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3.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 295: 454-457, 2022 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924040

ABSTRACT

Mobile technology is widely used in healthcare. However, designers and developers in many cases have focused on developing solutions that are often tailored to highly literate people. While the advent of the pandemic has called for people to seek and use Covid-19 related information to adapt their behaviors, it is relatively difficult for low literate to get easily access to health information through digital technologies. In this study, we present a Mobile based Interactive Voice Response service designed particularly for low-literate people which provides validated Covid-19 related health information in local African languages. We conducted a field study, among high school students, through a usability study to assess users' perception. The service received an excellent numerical usability score of 78.75.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Literacy , Voice , Adolescent , Burkina Faso/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Literacy/standards , Humans , Language , Students , User-Centered Design
5.
6.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 46(3): 472-480, 2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909855

ABSTRACT

The Mississippi IDeA Networks of Biomedical Research Excellence (INBRE) supported by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (Grant P20GM103476) launched the new Mississippi INBRE Outreach Scholars (MIOS) summer research program in 2019. The program was designed to offer students community outreach and research experiences related to the study of behavioral and health disparities life sciences. The program was adapted in early 2020 to offer the program in a fully online format in the summer of 2020. This article details the program adaptations and discusses program evaluation data related to scholars' perceptions of program benefits and expectations and their confidence in research-related skills. The program evaluation was a mixed-method approach that included a qualitative postprogram survey and a pre-post quantitative survey. Scholars identified technical and communication skill building and resilience as areas of personal growth. Overall, the program met scholars' expectations for the program and significantly improved their confidence on 8 of the 19 (with confidence interval estimated differences from 0.3 to 2.56, where a difference of 1 is an improvement across 1 anchor on a Likert-type scale) various research-related tasks/skills after completion of the program. The analyses presented demonstrated that a combined qualitative and quantitative analysis approach is useful for examining the extent to which programs such as Mississippi INBRE are meeting goals of providing a rich research experience in health disparities for a diverse student body. Future longitudinal data may be examined to explore the long-term impact of MIOS on career preparation and choices and graduate education.NEW & NOTEWORTHY The Mississippi INBRE Outreach Scholars program is a summer research program for Mississippi college students that was successfully adapted to a fully online environment amidst the coronavirus-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research/education , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Biological Science Disciplines , Biomedical Research/standards , Community-Institutional Relations , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Mississippi , Program Evaluation/methods , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires , Virtual Reality
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11085, 2022 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908294

ABSTRACT

Severe COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (C-ARDS) requires mechanical ventilation. While this intervention is often performed in the prone position to improve oxygenation, the underlying mechanisms responsible for the improvement in respiratory function during invasive ventilation and awake prone positioning in C-ARDS have not yet been elucidated. In this prospective observational trial, we evaluated the respiratory function of C-ARDS patients while in the supine and prone positions during invasive (n = 13) or non-invasive ventilation (n = 15). The primary endpoint was the positional change in lung regional aeration, assessed with electrical impedance tomography. Secondary endpoints included parameters of ventilation and oxygenation, volumetric capnography, respiratory system mechanics and intrapulmonary shunt fraction. In comparison to the supine position, the prone position significantly increased ventilation distribution in dorsal lung zones for patients under invasive ventilation (53.3 ± 18.3% vs. 43.8 ± 12.3%, percentage of dorsal lung aeration ± standard deviation in prone and supine positions, respectively; p = 0.014); whereas, regional aeration in both positions did not change during non-invasive ventilation (36.4 ± 11.4% vs. 33.7 ± 10.1%; p = 0.43). Prone positioning significantly improved the oxygenation both during invasive and non-invasive ventilation. For invasively ventilated patients reduced intrapulmonary shunt fraction, ventilation dead space and respiratory resistance were observed in the prone position. Oxygenation is improved during non-invasive and invasive ventilation with prone positioning in patients with C-ARDS. Different mechanisms may underly this benefit during these two ventilation modalities, driven by improved distribution of lung regional aeration, intrapulmonary shunt fraction and ventilation-perfusion matching. However, the differences in the severity of C-ARDS may have biased the sensitivity of electrical impedance tomography when comparing positional changes between the protocol groups.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04359407) and Registered 24 April 2020, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04359407 .


