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1.
Public Health Res Pract ; 31(3)2021 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1471205

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidence, based on the synthesis of reports from past infectious disease-related public health emergencies, supports an association between previous pandemics and a heightened risk of suicide or suicide-related behaviours and outcomes. Anxiety associated with pandemic media reporting appears to be one critical contributing factor. Social isolation, loneliness, and the disconnect that can result from public health strategies during global pandemics also appear to increase suicide risk in vulnerable individuals. Innovative suicide risk assessment and prevention strategies are needed to recognise and adapt to the negative impacts of pandemics on population mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Suicide/prevention & control , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Humans , Loneliness/psychology , Mental Health , Public Health , Risk Assessment/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation/psychology , Suicide/psychology
2.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 211, 2021 08 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470617

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emergence of more transmissible SARS-CoV-2 variants requires more efficient control measures to limit nosocomial transmission and maintain healthcare capacities during pandemic waves. Yet the relative importance of different strategies is unknown. METHODS: We developed an agent-based model and compared the impact of personal protective equipment (PPE), screening of healthcare workers (HCWs), contact tracing of symptomatic HCWs and restricting HCWs from working in multiple units (HCW cohorting) on nosocomial SARS-CoV-2 transmission. The model was fit on hospital data from the first wave in the Netherlands (February until August 2020) and assumed that HCWs used 90% effective PPE in COVID-19 wards and self-isolated at home for 7 days immediately upon symptom onset. Intervention effects on the effective reproduction number (RE), HCW absenteeism and the proportion of infected individuals among tested individuals (positivity rate) were estimated for a more transmissible variant. RESULTS: Introduction of a variant with 56% higher transmissibility increased - all other variables kept constant - RE from 0.4 to 0.65 (+ 63%) and nosocomial transmissions by 303%, mainly because of more transmissions caused by pre-symptomatic patients and HCWs. Compared to baseline, PPE use in all hospital wards (assuming 90% effectiveness) reduced RE by 85% and absenteeism by 57%. Screening HCWs every 3 days with perfect test sensitivity reduced RE by 67%, yielding a maximum test positivity rate of 5%. Screening HCWs every 3 or 7 days assuming time-varying test sensitivities reduced RE by 9% and 3%, respectively. Contact tracing reduced RE by at least 32% and achieved higher test positivity rates than screening interventions. HCW cohorting reduced RE by 5%. Sensitivity analyses show that our findings do not change significantly for 70% PPE effectiveness. For low PPE effectiveness of 50%, PPE use in all wards is less effective than screening every 3 days with perfect sensitivity but still more effective than all other interventions. CONCLUSIONS: In response to the emergence of more transmissible SARS-CoV-2 variants, PPE use in all hospital wards might still be most effective in preventing nosocomial transmission. Regular screening and contact tracing of HCWs are also effective interventions but critically depend on the sensitivity of the diagnostic test used.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(38): 1344-1348, 2021 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468851

ABSTRACT

The Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine (BNT162b2) is a lipid nanoparticle-formulated, nucleoside mRNA vaccine encoding the prefusion spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Vaccination with the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine consists of 2 intramuscular doses (30 µg, 0.3 mL each) administered 3 weeks apart. In December 2020, the vaccine was granted Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as well as an interim recommendation for use among persons aged ≥16 years by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) (1). In May 2021, the EUA and interim ACIP recommendations for Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine were extended to adolescents aged 12-15 years (2). During December 14, 2020-September 1, 2021, approximately 211 million doses of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine were administered in the United States.* On August 23, 2021, FDA approved a Biologics License Application for use of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine, Comirnaty (Pfizer, Inc.), in persons aged ≥16 years (3). The ACIP COVID-19 Vaccines Work Group's conclusions regarding the evidence for the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine were presented to ACIP at a public meeting on August 30, 2021. To guide its deliberations regarding the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine, ACIP used the Evidence to Recommendation (EtR) Framework,† and incorporated a Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach.§ In addition to initial clinical trial data, ACIP considered new information gathered in the 8 months since issuance of the interim recommendation for Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine, including additional follow-up time in the clinical trial, real-world vaccine effectiveness studies, and postauthorization vaccine safety monitoring. The additional information increased certainty that benefits from prevention of asymptomatic infection, COVID-19, and associated hospitalization and death outweighs vaccine-associated risks. On August 30, 2021, ACIP issued a recommendation¶ for use of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine in persons aged ≥16 years for the prevention of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunization/standards , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Adolescent , Adult , Advisory Committees , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Drug Approval , Female , Humans , Male , United States/epidemiology , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Young Adult
4.
Elife ; 102021 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468709

