Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 36.760
Filter
1.
Curr Opin Infect Dis ; 35(4): 288-294, 2022 08 01.
Article | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032208

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on solid organ transplantation and the most recent data pertinent to disease course and outcomes in this patient population. RECENT FINDINGS: The COVID-19 pandemic negatively impacted solid organ transplantation with decreased transplant rates in 2020 but improved in 2021, albeit not entirely to prepandemic levels. Mortality rates of COVID-19 in this patient population continued to be higher, although have improved with more available therapeutic options and vaccination. Immunosuppressed patients were found to require additional vaccine doses given blunted response and continue to be more vulnerable to the infection. Data on immunosuppression alteration when patients have COVID-19 are not available and is an area of ongoing research. Significant interaction with the metabolism of immunosuppression limits the use of some of the new antiviral therapies in patients with organ transplants. Finally, many logistical challenges continue to face the transplantation discipline, especially with pretransplant vaccine hesitancy, however acceptance of organs from donor who had COVID-19 recent infection or died from the infection is increasing. SUMMARY: Immunosuppressed solid organ transplant recipients continue to be vulnerable to COVID-19 infection with a blunted response to the available vaccines and will likely remain more susceptible to infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organ Transplantation , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
2.
Curr Opin Infect Dis ; 35(4): 346-352, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032207

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We describe recent changes in care for people with cystic fibrosis (PwCF) that could impact infection prevention and control (IP&C) practices. RECENT FINDINGS: Current IP&C guidelines primarily aim to prevent acquisition and transmission of pathogens in PwCF utilizing evidence-based recommendations for healthcare settings. Currently, highly effective modulator therapy (HEMT) is dramatically improving the clinical manifestations of cystic fibrosis and reducing pulmonary exacerbations and hospitalizations. Thus, it is feasible that long-term, sustained improvements in pulmonary manifestations of cystic fibrosis could favorably alter cystic fibrosis microbiology. The COVID-19 pandemic increased the use of virtual care, enabling PwCF to spend less time in healthcare settings and potentially reduce the risk of acquiring cystic fibrosis pathogens. The increasing use of whole genome sequencing (WGS) shows great promise in elucidating sources of cystic fibrosis pathogens, shared strains, and epidemic strains and ultimately could allow the cystic fibrosis community to monitor the safety of changed IP&C practices, if deemed appropriate. Finally, given the nonhealthcare environmental reservoirs for cystic fibrosis pathogens, practical guidance can inform PwCF and their families about potential risks and mitigation strategies. SUMMARY: New developments in the treatment of PwCF, a shift toward virtual care delivery of care, and use of WGS could change future IP&C practices.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cystic Fibrosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cystic Fibrosis/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics
3.
Curr Opin Infect Dis ; 35(4): 280-287, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032206

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Monoclonal antibody (mAb) administration represents an important strategy for preventing and treating respiratory viral infections in vulnerable populations, including immunocompromised individuals. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of mAbs in clinical use against respiratory viruses, highlight factors that modulate mAb clinical efficacy, and provide a perspective on future innovations in the field. This review focuses on publications from the last year. RECENT FINDINGS: Historically, clinical development of a single mAb has taken over a decade. The COVID-19 pandemic has demonstrated that this timeframe can be reduced to less than a year and has catalyzed rapid innovations in the field. Several novel mAbs against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have received emergency use authorization by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the early treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19. However, the majority of these mAbs have ultimately failed due to the emergence of variants, highlighting an important lesson about predicting and countering resistance. Novel mAbs are also in clinical use or in late-stage development for the prevention of infection by SARS-CoV-2 and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in vulnerable populations. Several factors can be modulated to improve the clinical efficacy of mAbs. For example, Fc modifications can extend mAb half-life and increase respiratory tract bioavailability, both of which are attractive properties for achieving protection against respiratory viruses. SUMMARY: The mAb landscape is rapidly evolving with numerous examples of success and failure. The armamentarium of clinically-available mAbs to protect vulnerable populations is expected to undergo continued growth.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Viruses , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Am J Clin Pathol ; 158(2): 167-172, 2022 Aug 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032012