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , COVID-19/complications , Capnography/methods , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Noninvasive Ventilation/standards , Prone Position , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial/standards , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Supine Position
8.
Sante Publique ; Vol. 33(6): 959-970, 2022 Mar 11.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903561

ABSTRACT

Since early 2020, the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, physicians have continued to report adverse events associated with care. Patients also continued to participate in the hospital satisfaction surveys. To date, no study in France has measured the impact of the pandemic on adverse events and patient satisfaction. We looked at the characteristics of these adverse events in relation to the pandemic and put patients' feelings into perspective. A qualitative and observational retrospective study of the REX and MCO48 databases was carried out. The quantitative study of the REX database was supplemented by a qualitative analysis of the declarations. The adverse events more often affects middle-aged men aged 60 years, while deaths occur in older patients with more complex pathologies and more urgent management. The nature of these events is different depending on the reporting period: Those reported in the first wave are more urgent, occur less frequently in the operating room than in the emergency room, and are considered less preventable than those reported in the second wave. The latter are more similar to the events that usually occur. The implementation of effective barriers, particularly within the teams, has made it possible to reduce the impact of the second wave on the occurrence of these events, the role of communication seems essential. The overall patient satisfaction score as well as those for medical and paramedical care has increased, which may reflect patient solidarity with caregivers. The attitude of active resilience on the part of all actors has been a major element in risk management during this crisis and it is essential to capitalize on these collaborative processes for the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Patient Satisfaction , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/therapy , Emergency Service, Hospital/standards , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Operating Rooms , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Management
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1716, 2022 02 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900583

ABSTRACT

The rapid evolution of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in an urgent need for effective clinical tools to reduce transmission and manage severe illness. Numerous teams are quickly developing artificial intelligence approaches to these problems, including using deep learning to predict COVID-19 diagnosis and prognosis from chest computed tomography (CT) imaging data. In this work, we assess the value of aggregated chest CT data for COVID-19 prognosis compared to clinical metadata alone. We develop a novel patient-level algorithm to aggregate the chest CT volume into a 2D representation that can be easily integrated with clinical metadata to distinguish COVID-19 pneumonia from chest CT volumes from healthy participants and participants with other viral pneumonia. Furthermore, we present a multitask model for joint segmentation of different classes of pulmonary lesions present in COVID-19 infected lungs that can outperform individual segmentation models for each task. We directly compare this multitask segmentation approach to combining feature-agnostic volumetric CT classification feature maps with clinical metadata for predicting mortality. We show that the combination of features derived from the chest CT volumes improve the AUC performance to 0.80 from the 0.52 obtained by using patients' clinical data alone. These approaches enable the automated extraction of clinically relevant features from chest CT volumes for risk stratification of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Deep Learning , SARS-CoV-2 , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Thorax/pathology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Algorithms , COVID-19/mortality , Databases, Genetic , Humans , Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted/methods , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods , Prognosis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/standards
10.
Nature ; 606(7914): 463, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900458
11.
Radiol Med ; 127(7): 754-762, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1899296

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: According to the Chinese Health Commission guidelines, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity is classified as mild, moderate, severe, or critical. The mortality rate of COVID-19 is higher among patients with severe and critical diseases; therefore, early identification of COVID-19 prevents disease progression and improves patient survival. Computed tomography (CT) radiomics, as a machine learning method, provides an objective and mathematical evaluation of COVID-19 pneumonia. As CT-based radiomics research has recently focused on COVID-19 diagnosis and severity analysis, this meta-analysis aimed to investigate the predictive power of a CT-based radiomics model in determining COVID-19 severity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study followed the diagnostic version of PRISMA guidelines. PubMed, Embase databases and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched to identify relevant articles in the meta-analysis from inception until July 16, 2021. The sensitivity and specificity were analyzed using forest plots. The overall predictive power was calculated using the summary receiver operating characteristic curve. The bias was evaluated using a funnel plot. The quality of the included literature was assessed using the radiomics quality score and quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies tool. RESULTS: The radiomics quality scores ranged from 7 to 16 (achievable score: 2212 8 to 36). The pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.800 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.662-0.891) and 0.874 (95% CI 0.773-0.934), respectively. The pooled area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.908. The quality assessment tool showed favorable results. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis demonstrated that CT-based radiomics models might be helpful for predicting the severity of COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing/standards , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Humans , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
14.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0263688, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1896443

