strength test, the one-minute chair-stand test, and six-minute walking test values were higher among participants in the treatment group compared with subjects in control group. The oral nutritional supplement significantly improved the handgrip strength; similarly, participants in the active group showed a higher improvement in skeletal muscle index, the one-minute chair-stand test, the six-minute walking test, and in quality of life. CONCLUSION: The nutritional supplement containing nine essential amino acids plus cysteine; vitamin B6 and B1; and malic, succinic and citric acids had a positive effect on nutritional status, functional recovery, and quality of life in COVID-19 survivors still suffering from fatigue. Additional controlled clinical trials are required to corroborate these results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Strength , Case-Control Studies , Dietary Supplements , Fatigue , Humans , Muscle Strength , Muscle, Skeletal , Physical Functional Performance , Quality of Life , Vitamin B 6/pharmacology
2.
Molecules ; 27(11)2022 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884285

ABSTRACT

Novel 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives were synthesized through the reaction of methyl 2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene) hydrazine-1-carbodithioate and the appropriate hydrazonoyl halides in the presence of a few drops of diisopropylethylamine. The chemical structure of the newly fabricated compounds was inferred from their microanalytical and spectral data. With the increase in microbial diseases, fungi remain a devastating threat to human health because of the resistance of microorganisms to antifungal drugs. COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) and COVID-19-associated mucormycosis (CAM) have higher mortality rates in many populations. The present study aimed to find new antifungal agents using the disc diffusion method, and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were estimated by the microdilution assay. An in vitro experiment of six synthesized chemical compounds exhibited antifungal activity against Rhizopus oryzae; compounds with an imidazole moiety, such as the compound 7, were documented to have energetic antibacterial, antifungal properties. As a result of these findings, this research suggests that the synthesized compounds could be an excellent choice for controlling black fungus diseases. Furthermore, a molecular docking study was achieved on the synthesized compounds, of which compounds 2, 6, and 7 showed the best interactions with the selected protein targets.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Thiadiazoles , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria , Fungi , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Structure , Structure-Activity Relationship , Thiadiazoles/chemistry , Thiadiazoles/pharmacology
3.
Molecules ; 27(11)2022 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884284

ABSTRACT

Salicylic acid is a key compound in nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs that has been recently used for preventing the risk of hospitalization and death among COVID-19 patients and in preventing colorectal cancer (CRC) by suppressing two key proteins. Understanding drug-drug interaction pathways prevent the occurrence of adverse drug reactions in clinical trials. Drug-drug interactions can result in the variation of the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetic of the drug. Inhibition of the Cytochrome P450 enzyme activity leads to the withdrawal of the drug from the market. The aim of this paper was to develop and validate an HPLC-UV method for the quantification of 4'-hydroxydiclofenac as a CYP2C9 metabolite using salicylic acid as an inhibitor in rat liver microsomes. A CYP2C9 assay was developed and validated on the reversed phase C18 column (SUPELCO 25 cm × 4.6 mm × 5 µm) using a low-pressure gradient elution programming at T = 30 °C, a wavelength of 282 nm, and a flow rate of 1 mL/min. 4'-hydroxydiclofenac demonstrated a good linearity (R2 > 0.99), good reproducibility, low detection, and quantitation limit, and the inter and intra-day precision met the ICH guidelines (<15%). 4'-hydroxydiclofenac was stable for three days and showed an acceptable accuracy and recovery (80-120%) within the ICH guidelines in a rat liver microsome sample. This method will be beneficial for future applications of the in vitro inhibitory effect of salicylic acid on the CYP2C9 enzyme activity in rat microsomes and the in vivo administration of salicylic acid in clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Diclofenac , Microsomes, Liver , Animals , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9 , Diclofenac/analogs & derivatives , Diclofenac/analysis , Drug Interactions , Humans , Rats , Reproducibility of Results , Salicylic Acid/pharmacology
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(11)2022 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884210