ABSTRACT

Age is the major risk factor for mortality after SARS-CoV-2 infection and older people have received priority consideration for COVID-19 vaccination. However, vaccine responses are often suboptimal in this age group and few people over the age of 80 years were included in vaccine registration trials. We determined the serological and cellular response to spike protein in 100 people aged 80-96 years at 2 weeks after the second vaccination with the Pfizer BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine. Antibody responses were seen in every donor with high titers in 98%. Spike-specific cellular immune responses were detectable in only 63% and correlated with humoral response. Previous SARS-CoV-2 infection substantially increased antibody responses after one vaccine and antibody and cellular responses remained 28-fold and 3-fold higher, respectively, after dual vaccination. Post-vaccine sera mediated strong neutralization of live Victoria infection and although neutralization titers were reduced 14-fold against the P.1 variant first discovered in Brazil they remained largely effective. These data demonstrate that the mRNA vaccine platform delivers strong humoral immunity in people up to 96 years of age and retains broad efficacy against the P.1 variant of concern.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , RNA, Messenger/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Age Factors , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Male , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination/methods
5.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(2): 167-170, 2021 Feb 06.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468519

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic shows the defects of current public health law system and the necessity of the amendment to Law on Prevention and Treatment of Infectious Diseases. The institutional design of the prevention and control of emerging communicable disease shall be modified and Principle of Preventive Legislation shall be determined. Following the multicultural coordination in the pandemic prevention and control, the responsibilities of the central and local government shall be clarified and the functions of the experts and the public need to work fully and effectively. Current pandemic information release system shall be reformed to solve the conflict of laws and the information direct system shall be optimized. Principle of proportionality shall be obeyed to protect the appropriateness, necessity and balance of the pandemic prevention and control measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(10): e29025, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468289

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Measuring public response during COVID-19 is an important way of ensuring the suitability and effectiveness of epidemic response efforts. An analysis of social media provides an approximation of public sentiment during an emergency like the current pandemic. The measures introduced across the globe to help curtail the spread of the coronavirus have led to the development of a situation labeled as a "perfect storm," triggering a wave of domestic violence. As people use social media to communicate their experiences, analyzing public discourse and sentiment on social platforms offers a way to understand concerns and issues related to domestic violence during the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: This study was based on an analysis of public discourse and sentiment related to domestic violence during the stay-at-home periods of the COVID-19 pandemic in Australia in 2020. It aimed to understand the more personal self-reported experiences, emotions, and reactions toward domestic violence that were not always classified or collected by official public bodies during the pandemic. METHODS: We searched social media and news posts in Australia using key terms related to domestic violence and COVID-19 during 2020 via digital analytics tools to determine sentiments related to domestic violence during this period. RESULTS: The study showed that the use of sentiment and discourse analysis to assess social media data is useful in measuring the public expression of feelings and sharing of resources in relation to the otherwise personal experience of domestic violence. There were a total of 63,800 posts across social media and news media. Within these posts, our analysis found that domestic violence was mentioned an average of 179 times a day. There were 30,100 tweets, 31,700 news reports, 1500 blog posts, 548 forum posts, and 7 comments (posted on news and blog websites). Negative or neutral sentiment centered on the sharp rise in domestic violence during different lockdown periods of the 2020 pandemic, and neutral and positive sentiments centered on praise for efforts that raised awareness of domestic violence as well as the positive actions of domestic violence charities and support groups in their campaigns. There were calls for a positive and proactive handling (rather than a mishandling) of the pandemic, and results indicated a high level of public discontent related to the rising rates of domestic violence and the lack of services during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: This study provided a timely understanding of public sentiment related to domestic violence during the COVID-19 lockdown periods in Australia using social media analysis. Social media represents an important avenue for the dissemination of information; posts can be widely dispersed and easily accessed by a range of different communities who are often difficult to reach. An improved understanding of these issues is important for future policy direction. Heightened awareness of this could help agencies tailor and target messaging to maximize impact.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Domestic Violence , Social Media , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
8.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 1089, 2021 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468062

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Frontline healthcare staff working in pandemics have been reported to experience mental health issues during the early and post-peak stages. To alleviate these problems, healthcare organisations have been providing support for their staff, including organisational, cognitive behavioural and physical and mental relaxation interventions. This paper reports the findings of a study commissioned by a Scottish NHS health board area during the initial outbreak of COVID-19. The study aimed to understand the experience of NHS staff relating to the provision of wellbeing interventions between March and August 2020. METHODS: Data were gathered from free-text comments of eight surveys completed by a wide range of staff across sites within one NHS health board in Scotland. We conducted a framework analysis of the data. RESULTS: Our findings show that despite the provision of relaxational and cognitive behavioural interventions to support staff wellbeing during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic, there were barriers to access, including heavy workload, understaffing, inconvenient locations and the stigma of being judged. Organisational factors were the most frequently reported support need amongst frontline staff across sites. CONCLUSIONS: While relaxational and cognitive behavioural interventions were well received by staff, barriers to accessing them still existed. Staff support in the context of organisational factors, such as engagement with managers was deemed as the most important for staff wellbeing. Managers play a key role in everyday organisational processes and therefore are in the right position to meet increasing frontline staff demands due to the pandemic and removing barriers to accessing wellbeing support. Healthcare managers should be aware of organisational factors that might increase job demands and protect organisational resources that can promote wellbeing for frontline staff.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Scotland/epidemiology , State Medicine
9.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(9)2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467699