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 surge in Taiwan, the Far East Memorial Hospital established a system including a centralized quarantine unit and triage admission protocol to facilitate acute care surgical inpatient services, prevent nosocomial COVID-19 infection and maintain the efficiency and quality of health care service during the pandemics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included patients undergoing acute care surgery. The triage admission protocol was based on rapid antigen tests, Liat® PCR and RT-PCT tests. Type of surgical procedure, patient characteristics, and efficacy indices of the centralized quarantine unit and emergency department (ED) were collected and analyzed before (Phase I: May 11 to July 2, 2021) and after (Phase II: July 3 to July 31, 2021) the system started. RESULTS: A total of 287 patients (105 in Phase I and 182 in Phase II) were enrolled. Nosocomial COVID-19 infection occur in 27 patients in phase I but zero in phase II. More patients received traumatological, orthopedic, and neurologic surgeries in phase II than in phase I. The patients' surgical risk classification, median total hospital stay, intensive care unit (ICU) stay, intraoperative blood loss, operation time, and the number of patients requiring postoperative ICU care were similar in both groups. The duration of ED stay and waiting time for acute care surgery were longer in Phase II (397 vs. 532 minutes, p < 0.0001). The duration of ED stay was positively correlated with the number of surgical patients visiting the ED (median = 66 patients, Spearman's ρ = 0.207) and the occupancy ratio in the centralized quarantine unit on that day (median = 90.63%, Spearman's ρ = 0.191). CONCLUSIONS: The triage admission protocol provided resilient quarantine needs and sustainable acute care surgical services during the COVID-19 pandemic. The efficiency was related to the number of medical staff dedicated to the centralized quarantine unit and number of surgical patients visited in ED.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Care/methods , Triage/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Admission/standards , Quarantine , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Taiwan/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers , Time-to-Treatment , Young Adult
15.
Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J ; 18(3): 78-86, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1893410

ABSTRACT

During the first 2 years of the coronavirus-19 pandemic, many changes and innovations occurred to overcome the challenges associated with the pandemic and improve cardiovascular training. This review highlights the literature on the pandemic response regarding cardiovascular fellowship education and identifies areas of need to ensure future opportunities for fellows to achieve competency and career advancement. Specifically, we describe the recent changes to the four cornerstones of cardiovascular training: core content education, procedural training, career development, and the well-being of trainees.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Education, Medical/standards , Education, Medical/trends , Students, Medical/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Fellowships and Scholarships , Humans , Pandemics
16.
Am Surg ; 88(7): 1590-1600, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892045

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Accurate citation practices are key to furthering knowledge in an efficient and valid manner. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of citation inaccuracies in original research from the top-ranked surgical journals and to evaluate the impact level of evidence has on citation inaccuracy. METHODS: A retrospective study evaluating the citation accuracy of the top 10 ranked surgical journals using the SJCR indicators. For each year between 2015 and 2020, the top 10 cited studies were selected, totaling 60 studies from each journal. From each individual study, 10 citations were randomly selected and evaluated for accuracy. Categories of inaccuracy included fact not found, study not found, contradictory conclusion, citation of a citation, and inaccurate population. RESULTS: A total of 5973 citations were evaluated for accuracy. Of all the citations analyzed, 15.2% of them had an inaccuracy. There was no statistically significant difference in citations inaccuracy rates among the years studied (P = .38) or study level of evidence (P = .21). Annals of Surgery, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Annals of Surgical Oncology had significantly more citation inaccuracies than other journals evaluated (P < .05). JAMA Surgery, The Journal of Endovascular Therapy and The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery had significantly fewer citation inaccuracies. CONCLUSIONS: Although 84.8% of citations from 2015-2020 were determined to be accurate, citation inaccuracies continue to be prevalent throughout highly-ranked surgical literature. There were no significant differences identified in citation inaccuracy rates between the years evaluated or based on study level of evidence.


Subject(s)
General Surgery , Periodicals as Topic , Humans , Peer Review , Periodicals as Topic/standards , Research Design , Retrospective Studies
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