ABSTRACT

This review is dedicated to the cross-talk between the (endo)cannabinoid and renin angiotensin systems (RAS). Activation of AT1 receptors (AT1Rs) by angiotensin II (Ang II) can release endocannabinoids that, by acting at cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1Rs), modify the response to AT1R stimulation. CB1R blockade may enhance AT1R-mediated responses (mainly vasoconstrictor effects) or reduce them (mainly central nervous system-mediated effects). The final effects depend on whether stimulation of CB1Rs and AT1Rs induces opposite or the same effects. Second, CB1R blockade may diminish AT1R levels. Third, phytocannabinoids modulate angiotensin-converting enzyme-2. Additional studies are required to clarify (1) the existence of a cross-talk between the protective axis of the RAS (Ang II-AT2 receptor system or angiotensin 1-7-Mas receptor system) with components of the endocannabinoid system, (2) the influence of Ang II on constituents of the endocannabinoid system and (3) the (patho)physiological significance of AT1R-CB1R heteromerization. As a therapeutic consequence, CB1R antagonists may influence effects elicited by the activation or blockade of the RAS; phytocannabinoids may be useful as adjuvant therapy against COVID-19; single drugs acting on the (endo)cannabinoid system (cannabidiol) and the RAS (telmisartan) may show pharmacokinetic interactions since they are substrates of the same metabolizing enzyme of the transport mechanism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cannabinoids , Angiotensin II/metabolism , Cannabinoids/pharmacology , Endocannabinoids/pharmacology , Humans , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/metabolism , Receptors, Angiotensin/metabolism , Receptors, Cannabinoid , Renin/pharmacology , Renin-Angiotensin System
6.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266124, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883663

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is one of the most severe global pandemic due to its high pathogenicity and death rate starting from the end of 2019. Though there are some vaccines available against SAER-CoV-2 infections, we are worried about their effectiveness, due to its unstable sequence patterns. Therefore, beside vaccines, globally effective supporting drugs are also required for the treatment against SARS-CoV-2 infection. To explore commonly effective repurposable drugs for the treatment against different variants of coronavirus infections, in this article, an attempt was made to explore host genomic biomarkers guided repurposable drugs for SARS-CoV-1 infections and their validation with SARS-CoV-2 infections by using the integrated bioinformatics approaches. At first, we identified 138 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between SARS-CoV-1 infected and control samples by analyzing high throughput gene-expression profiles to select drug target key receptors. Then we identified top-ranked 11 key DEGs (SMAD4, GSK3B, SIRT1, ATM, RIPK1, PRKACB, MED17, CCT2, BIRC3, ETS1 and TXN) as hub genes (HubGs) by protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis of DEGs highlighting their functions, pathways, regulators and linkage with other disease risks that may influence SARS-CoV-1 infections. The DEGs-set enrichment analysis significantly detected some crucial biological processes (immune response, regulation of angiogenesis, apoptotic process, cytokine production and programmed cell death, response to hypoxia and oxidative stress), molecular functions (transcription factor binding and oxidoreductase activity) and pathways (transcriptional mis-regulation in cancer, pathways in cancer, chemokine signaling pathway) that are associated with SARS-CoV-1 infections as well as SARS-CoV-2 infections by involving HubGs. The gene regulatory network (GRN) analysis detected some transcription factors (FOXC1, GATA2, YY1, FOXL1, TP53 and SRF) and micro-RNAs (hsa-mir-92a-3p, hsa-mir-155-5p, hsa-mir-106b-5p, hsa-mir-34a-5p and hsa-mir-19b-3p) as the key transcriptional and post- transcriptional regulators of HubGs, respectively. We also detected some chemicals (Valproic Acid, Cyclosporine, Copper Sulfate and arsenic trioxide) that may regulates HubGs. The disease-HubGs interaction analysis showed that our predicted HubGs are also associated with several other diseases including different types of lung diseases. Then we considered 11 HubGs mediated proteins and their regulatory 6 key TFs proteins as the drug target proteins (receptors) and performed their docking analysis with the SARS-CoV-2 3CL protease-guided top listed 90 anti-viral drugs out of 3410. We found Rapamycin, Tacrolimus, Torin-2, Radotinib, Danoprevir, Ivermectin and Daclatasvir as the top-ranked 7 candidate-drugs with respect to our proposed target proteins for the treatment against SARS-CoV-1 infections. Then, we validated these 7 candidate-drugs against the already published top-ranked 11 target proteins associated with SARS-CoV-2 infections by molecular docking simulation and found their significant binding affinity scores with our proposed candidate-drugs. Finally, we validated all of our findings by the literature review. Therefore, the proposed candidate-drugs might play a vital role for the treatment against different variants of SARS-CoV-2 infections with comorbidities, since the proposed HubGs are also associated with several comorbidities.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Computational Biology , Drug Repositioning , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , MicroRNAs/genetics , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS Virus , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Transcription Factors/genetics , Transcriptome
7.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0261802, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883598