ABSTRACT

Although programmes and policies targeting violence against women and girls (VAWG) have increased in the past decade, there is a paucity of evidence on the effectiveness of these interventions. To expand this evidence base, researchers increasingly employ remote data collection (RDC)-including online surveys, mobile applications and telephone interviews-in their evaluations. Although RDC allows for evaluations without in-person interactions-which are restricted during crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic- information about these methods is necessary to understand their potential usefulness and limitations. This scoping review examines remote evaluations of VAWG interventions to describe the landscape of RDC methods, reflect on safety and ethical considerations, and offer best practices for RDC in VAWG research. Fourteen studies met eligibility criteria, with seven, five, and two studies employing telephone interviews, online surveys, and mobile applications, respectively. Studies commonly stated that participants were asked to use a safe email or device, but the method for verifying such safety was rarely specified. Best practices around safety included creating a 'quick escape' button for online data collection to use when another individual was present, explaining to participants how to erase browsing history and application purchases, and asking participants to specify a safe time for researchers to call. Only eight studies established referral pathways for respondents as per best practice. None of the eligible studies took place in low/middle-income countries (LMICs) or humanitarian settings, likely reflecting the additional challenges to using RDC methods in lower resource settings. Findings were used to create a best practice checklist for programme evaluators and Institutional Review Boards using RDC for VAWG interventions. The authors found that opportunities exist for researchers to safely and effectively use RDC methodologies to gather VAWG data, but that further study is needed to gauge the feasibility of these methods in LMICs and humanitarian settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Female , Humans , Poverty , SARS-CoV-2 , Violence/prevention & control
10.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 80(10): 1255-1265, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467676

ABSTRACT

Patients with rheumatic diseases are at increased risk of infectious complications; vaccinations are a critical component of their care. Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs may reduce the immunogenicity of common vaccines. We will review here available data regarding the effect of these medications on influenza, pneumococcal, herpes zoster, SARS-CoV-2, hepatitis B, human papilloma virus and yellow fever vaccines. Rituximab has the most substantial impact on vaccine immunogenicity, which is most profound when vaccinations are given at shorter intervals after rituximab dosing. Methotrexate has less substantial effect but appears to adversely impact most vaccine immunogenicity. Abatacept likely decrease vaccine immunogenicity, although these studies are limited by the lack of adequate control groups. Janus kinase and tumour necrosis factor inhibitors decrease absolute antibody titres for many vaccines, but do not seem to significantly impact the proportions of patients achieving seroprotection. Other biologics (interleukin-6R (IL-6R), IL-12/IL-23 and IL-17 inhibitors) have little observed impact on vaccine immunogenicity. Data regarding the effect of these medications on the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine immunogenicity are just now emerging, and early glimpses appear similar to our experience with other vaccines. In this review, we summarise the most recent data regarding vaccine response and efficacy in this setting, particularly in light of current vaccination recommendations for immunocompromised patients.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunocompromised Host , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Humans , Rheumatic Diseases/complications , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Science ; 373(6559): 1067-1068, 2021 09 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467661
12.
Int J Prison Health ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)2021 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467474

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In this paper, the authors present insights and findings drawn from the authors' experiences of containing a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak in a large prison in northern Italy.Within penitentiaries, close-quarter living is ripe terrain for outbreaks of disease among detainees and staff. If left unchecked, these outbreaks can easily spill over the prison walls to threaten the general public. Moreover, these risks are heightened by preexisting environmental conditions, especially overcrowding. It is thus paramount to establish effective protocols for prevention, early detection and outbreak management. The purpose of this article is to document a strategy that been at least partially successful in reducing the damage that could potentially be caused by a sustained SARS-CoV-2 outbreak within a correctional facility. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: The authors conducted a retrospective analysis on patients' and health-care workers' medical records to obtain demographic and clinical information. Descriptive data analysis was then carried out. FINDINGS: In total, the authors tested 453 people with oropharyngeal swabs from March 15, 2020, to June 30, 2020. Of these people, 58 were positive and 395 were negative, with a prevalence of 12.8%.Of the 453 patients, 60 were health workers: 24 tested positive for SARS-CoV2 ribonucleic acid (RNA); 18 developed symptoms; and three needed hospitalization.Among patients in detention, 34 resulted positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Two were hospitalized and later died. Both had severe preexisting conditions; they were aged 76 and 59 years old, respectively. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: In this study, the authors describe the design and effective implementation of prevention and containment measures against SARS-CoV-2 within the walls of a correctional facility. The authors describe how they rapidly created clean confinement sections to isolate cases in an environment designed for security at the expense of virus containment and how educational efforts have played a vital role in their strategy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Infection Control/organization & administration , Prisons/organization & administration , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prisoners/statistics & numerical data , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors
14.
Lancet Haematol ; 8(10): e744-e755, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466996