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Despite the clear benefits of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination in mitigating the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, there are emerging reports of postvaccination myocarditis, the majority of which are diagnosed based on the clinical and radiologic findings without biopsy confirmation. We report a case of biopsy-confirmed lymphohistiocytic myocarditis after Moderna mRNA-1273 vaccination. METHODS: We describe a case of a previously healthy 45-year-old woman who had palpitations, exercise intolerance, and syncope 1 week after her first mRNA-1273 vaccine dose. Laboratory tests and cardiac imaging were compatible with myocarditis. Given her unusual clinical presentation, an endomyocardial biopsy was performed to exclude other potential etiologies. RESULTS: The endomyocardial biopsy specimen showed patchy endocardial and intramyocardial lymphohistiocytic infiltrates with scattered eosinophils and focal myocyte injury. CD3 and CD68 immunostains confirmed the lymphocytic and histiocytic nature of the infiltrate, respectively. A focal histiocytic collection suggestive of an ill-defined granuloma was present. The histologic and immunohistochemical findings of a lymphohistiocytic myocarditis were highly suggestive of a postvaccination hypersensitivity reaction. CONCLUSIONS: Myocarditis following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination is a rare adverse event. The findings of a lymphohistiocytic myocarditis with scattered eosinophils and a possible ill-defined granuloma are highly suggestive of a hypersensitivity reaction. The mechanism by which this inflammation occurs remains uncertain. Despite our findings, the benefits of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination far outweigh the risks.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , COVID-19 , Myocarditis , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Granuloma , Humans , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocarditis/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Cardiovasc Res ; 118(10): 2253-2266, 2022 Jul 27.
Article | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032022

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of major morbidity and CVD- and all-cause mortality in most of the world. It is now clear that regular physical activity (PA) and exercise training (ET) induces a wide range of direct and indirect physiologic adaptations and pleiotropic benefits for human general and CV health. Generally, higher levels of PA, ET, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are correlated with reduced risk of CVD, including myocardial infarction, CVD-related death, and all-cause mortality. Although exact details regarding the ideal doses of ET, including resistance and, especially, aerobic ET, as well as the potential adverse effects of extreme levels of ET, continue to be investigated, there is no question that most of the world's population have insufficient levels of PA/ET, and many also have lower than ideal levels of CRF. Therefore, assessment and promotion of PA, ET, and efforts to improve levels of CRF should be integrated into all health professionals' practices worldwide. In this state-of-the-art review, we discuss the exercise effects on many areas related to CVD, from basic aspects to clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Cardiorespiratory Fitness , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cardiorespiratory Fitness/physiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Exercise/physiology , Humans , Risk Factors
6.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 967493, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029957

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has posed a constant threat to human beings and the world economy for more than two years. Vaccination is the first choice to control and prevent the pandemic. However, an effective SARS-CoV-2 vaccine against the virus infection is still needed. This study designed and prepared four kinds of virus-like particles (VLPs) using an insect expression system. Two constructs encoded wild-type SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) fused with or without H5N1 matrix 1 (M1) (S and SM). The other two constructs contained a codon-optimized spike gene and/or M1 gene (mS and mSM) based on protein expression, stability, and ADE avoidance. The results showed that the VLP-based vaccine could induce high SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies in mice, including specific IgG, IgG1, and IgG2a. Moreover, the mSM group has the most robust ability to stimulate humoral immunity and cellular immunity than the other VLPs, suggesting the mSM is the best immunogen. Further studies showed that the mSM combined with Al/CpG adjuvant could stimulate animals to produce sustained high-level antibodies and establish an effective protective barrier to protect mice from challenges with mouse-adapted strain. The vaccine based on mSM and Al/CpG adjuvant is a promising candidate vaccine to prevent the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype , Viral Vaccines , Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
7.
J Occup Environ Med ; 64(8): 635-641, 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029126

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to identify factors associated with breakthrough infection among a cohort of Midwestern healthcare personnel (HCP). METHODS: SARS-CoV-2-positive test results between March 1, 2020, and July 31, 2021, were collected from electronic medical records of HCP to identify breakthrough infections. RESULTS: Healthcare personnel who were younger than 35 years, received the Pfizer vaccine, and worked in COVID clinical units had greater adjusted odds of breakthrough infection. COVID infection before full vaccination was associated with reduced odds of breakthrough infection. CONCLUSIONS: Our study concluded that the most vulnerable HCP are younger, working in COVID-19 clinical units, and received Pfizer-BioNTech primary series vaccines. Healthcare personnel who had COVID before vaccination were at reduced risk of breakthrough infection, indicating that supplemental immunity could better protect at-risk HCP groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Delivery of Health Care , Health Personnel , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Dimens Crit Care Nurs ; 41(5): 274-280, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029105