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is transmitted mainly by droplet or aerosol infection; however, it may also be transmitted by contact infection. SARS-CoV-2 that adheres to environmental surfaces remains infectious for several days. We herein attempted to inactivate SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A virus adhering to an environmental surface by dry fogging hypochlorous acid solution and hydrogen peroxide solution. SARS-CoV-2 and influenza virus were air-dried on plastic plates and placed into a test chamber for inactivation by the dry fogging of these disinfectants. The results obtained showed that the dry fogging of hypochlorous acid solution and hydrogen peroxide solution inactivated SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A virus in CT value (the product of the disinfectant concentration and contact time)-dependent manners. SARS-CoV-2 was more resistant to the virucidal effects of aerosolized hypochlorous acid solution and hydrogen peroxide solution than influenza A virus; therefore, higher concentrations of disinfectants or longer contact times were required to inactivate SARS-CoV-2 than influenza A virus. The present results provide important information for the development of a strategy that inactivates SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A virus on environmental surfaces by spatial fogging.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Influenza A virus , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Hypochlorous Acid/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Inactivation
8.
Aging Cell ; 21(6): e13646, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883166

ABSTRACT

Older age and underlying conditions such as diabetes/obesity or immunosuppression are leading host risk factors for developing severe complications from COVID-19 infection. The pathogenesis of COVID-19-related cytokine storm, tissue damage, and fibrosis may be interconnected with fundamental aging processes, including dysregulated immune responses and cellular senescence. Here, we examined effects of key cytokines linked to cellular senescence on expression of SARS-CoV-2 viral entry receptors. We found exposure of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to the inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α + IFN-γ or a cocktail of TNF-α + IFN-γ + IL-6, increased expression of ACE2/DPP4, accentuated the pro-inflammatory senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), and decreased cellular proliferative capacity, consistent with progression towards a cellular senescence-like state. IL-6 by itself failed to induce substantial effects on viral entry receptors or SASP-related genes, while synergy between TNF-α and IFN-γ initiated a positive feedback loop via hyper-activation of the JAK/STAT1 pathway, causing SASP amplification. Breaking the interactive loop between senescence and cytokine secretion with JAK inhibitor ruxolitinib or antiviral drug remdesivir prevented hyper-inflammation, normalized SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor expression, and restored HUVECs proliferative capacity. This loop appears to underlie cytokine-mediated viral entry receptor activation and links with senescence and hyper-inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cytokines/metabolism , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Interferon-gamma/pharmacology , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , STAT1 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9434, 2022 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882768

ABSTRACT

The present study aims to assess the effects of thermal and chemical inactivating procedures, that can be used for SARS-CoV-2 inactivation, on different salivary analytes. SDS-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) protein profile and a panel of 25 specific biomarkers of oxidative status, stress, metabolism and tissue damage were evaluated in samples subjected to different treatments: thermal (65 °C or 92 °C) and chemical with detergents [sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), Triton X-100 or NP-40]. Salivary SDS-PAGE profile was most affected by heating at 92 °C, with three and two protein bands decreasing and increasing their expression levels, respectively. This treatment also affected the results of several enzymes, with some of them being also affected by heating at 65 °C and incubation with SDS. The use of Triton X-100 or NP-40 resulted in increased values of cortisol, triglycerides and glucose, not affecting the other tested biomarkers. The present results will help researchers and clinicians to select the best protocols to work in safe conditions with saliva, taking into account the target analyte planned to be measured.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Saliva , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Humans , Octoxynol/pharmacology , Proteins , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 218: 114875, 2022 Sep 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882269