ABSTRACT

Sickle cell disease can be life-threatening or chronically debilitating for both children and adults. Worldwide, more than 300 000 children are born with sickle cell disease every year, over 75% of whom in sub-Saharan Africa. Increased awareness and early interventions, such as neonate screening and comprehensive care, have led to considerable reductions in mortality in children younger than 5 years in high-income countries. However, sickle cell disease prevention and care have largely been neglected in Africa. Without intervention, 50-90% of affected children in many sub-Saharan African countries die before their fifth birthday. Fortunately, increasing initiatives in sub-Saharan Africa are piloting interventions such as neonate screening and comprehensive care, and as mortality declines, quality of life and increased life expectancy become major targets for interventions. Hydroxyurea (hydroxycarbamide) and haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation have already been shown to be effective therapies in high-income countries, but are either not widely accessible or too expensive for most African populations. These challenges are being alleviated by numerous networks evolving through international collaborations that are positively changing the outlook of sickle cell disease management in sub-Saharan Africa. In this Series paper, we describe the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinicobiological profile, and psychosocial effects of sickle cell disease in sub-Saharan Africa. We highlight transferable strategies already used for the successful management of the condition and key strategies and recommendations for affordable and comprehensive care on the continent. TRANSLATION: For the French translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Sickle Cell/prevention & control , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , Anemia, Sickle Cell/epidemiology , Anemia, Sickle Cell/physiopathology , Anemia, Sickle Cell/psychology , Humans , Quality of Life
15.
Rev Colomb Psiquiatr (Engl Ed) ; 50(3): 189-198, 2021.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466864

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study is to compare the emotional effects of COVID-19 among three different groups, namely: health personnel, medical students, and a sample of the general population. METHODS: 375 participants were recruited for this study, of which 125 were medical students (preclinical studies, 59; clinical studies, 66), 125 were health personnel (COVID-19 frontline personnel, 59; personnel not related with COVID-19, 66), and 125 belonged to the general population. The PHQ-9, GAD-7, and CPDI scales were used to assess the emotional impact. A multinomial logistic regression was performed to measure differences between groups, considering potential confounding factors. RESULTS: Regarding CPDI values, all other groups showed reduced values compared to COVID-19 frontline personnel. However, the general population, preclinical and clinical medical students showed increased PHQ-9 values compared to COVID-19 frontline personnel. Finally, confounding factors, gender and age correlated negatively with higher CPDI and PHQ-9 scores. CONCLUSIONS: Being frontline personnel is associated with increased COVID-19-related stress. Depression is associated, however, with other groups not directly involved with the treatment of COVID-19 patients. Female gender and younger age correlated with COVID-19-related depression and stress.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/etiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Students, Medical/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Peru/epidemiology , Psychological Tests , Risk Factors , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Young Adult
19.
Hong Kong Med J ; 26(3): 176-183, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468777

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This study evaluated the preparedness of family doctors during the early phase of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in Hong Kong. METHODS: All members of the Hong Kong College of Family Physicians were invited to participate in a cross-sectional online survey using a 20-item questionnaire to collect information on practice preparedness for the COVID-19 outbreak through an email followed by a reminder SMS message between 31 January 2020 and 3 February 2020. RESULTS: Of 1589 family doctors invited, 491 (31%) participated in the survey, including 242 (49%) from private sector. In all, 98% surveyed doctors continued to provide clinical services during the survey period, but reduced clinic service demands were observed in 45% private practices and 24% public clinics. Almost all wore masks during consultation and washed hands between or before patient contact. Significantly more private than public doctors (80% vs 26%, P<0.001) experienced difficulties in stocking personal protective equipment (PPE); more public doctors used guidelines to manage suspected patients. The main concern of the respondents was PPE shortage. Respondents appealed for effective public health interventions including border control, quarantine measures, designated clinic setup, and public education. CONCLUSION: Family doctors from public and private sectors demonstrated preparedness to serve the community from the early phase of the COVID-19 outbreak with heightened infection control measures and use of guidelines. However, there is a need for support from local health authorities to secure PPE supply and institute public health interventions.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Family Practice/organization & administration , Health Care Surveys/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Physicians, Family/statistics & numerical data
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