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Critical care nurses experience moral distress, the phenomenon of knowing the "right" thing to do but being unable to do so, at high rates; this contributes to attrition and has severe mental health impacts on nurses. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this integrative review was to determine if interventions to reduce moral distress have an effect on intensive care unit (ICU) nurses' moral distress levels. METHODS: Three databases were searched, PubMed, APA PsycNet, and CINAHL, using the keywords "moral distress" AND nurs* AND reduc* AND ("intensive care" OR "critical care" OR ICU). Only experimental studies involving adult ICU nurses were included for a total of 6 studies. RESULTS: Interventions fell into 3 categories: (1) educational interventions, (2) interventions to enhance the ICU environment, and (3) interventions to help nurses cope. Two studies detailing educational interventions demonstrated some reduction in moral distress. One study aimed to improve the ICU environment and showed some statistically significant reduction in moral distress. All 6 studies included some focus on coping, and 2 showed statistically significant reductions in moral distress. DISCUSSION: Only a few studies have been conducted examining this issue. These studies had severe limitations, such as small sample sizes, attrition, and inadequate control groups. There were also few statistically significant results. These interventions should be reexamined using larger sample sizes, and other interventions should also be trialed. COVID-19 may have had a significant impact on this issue, and interventions may need to be refocused in the wake of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Care Nursing , Nurses , Adult , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Morals , Stress, Psychological/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11314, 2022 Jul 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2028713

ABSTRACT

In the article, the authors present a multi-agent model that simulates the development of the COVID-19 pandemic at the regional level. The developed what-if system is a multi-agent generalization of the SEIR epidemiological model, which enables predicting the pandemic's course in various regions of Poland, taking into account Poland's spatial and demographic diversity, the residents' level of mobility, and, primarily, the level of restrictions imposed and the associated compliance. The developed simulation system considers detailed topographic data and the residents' professional and private lifestyles specific to the community. A numerical agent represents each resident in the system, thus providing a highly detailed model of social interactions and the pandemic's development. The developed model, made publicly available as free software, was tested in three representative regions of Poland. As the obtained results indicate, implementing social distancing and limiting mobility is crucial for impeding a pandemic before the development of an effective vaccine. It is also essential to consider a given community's social, demographic, and topographic specificity and apply measures appropriate for a given region.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , COVID-19/epidemiology , Computer Simulation , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Poland/epidemiology
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11298, 2022 Jul 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2028705

ABSTRACT

Reliable serological assays are needed to understand the real impact of COVID-19. In order to compare the efficiency of different COVID-19 vaccines used in the National Vaccination Program in Tunisia, we have developed a quantitative in-house ELISA. The ELISA is based on the ectodomain of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Baculovirus recombinant protein. We used a panel of 145 COVID-19 RT-PCR positive serum samples and 116 pre-pandemic serum samples as a negative panel. The validation was carried out by comparison to four commercial techniques (Vidas SARS-CoV-2 IgG anti-RBD Biomérieux, Elecsys Anti-Nucleocapsid of SARS-CoV-2 Roche, cPass GenScript and the quantitative Elecsys Anti-RBD of SARS-CoV-2, Roche). For the evaluation of the National Vaccination campaign, we have included 115 recipients who received one of the approved vaccines. The qualitative performances of the developed ELISA gave 96% sensitivity, 97.5% specificity and 0.968 accuracy. For the evaluation of the different brand of vaccines in recipients not previously infected with SARS-CoV-2, it seems that mRNA vaccine of Pfizer/BioNTech has shown a higher efficacy compared to inactivated virus vaccines. COVID-19 convalescent individuals have generated poor antibody responses. Nevertheless, when they are vaccinated with any brand of the COVID-19 vaccines, many of them mounted an exponential increase of the induced immune responses, qualified as a "hybrid vigor immunity". Our developed in-house ELISA seems to be very efficient in evaluating the effectiveness of anti-COVID-19 vaccination. Platforms based on mRNA vaccine are better performing than those based on inactivated virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Inactivated , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
11.
Nat Microbiol ; 7(8): 1106-1107, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2028674
12.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 72(4): 795, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2026786
13.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 20: eAO6175, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2026529