ABSTRACT

Amphotericin B (ATB) is a broad spectrum antibiotic used to combat severe systemic fungal and protozoan infections. Existing and new ATB formulations designed to address the problem of poor solubility and side effects of ATB require pharmacokinetic (PK) studies and dosing controls, especially in critically ill patients. Given that, the present study was devoted to development of competitive immunoassay of ATB and its testing on real human serum samples. A novel immunogen design was based on alternative ATB carboxyl-mediated conjugation to tetanus toxoid (TTd). The resulting conjugates retained antifungal (C.albicans) activity, which indicates the preservation and spatial availability of the ergosterol-binding site, bioactive polyene epitope. Antibody generated against click reaction product, TTd-ATB(cuaac), was able to recognize a group of polyenes ATB, nystatin, natamycin and deoxycholate ATB in heterologous ELISA as 100%, 255%, 99% and 70%, respectively. The sensitivity (IC50), detection limit (IC10) and dynamic range of assay (IC20-IC80) were 6.0, 0.1 and 0.6-46 ng/mL, respectively, and made it possible to quantify total and unbound ATB in the therapeutic range of concentrations in serum. ATB recovery from spiked serum samples was in the range of 95-106% and unbound ATB fractions in ultrafiltrates were about 12%. PK parameters were estimated in single COVID-19 patient with secondary lung Rhizopus microspores infection who was treated with ATB and received veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.


Subject(s)
Amphotericin B , COVID-19 , Antifungal Agents/chemistry , Critical Illness/therapy , Drug Monitoring , Humans , Immunoassay , Polyenes/pharmacology
11.
Cell Rep ; 39(6): 110799, 2022 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1881766

ABSTRACT

Although vaccines and monoclonal antibody countermeasures have reduced the morbidity and mortality associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, variants with constellations of mutations in the spike gene jeopardize their efficacy. Accordingly, antiviral interventions that are resistant to further virus evolution are needed. The host-derived cytokine interferon lambda (IFN-λ) has been proposed as a possible treatment based on studies in human coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Here, we show that IFN-λ protects against SARS-CoV-2 B.1.351 (Beta) and B.1.1.529 (Omicron) variants in three strains of conventional and human ACE2 transgenic mice. Prophylaxis or therapy with nasally delivered IFN-λ2 limits infection of historical or variant SARS-CoV-2 strains in the upper and lower respiratory tracts without causing excessive inflammation. In the lung, IFN-λ is produced preferentially in epithelial cells and acts on radio-resistant cells to protect against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Thus, inhaled IFN-λ may have promise as a treatment for evolving SARS-CoV-2 variants that develop resistance to antibody-based countermeasures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Interferons , Mice , Mice, Transgenic
12.
Molecules ; 27(11)2022 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1866459

ABSTRACT

Dipyridamole, apart from its well-known antiplatelet and phosphodiesterase inhibitory activities, is a promising old drug for the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis. However, dipyridamole shows poor pharmacokinetic properties with a half-life (T1/2) of 7 min in rat liver microsomes (RLM). To improve the metabolic stability of dipyridamole, a series of pyrimidopyrimidine derivatives have been designed with the assistance of molecular docking. Among all the twenty-four synthesized compounds, compound (S)-4h showed outstanding metabolic stability (T1/2 = 67 min) in RLM, with an IC50 of 332 nM against PDE5. Furthermore, some interesting structure-activity relationships (SAR) were explained with the assistance of molecular docking.


Subject(s)
Dipyridamole , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis , Animals , Dipyridamole/pharmacology , Dipyridamole/therapeutic use , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/metabolism , Microsomes, Liver/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Structure , Rats , Structure-Activity Relationship
13.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0268919, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879310

ABSTRACT

The appearance of new variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the lack of effective antiviral therapeutics for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a highly infectious disease caused by the virus, demands the search for alternative therapies. Most antiviral drugs known are passive defenders which must enter the cell to execute their function and suffer from concerns such as permeability and effectiveness, therefore in this current study, we aim to identify peptide inactivators that can act without entering the cells. SARS-CoV-2 spike protein is an essential protein that plays a major role in binding to the host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and mediates the viral cell membrane fusion process. SARS vaccines and treatments have also been developed with the spike protein as a target. The virtual screening experiment revealed antiviral peptides which were found to be non-allergen, non-toxic and possess good water solubility. U-1, GST-removed-HR2 and HR2-18 exhibit binding energies of -47.8 kcal/mol, -43.01 kcal/mol, and -40.46 kcal/mol, respectively. The complexes between these peptides and spike protein were stabilized through hydrogen bonds as well as hydrophobic interactions. The stability of the top-ranked peptide with the drug-receptor is evidenced by 50-ns molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The binding of U-1 induces conformational changes in the spike protein with alterations in its geometric properties such as increased flexibility, decreased compactness, the increased surface area exposed to solvent molecules, and an increase in the number of total hydrogen bonds leading to its probable inactivation. Thus, the identified antiviral peptides can be used as anti-SARS-CoV-2 candidates, inactivating the virus's spike proteins and preventing it from infecting host cells.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Peptides/metabolism , Peptides/pharmacology , Protein Binding , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
14.
J Antibiot (Tokyo) ; 75(6): 321-332, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878523

ABSTRACT

Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most dangerous pathogens commonly associated with high levels of morbidity and mortality. Sortase A is considered as a promising molecular target for the development of antistaphylococcal agents. Using hybrid virtual screening approach and FRET analysis, we have identified five compounds able to decrease the activity of sortase A by more than 50% at the concentration of 200 µM. The most promising compound was 2-(2-amino-3-chloro-benzoylamino)-benzoic acid which was able to inhibit S. aureus sortase A at the IC50 value of 59.7 µM. This compound was selective toward sortase A compared to other four cysteine proteases - cathepsin L, cathepsin B, rhodesain, and the SARS-CoV2 main protease. Microscale thermophoresis experiments confirmed that this compound bound sortase A with KD value of 189 µM. Antibacterial and antibiofilm assays also confirmed high specificity of the hit compound against two standard and three wild-type, S. aureus hospital infection isolates. The effect of the compound on biofilms produced by two S. aureus ATCC strains was also observed suggesting that the compound reduced biofilm formation by changing the biofilm structure and thickness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Staphylococcal Infections , Aminoacyltransferases , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Biofilms , Cysteine Endopeptidases , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , RNA, Viral/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Staphylococcus aureus
15.
Food Environ Virol ; 14(2): 105-119, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1877974

ABSTRACT

The worldwide COVID-19 pandemic has brought significant consideration toward innovative strategies for overcoming the viral spread. Nanotechnology will change our lives in several forms as its uses span from electronics to pharmaceutical procedures. The use of nanoparticles provides a possibility to promote new antiviral treatments with a low possibility of increasing drug resistance compared to typical chemical-based antiviral treatments. Since the long-term usage of disinfectants and antiseptics at high concentrations has deleterious impacts on well-being and the environment, this review was intended to discuss the antiviral activity of disinfectants and antiseptics required for their activity against respiratory viruses especially SARS-CoV-2. It could improve the inhibition of viral penetration into cells, solvation of the lipid bilayer envelope, and ROS production, therefore enhancing the effect of disinfectants. However, significant concerns about nanomaterial's hazardous effects on individuals and the environment are increasing as nanotechnology flourishes. In this review, we first discuss the significant and essential types of nanomaterials, especially silver and copper, that could be used as antiviral agents and their viral entry mechanisms into host cells. Further, we consider the toxicity on health, and environmental concerns of nanoparticles. Eventually, we present our outlook on the fate of nanomaterials toward viral diseases.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents, Local , COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Nanostructures , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection/methods , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Food Environ Virol ; 14(2): 120-137, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1877972

ABSTRACT

The use of natural resources for the prevention and treatment of diseases considered fatal to humanity has evolved. Several medicinal plants have nutritional and pharmacological potential in the prevention and treatment of viral infections, among them, turmeric, which is recognized for its biological properties associated with curcuminoids, mainly represented by curcumin, and found mostly in rhizomes. The purpose of this review was to compile the pharmacological activities of curcumin and its analogs, aiming at stimulating their use as a therapeutic strategy to treat infections caused by RNA genome viruses. We revisited its historical application as an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiviral agent that combined with low toxicity, motivated research against viruses affecting the population for decades. Most findings concentrate particularly on arboviruses, HIV, and the recent SARS-CoV-2. As one of the main conclusions, associating curcuminoids with nanomaterials increases solubility, bioavailability, and antiviral effects, characterized by blocking the entry of the virus into the cell or by inhibiting key enzymes in viral replication and transcription.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Curcumin , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Curcumin/pharmacology , Diarylheptanoids , Humans , RNA , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Mol Biol Rep ; 49(5): 4061-4068, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1877913