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the first COVID-19 pandemic at Casa Ondina Lobo, a philanthropic nursing home in São Paulo city, and the containment measures against the pandemic that proved to be effective. METHODS: Several preventive measures were taken before and during the pandemic, with emphasis on universal testing by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for COVID-19. All residents and employees were tested twice in a D9 period. RESULTS: Among the 62 residents and 55 employees, in both testing, eight residents and nine employees tested positive for COVID-19. Of 22% of employees and 75% of residents evolved asymptomatic, emphasizing the importance of universal testing for the detection and isolation of these cases. A quarter of residents evolved without any symptoms, however, with COVID-19 signs, reinforcing the importance of monitoring vital signs. The second testing did not detect any new cases among residents, demonstrating the effectiveness of the containment measures, however, it found four new cases among employees. This emphasized their role in COVID-19 outbreaks in nursing homes. Only one patient died, a 12.5% lethality among those known to be infected and a 1.6% mortality in the total population of residents were seen. CONCLUSION: The adoption of appropriate containment measures enabled to contain an COVID-19 pandemic in studied nursing home. Universal reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction testing for COVID-19 has proved to be particularly important and effective.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Nursing Homes , Pandemics/prevention & control
14.
Rev Saude Publica ; 56: 50, 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2025533

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the epidemiological profile of cases and the pattern of spatial diffusion of the largest measles epidemic in Brazil that occurred in the post-elimination period in the state of São Paulo. METHOD: A cross-sectional study based on confirmed measles cases in 2019. Bivariate analysis was performed for socioeconomic, clinical, and epidemiological variables, according to prior vaccination and hospitalization, combined with an analysis of spatial diffusion of cases using the Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) method. RESULTS: Of the 15,598 confirmed cases, 2,039 were hospitalized and 17 progressed to death. The epidemic peak occurred in epidemiological week 33, after confirmation of the first case, in the epidemiological week 6. Most cases were male (52.1%), aged between 18 and 29 years (38.7%), identified as whites (70%). Young adults (39.7%) and children under five years (32.8%) were the most affected age groups. A higher proportion of previous vaccination was observed in whites as compared to Blacks, browns, yellows and indigenous people (p < 0.001), as well as in the most educated group compared to the other categories (p < 0.001). The risk of hospitalization was higher in children than in the older age group (RI = 2.19; 95%CI: 1.66-2.88), as well as in the unvaccinated than in the vaccinated (RI = 1.59; 95%CI: 1.45-1.75). The pattern of diffusion by contiguity combined with diffusion by relocation followed the urban hierarchy of the main cities' regions of influence. CONCLUSION: In addition to routine vaccination in children, the findings indicate the need for immunization campaigns for young adults. In addition, studies that seek to investigate the occurrence of clusters of vulnerable populations, prone to lower vaccination coverage, are essential to broaden the understanding of the dynamics of transmission and, thus, reorienting control strategies that ensure disease elimination.


Subject(s)
Measles , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Brazil/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immunization , Infant , Male , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control , Vaccination , Young Adult
15.
Pan Afr Med J ; 41: 293, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2025511

ABSTRACT

Introduction: coronavirus is a communicable disease that produces severe morbidity and mortality in the globe and more than three million people died due to COVID-19. Pregnant mothers are at higher risk of COVID-19 viral infection, with great morbidity and mortality. Thus, the purpose of this research is to assess the level of COVID-19 vaccine acceptability, determinants, and hesitancy among pregnant mothers attending antenatal care at Debre Markos town, public health institutions, Debre Markos, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods: a mixed study was conducted among 350 pregnant mothers attending antenatal care at Debre Markos town health institutions and the participants were selected by consecutive sampling techniques. The collected data were entered into EPI Info version 7 and then exported to SPSS version 25 for data cleaning and analysis. The level of COVID-19 vaccine acceptability was determined through descriptive statistics, whereas its determinants were identified by binary logistic regression analyses. Variables with p-value < 0.05 in multivariable were considered as significantly associated factors. The qualitative data were collected by an unstructured interviewer guide using in-depth interview data collection methods. Study participants were selected purposively until the required data was saturated. The data was analysed under selected themes based on the guide and summarized manually. Results: sixty-five (18.5%) of the respondents accept the COVID-19 vaccine [95% CI: 13, 23]. Maternal age [AOR: 3.281 (95% CI: 1.184, 9.092)], chronic medical illness [AOR: 0.170 (95% CI: 0.051, .562)], information about COVID-19 vaccine [AOR: 4.063 (95% CI: 1.462, 11.293)], pregnancy-induced medical conditions [AOR: 4.131 (95% CI: 1.055, 16.183) were identified as significant determinants of COVID-19 vaccine acceptability. From the quantitative wing. The qualitative finding implied that misconception, fear of medical complications, lack of trust in its effectiveness, and religious constraints were the common reasons for vaccine hesitancy. Conclusion: COVID-19 vaccine acceptability by pregnant mothers attending ANC at Debre Markos town public health institutions is very low. The health care providers and health extension workers shall create information about the COVID-19 vaccine on its importance and side effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prenatal Care , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia , Female , Humans , Mothers , Pregnancy , Public Health
16.
Pan Afr Med J ; 41: 211, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2025501

ABSTRACT

Introduction: coronavirus infectious disease-2019 (COVID-19) is currently a global health threat and an international public health emergency. There is a strong need to reinforce community knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) to control the spread of the virus. The study aimed to identify the determinants of KAP towards preventive measures of COVID-19 among adult residencies. Methods: a community-based cross-sectional study design was employed in the communities of Silte zone, Southern Ethiopia. A total of 853 participants were selected using multistage stratified sampling technique. We used structured interview administered questionnaire. The KAP level was presented in descriptive and the associated variables conducted in binary logistic regression model. Results: overall, 81.7% had good knowledge, 78.4% had a positive attitude, and 43.9% had good practices. Being a female (Adjusted Odd Ratio (AOR): 2.3; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.6-3.3), age between "31-40" (AOR: 1.99; 95% CI: 1-3.8) and able to read and write (AOR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.7-3.7) were significantly associated factors of good knowledge towards COVID-19. Being urban resident (AOR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.2-2.6) was significantly associated variable with positive attitude towards COVID-19. Being a government employee (AOR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.1-2.7), able to read and write (AOR: 4.5; 95% CI: 3-6.7) and having good knowledge regarding COVID-19 (AOR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.6-3.7) were significantly associated factors with good preventive practice towards COVID-19. Conclusion: alarmingly low preventive practice towards COVID-19 pandemic was indicated. Therefore, health education and promotion programs aimed at mobilizing and improving COVID-19-related practice are urgently needed, especially for those who are illiterate, having rural residency, or generally among underprivileged populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Internship and Residency , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
Pan Afr Med J ; 41: 54, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2025477

ABSTRACT

Introduction: the response to COVID-19 pandemic has posed new obstacles to the fragile health system, most especially in the area of vaccination across much of Africa. As the response to the pandemic intensifies through the application of non-pharmacologic interventions as well as enforcement of the lockdowns across African cities, there is a significant risk that more children will miss out on life-saving vaccines that can prevent childhood killer diseases. This study was therefore conducted to look at the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on routine immunization in Oyo State, Nigeria. Methods: we conducted a descriptive secondary analysis of immunization data between July 2019 and August 2020. These data were retrieved from the monitoring and evaluation unit of Oyo State Primary Health Care Board. The data were extracted from the original paper format and entered into Excel sheets. Line graphs were plotted to compare the trends of the coverage rates before and after the index case of the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: the average coverage rates for Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) before and after index case were 85.8% and 82.1% respectively, while it was 63.5% and 60.0% for HBV0. For the co-administered vaccines at 14 weeks, Penta 3, OPV 3, PCV 3 and IPV coverage rates dropped from 76.1%, 75.4%, 75.1% and 73.5% to 72.0%, 71.4%, 72.0% and 71.9% respectively. The average coverage rates for yellow fever and measles dropped sharply from 77.0% and 74.5% and 64.6% and 58.6% respectively. The average drop-out rates for the pre-and post-index case periods were 5.0% and 4.7% respectively. For the planned fixed and outreach sessions, none of the monthly sessions met the target of 100.0% in the post-index case period. Conclusion: decreased vaccination coverage for vaccine-preventable diseases could cause parallel outbreaks with COVID-19 and further exacerbate the strain on health systems attempting to end the acute phase of this pandemic. Therefore, as the dramatic second wave unfolds, the Government of Nigeria must take deliberate steps to strike a balance between a fresh lockdown and the imperative of uninterrupted social service. In this wise, it must remain committed to a timely vaccination program.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Nigeria/epidemiology , Pandemics , Vaccination
18.
Glob Heart ; 16(1): 66, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2025129