ABSTRACT

The omicron variant (B.529) of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which emerged in late 2021, caused panic worldwide due to its contagiousness and multiple mutations in the spike protein compared to the Delta variant (B.617.2). There is currently no specific antiviral available to treat Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, studies on neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAb) developed to fight COVID-19 are growing and gaining traction. REGN-COV2 (Regeneron or imdevimab-casirivimab combination), which has been shown in recent studies to be less affected by Omicron's RBD (receptor binding domain) mutations among other mAb cocktails, plays an important role in adjuvant therapy against COVID-19. On the other hand, it is known that melatonin, which has antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects, can prevent a possible cytokine storm, and other severe symptoms that may develop in the event of viral invasion. Along with all these findings, we believe it is crucial to evaluate the use of melatonin with REGN-COV2, a cocktail of mAbs, as an adjuvant in the treatment and prevention of COVID-19, particularly in immunocompromised and elderly patients.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological , COVID-19 , Melatonin , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Combinations , Humans , Melatonin/pharmacology , Melatonin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
18.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 36(6): e24427, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1877605

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Azithromycin (AZM), sold under the name Zithromax, is classified as a macrolide. It has many benefits due to its immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial effects. This review aims to study different clinical and biochemisterial aspects and properties of this drug which has a priority based on literature published worldwide. METHODS: Several databases including Web of Science, Google Scholar, PubMed, and Scopus were searched to obtain the relevant studies. RESULTS: AZM mechanism of action including the inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis, inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine production, inhibition of neutrophil infestation, and macrophage polarization alteration, gives it the ability to act against a wide range of microorganisms. Resistant organisms are spreading and being developed because of the irrational use of the drug in the case of dose and duration. AZM shows synergistic effects with other drugs against a variety of organisms. This macrolide is considered a valuable antimicrobial agent because of its use as a treatment for a vast range of diseases such as asthma, bronchiolitis, COPD, cystic fibrosis, enteric infections, STIs, and periodontal infections. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows an increasing global prevalence of AZM resistance. Thus, synergistic combinations are recommended to treat different pathogens. Moreover, continuous monitoring of AZM resistance by registry centers and the development of more rapid diagnostic assays are urgently needed.


Subject(s)
Azithromycin , Cystic Fibrosis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/pharmacology , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Bacterial Proteins , Cystic Fibrosis/drug therapy , Cystic Fibrosis/microbiology , Humans
19.
ChemMedChem ; 17(11): e202200157, 2022 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1877578

ABSTRACT

The development of new therapeutic approaches for SARS-CoV-2 infections is of particular current importance. The combination therapy proposed here is based on already proven, safe and inexpensive compounds. The natural compound rutin, one of the six therapy components, has the potential to inhibit both viral and host cell targets. In addition, this therapy involves the use of acetylsalicylic acid, vitamin C and vitamin D3 , which should be administered together with calcium and magnesium. The importance of each component is briefly described in this article. Due to multiple anti-infective properties of rutin, it provides a basis for combating a SARS-CoV-2 infection as well as various viral and bacterial co-infections. There are strong indications for a good effect of this simple combination therapy, especially in the early stages of infection. It has the potential to be of interest both prophylactically and therapeutically, and offers the possibility of protection against severe disease progression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Rutin/pharmacology , Rutin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Altern Ther Health Med ; 28(4): 40-43, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1876827

ABSTRACT

Despite the discovery of vaccines for COVID-19, one of the best security measures to contain the spread of the virus is social distancing and isolation. However, isolation might trigger negative mental outcomes, such as onset of a depressive and anxious condition, increased consumption of alcohol and drugs, relapse to substances of abuse, and even induce post-traumatic stress disorder. Interestingly, recent research with psychedelics suggests that when these substances are used in combination with psychotherapy, they may reduce these mental impairments. Nevertheless, scientists are still working to elucidate the possible mechanisms behind these phenomena.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hallucinogens , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Hallucinogens/pharmacology , Hallucinogens/therapeutic use , Humans , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2
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