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has had a continuous and robust impact on world health. The resulting COVID-19 pandemic has had a devastating physical, mental and fiscal impact on the millions of people living with noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). In addition to older age, people living with CVD, stroke, obesity, diabetes, kidney disease, and hypertension are at a particularly greater risk for severe forms of COVID-19 and its consequences. Meta-analysis indicates that hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and thrombotic complications have been observed as both the most prevalent and most dangerous co-morbidities in COVID-19 patients. And despite the nearly incalculable physical, mental, emotional, and economic toll of this pandemic, forthcoming public health figures continue to place cardiovascular disease as the number one cause of death across the globe in the year 2020. The world simply cannot wait for the next pandemic to invest in NCDs. Social determinants of health cannot be addressed only through the healthcare system, but a more holistic multisectoral approach with at its basis the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is needed to truly address social and economic inequalities and build more resilient systems. Yet there is reason for hope: the 2019 UN Political Declaration on UHC provides a strong framework for building more resilient health systems, with explicit calls for investment in NCDs and references to fiscal policies that put such investment firmly within reach. By further cementing the importance of addressing circulatory health in a future Framework Convention on Emergency Preparedness, WHO Member States can take concrete steps towards a pandemic-free future. As the chief representatives of the global circulatory health community and patients, the Global Coalition for Circulatory Health calls for increased support for the healthcare workforce, global vaccine equity, embracing new models of care and digital health solutions, as well as fiscal policies on unhealthy commodities to support these investments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Aged , Global Health , Humans , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
19.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269687, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021796

ABSTRACT

The Covid19 pandemic has significantly impacted on our lives, triggering a strong reaction resulting in vaccines, more effective diagnoses and therapies, policies to contain the pandemic outbreak, to name but a few. A significant contribution to their success comes from the computer science and information technology communities, both in support to other disciplines and as the primary driver of solutions for, e.g., diagnostics, social distancing, and contact tracing. In this work, we surveyed the Italian computer science and engineering community initiatives against the Covid19 pandemic. The 128 responses thus collected document the response of such a community during the first pandemic wave in Italy (February-May 2020), through several initiatives carried out by both single researchers and research groups able to promptly react to Covid19, even remotely. The data obtained by the survey are here reported, discussed and further investigated by Natural Language Processing techniques, to generate semantic clusters based on embedding representations of the surveyed activity descriptions. The resulting clusters have been then used to extend an existing Covid19 taxonomy with the classification of related research activities in computer science and information technology areas, summarizing this work contribution through a reproducible survey-to-taxonomy methodology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cluster Analysis , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Physical Distancing
20.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0269487, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021789

ABSTRACT

Vaccine hesitancy and refusal remain a major concern for healthcare professionals and policymakers. Hence, it is necessary to ascertain the underlying factors that promote or hinder the uptake of vaccines. Authorities and policy makers are experimenting with vaccine promotion messages to communities using loss and gain-framed messages. However, the effectiveness of message framing in influencing the intention to be vaccinated is unclear. Based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), this study analysed the impact of individual attitude towards COVID-19 vaccination, direct and indirect social norms, perceived behavioural control and perceived threat towards South Indian millennials' intention to get vaccinated. The study also assessed the effect of framing vaccine communication messages with gain and loss framing. Data was collected from 228 Millennials from South India during the COVID-19 pandemic from September to October 2021 and analysed using PLS path modelling and Necessary Condition Analysis (NCA). The findings reveal that attitudes towards vaccination, perceived threat and indirect social norms positively impact millennials' intention to take up vaccines in both message frames. Further, independent sample t-test between the framing groups indicate that negative (loss framed message) leads to higher vaccination intention compared to positive (gain framed message). A loss-framed message is thus recommended for message framing to promote vaccine uptake among millennials. These findings provide useful information in understanding the impact of message framing on behavioural intentions, especially in the context of vaccine uptake intentions of Millennials in South India.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Promotion , Humans , Intention , Pandemics
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL