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Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(3): 458-466, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242956


OBJECTIVES: To provide an overview of the spectrum, characteristics and outcomes of neurologic manifestations associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. METHODS: We conducted a single-centre retrospective study during the French coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic in March-April 2020. All COVID-19 patients with de novo neurologic manifestations were eligible. RESULTS: We included 222 COVID-19 patients with neurologic manifestations from 46 centres in France. Median (interquartile range, IQR) age was 65 (53-72) years and 136 patients (61.3%) were male. COVID-19 was severe or critical in 102 patients (45.2%). The most common neurologic diseases were COVID-19-associated encephalopathy (67/222, 30.2%), acute ischaemic cerebrovascular syndrome (57/222, 25.7%), encephalitis (21/222, 9.5%) and Guillain-Barré syndrome (15/222, 6.8%). Neurologic manifestations appeared after the first COVID-19 symptoms with a median (IQR) delay of 6 (3-8) days in COVID-19-associated encephalopathy, 7 (5-10) days in encephalitis, 12 (7-18) days in acute ischaemic cerebrovascular syndrome and 18 (15-28) days in Guillain-Barré syndrome. Brain imaging was performed in 192 patients (86.5%), including 157 magnetic resonance imaging (70.7%). Among patients with acute ischaemic cerebrovascular syndrome, 13 (22.8%) of 57 had multiterritory ischaemic strokes, with large vessel thrombosis in 16 (28.1%) of 57. Brain magnetic resonance imaging of encephalitis patients showed heterogeneous acute nonvascular lesions in 14 (66.7%) of 21. Cerebrospinal fluid of 97 patients (43.7%) was analysed, with pleocytosis found in 18 patients (18.6%) and a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR result in two patients with encephalitis. The median (IQR) follow-up was 24 (17-34) days with a high short-term mortality rate (28/222, 12.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Clinical spectrum and outcomes of neurologic manifestations associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection were broad and heterogeneous, suggesting different underlying pathogenic processes.

COVID-19/complications , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Registries/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/pathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
Br J Surg ; 108(12): 1448-1464, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239571


BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine the impact of pulmonary complications on death after surgery both before and during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. METHODS: This was a patient-level, comparative analysis of two, international prospective cohort studies: one before the pandemic (January-October 2019) and the second during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic (local emergence of COVID-19 up to 19 April 2020). Both included patients undergoing elective resection of an intra-abdominal cancer with curative intent across five surgical oncology disciplines. Patient selection and rates of 30-day postoperative pulmonary complications were compared. The primary outcome was 30-day postoperative mortality. Mediation analysis using a natural-effects model was used to estimate the proportion of deaths during the pandemic attributable to SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: This study included 7402 patients from 50 countries; 3031 (40.9 per cent) underwent surgery before and 4371 (59.1 per cent) during the pandemic. Overall, 4.3 per cent (187 of 4371) developed postoperative SARS-CoV-2 in the pandemic cohort. The pulmonary complication rate was similar (7.1 per cent (216 of 3031) versus 6.3 per cent (274 of 4371); P = 0.158) but the mortality rate was significantly higher (0.7 per cent (20 of 3031) versus 2.0 per cent (87 of 4371); P < 0.001) among patients who had surgery during the pandemic. The adjusted odds of death were higher during than before the pandemic (odds ratio (OR) 2.72, 95 per cent c.i. 1.58 to 4.67; P < 0.001). In mediation analysis, 54.8 per cent of excess postoperative deaths during the pandemic were estimated to be attributable to SARS-CoV-2 (OR 1.73, 1.40 to 2.13; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Although providers may have selected patients with a lower risk profile for surgery during the pandemic, this did not mitigate the likelihood of death through SARS-CoV-2 infection. Care providers must act urgently to protect surgical patients from SARS-CoV-2 infection.

This study compared death rates in patients who developed pulmonary complications of surgery before and during the pandemic in two large, international studies. Patients who underwent surgery during the pandemic tended to be younger and fitter. Overall, 4.3 per cent were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection after surgery in the pandemic cohort. Deaths within 30 days after surgery tripled during the first wave of the pandemic (from 0.7 to 2.0 per cent), whereas the rate of pulmonary complications remained the similar (7.1 to 6.3 per cent). Over half of these excess deaths (54.8 per cent) were estimated to be related to SARS-CoV-2 infection.

COVID-19/mortality , Elective Surgical Procedures , Postoperative Complications/mortality , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Abdominal Neoplasms/surgery , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics
Cardiol Rev ; 29(6): 285-288, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238469


As the global coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2 continues to cause higher mortality and hospitalization rates among older adults, strategies such as frailty screening have been suggested for resource allocation and clinical management. Frailty is a physiologic condition characterized by a decreased reserve to stressors and is associated with disability, hospitalization, and death. Measuring frailty can be a useful tool to determine the risk and prognosis of COVID-19 patients in the acute setting, and to provide higher quality of care for vulnerable individuals in the outpatient setting. A literature review was conducted to examine current research regarding frailty and COVID-19. Frailty can inform holistic care of COVID-19 patients, and further investigation is needed to elucidate how measuring frailty should guide treatment and prevention of COVID-19.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Frailty/epidemiology , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Mortality , Activities of Daily Living , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Frailty/physiopathology , Hospitalization , Humans , Mass Screening , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 482-490, abr. 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-20239353


En estudios preliminares objetivamos alta prevalencia de uso de sustancias psicoactivas (SP) entre alumnos de Anatomía, con mayor impacto entre los recursantes o aquellos con actividades laborales. La causa del uso es multifactorial, pero se destacan factores de riesgo y precipitantes como la carga horaria de la currícula, exigencias de estudio, el distrés por el afrontamiento cadavérico negativo, el nuevo contexto educativo y la cantidad de horas de sueño. El objetivo fue comparar la prevalencia de uso de SP entre las cohortes de 2011-2019, con focalización en los factores determinantes conductuales. Estudio observacional, transversal y comparativo mediante encuesta estandarizada y anónima en 945 alumnos (año 2011= 122; año 2013= 158; año 2015=204; año 2017= 228; año 2019= 233). Se aplicaron parámetros estadísticos, se definió la significación como p -0.84; AA: r> -0.71). En el caso de ansiolíticos benzodiacepínicos, se asoció con falta de sueño y distrés por el afrontamiento negativo al estudio con cadáveres. En las cohortes comparadas por el lapso de 9 años hallamos alta prevalencia de uso de sustancias psicoactivas con tendencia al incremento. Las variables actividad laboral y recursante fueron determinantes para el uso de sustancias, y se asociaron cuestiones relativas a la adaptabilidad universitaria y afrontamiento de estudio negativo con el cadáver; todos con incidencia pedagógica en el proceso de enseñanza y aprendizaje.

SUMMARY: In preliminary studies, we observed a high prevalence of the use of psychoactive substances (PS) among Anatomy students, with a greater impact among recurrent students or those with work activities. The cause of use is multifactorial, but risk and precipitating factors stand out, such as the workload of the curriculum, study demands, distress due to negative cadaveric coping, the new educational context and the number of hours of sleep. The objective was to compare the prevalence of SP use between the 2011-2019 cohorts, with a focus on behavioral determinants. Observational, cross-sectional and comparative study using a standardized and anonymous survey in 945 students (year 2011= 122; year 2013= 158; year 2015=204; year 2017= 228; year 2019= 233). Statistical parameters were applied, significance was defined as p -0.84; AA: r> -0.71). In the case of benzodiazepine anxiolytics, it was associated with lack of sleep and distress due to negative coping with the study with cadavers. In the cohorts compared for a period of 9 years, we found a high prevalence of psychoactive substance use with an increasing trend. The variables work activity and recurrence were determinants for the use of substances, and issues related to university adaptability and negative study coping with the corpse were associated; all with pedagogical impact on the teaching and learning process.

Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Students, Medical/psychology , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Anatomy/education , Argentina , Adaptation, Psychological , Attitude to Death , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Dissection/education , Dissection/psychology , Psychological Distress
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 35: eAPE01406, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-20234685


Resumo Objetivo Identificar, a partir das evidências presentes na literatura, os impactos da COVID-19 na saúde mental de mulheres grávidas. Métodos Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa da literatura, realizada nas bases de dados/biblioteca eletrônica MEDLINE, CINAHL, PUBCOVID19 e MEDRXIV. A busca aconteceu de forma pareada no mês de dezembro de 2020, com artigos disponíveis na íntegra abordando a saúde mental das grávidas na pandemia. Resultados Os estudos que compuseram a amostra foram publicados entre os meses de abril e dezembro de 2020 e nos 10 estudos incluídos, a depressão e a ansiedade são apontados como fatores impactantes na saúde das gestantes, tendo como elementos contribuintes o medo da COVID-19, estresse e preocupações associadas à pandemia. Conclusão Houve impacto na saúde mental das gestantes na pandemia com repercussões de ordem psicossocial, socioeconômica e de assistência à saúde. Nesse contexto, a abordagem do componente psicológico na consulta de enfermagem pode fazer a diferença na atenção à gestação.

Resumen Objetivo Identificar, a partir de evidencias presentes en la literatura, los impactos del COVID-19 en la salud mental de mujeres embarazadas. Métodos Se trata de una revisión integradora de la literatura, realizada en las bases de datos/biblioteca electrónica MEDLINE, CINAHL, PUBCOVID19 y MEDRXIV. La búsqueda se realizó de forma pareada en el mes de diciembre de 2020, con artículos con texto completo disponible que abordaban la salud mental de embarazadas en la pandemia. Resultados Los estudios que formaron la muestra fueron publicados entre los meses de abril y diciembre de 2020. En los diez estudios incluidos, la depresión y la ansiedad son señaladas como factores impactantes en la salud de las mujeres embarazadas, donde los elementos contribuyentes son el miedo al COVID-19, el estrés y las preocupaciones relacionadas con la pandemia. Conclusión Hubo impacto en la salud mental de las mujeres embarazadas en la pandemia, con repercusiones de orden psicosocial, socioeconómica y de atención a la salud. En este contexto, el enfoque del componente psicológico en la consulta de enfermería puede marcar una diferencia en la atención al embarazo.

Abstract Objective To identify the impacts of COVID-19 on pregnant women's mental health from evidence in the literature. Methods This is an integrative literature review performed in MEDLINE, CINAHL, PUBCOVID19 and MEDRXIV databases/electronic libraries. The search took place in pairs in December 2020, with articles available in full addressing pregnant women's mental health in the pandemic. Results The studies that made up the sample were published between April and December 2020 and in the ten studies included, depression and anxiety were identified as factors exerting impact on pregnant women's health, and the fear of COVID-19, stress and worries associated with the pandemic as contributing elements. Conclusion There was an impact on pregnant women's mental health in the pandemic with psychosocial, socioeconomic and health care repercussions. In this context, the approach to the psychological component in the nursing consultation can make a difference in pregnancy care.

Humans , Social Isolation/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Women's Health , Pregnant Women , COVID-19/psychology , Anxiety , Delivery of Health Care
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 11(6): 1-13, nov. 3, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-20234393


Introduction: The consumption of alcoholic beverages reduces the body's ability to deal with dangerous situations and exposes people to trauma. Objective: To determine the association between the consumption of alcoholic beverages and the characteristics of maxillofacial fractures treated at a Cuban university hospital in the context of COVID-19. Material and Methods: An observational, analytical, and cross-sectional study was carried out in the Maxillofacial Surgery unit at the "Carlos Manuel de Céspedes" General University Hospital during the year 2020. Prevalence ratios, 95% confidence intervals and p-values were obtained using generalized linear models. Results: In 58.23% of the cases, fractures were related to the consumption of alcoholic beverages. The fundamental etiology was interpersonal violence (47.75%), regardless of the consumption of alcoholic beverages. There was a prevalence of patients with nasal fractures (n=98; 55.06%), among which, 35.71% had consumed alcoholic beverages at the time of the trauma. Being male (p=0.005), the lack of university studies (p=0.007), the need for surgical treatment (p<0.001), the fractures of the zygomaticomaxillary complex (p=0.023), and the traumas that occurred during the weekends (p<0.001) or during the month of June (p=0.029) were factors associated with a higher frequency of fractures related to the consumption of alcoholic beverages. There was a lower frequency of fractures associated with alcohol consumption during the months of January (p=0.006) and March (p=0.001). Conclusion: Six out of ten cases were under the influence of alcoholic beverages. There was a greater number of young and male patients, mainly due to interpersonal violence.

Introducción: La ingestión de bebidas alcohólicas disminuye la capacidad del organismo para enfrentar situaciones de peligro y lo predispone a sufrir traumatismos diversos. Objetivo: Determinar la asociación entre el consumo de bebidas alcohólicas y las características de las fracturas maxilofaciales atendidas en un hospital universitario cubano en el contexto de la COVID-19. Material y Métodos: Estudio observacional, analítico y transversal realizado en el servicio de Cirugía Maxilofacial del Hospital General Universitario "Carlos Manuel de Céspedes" durante el 2020. Se obtuvieron razones de prevalencia, intervalos de confianza a 95% y valores p mediante modelos lineales generalizados. Resultados: En el 58.23% de los casos las fracturas se relacionaron con la ingestión de bebidas alcohólicas. La etiología fundamental fue la violencia interpersonal (47.75%), independientemente del consumo o no de bebidas alcohólicas. Predominaron los pacientes con fracturas nasales (n=98; 55.06%), en los que el 35.71% había consumido bebidas alcohólicas en el momento del trauma. El sexo masculino (p=0.005), la carencia de estudios universitarios (p=0.007), la necesidad de tratamiento quirúrgico (p<0.001), las fracturas del complejo cigomático-maxilar (p=0.023), los traumas sucedidos durante los fines de semanas (p<0.001) o durante el mes de junio (p=0.029) fueron factores asociados a una mayor frecuencia de fracturas relacionadas con el consumo de bebidas alcohólicas. Hubo menor frecuencia de fracturas asociadas a este consumo durante los meses de enero (p=0.006) y marzo (p= 0.001). Conclusión: Seis de cada diez casos estuvieron bajo los efectos de la ingestión de bebidas alcohólicas. Existió una mayor afectación de pacientes jóvenes, masculinos, a causa principalmente de la violencia interpersonal.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Skull Fractures/etiology , Accidental Falls/statistics & numerical data , Alcohol Drinking/physiopathology , COVID-19 , Maxillofacial Injuries/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cuba/epidemiology , Alcoholic Beverages , Alcoholism/complications , Pandemics
Postgrad Med J ; 96(1137): 417-421, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244607


All animal life on earth is thought to have a common origin and have common genetic mechanisms. Evolution has enabled differentiation of species. Pathogens likewise have evolved within various species and mostly come to a settled dynamic equilibrium such that co-existence results (pathogens ideally should not kill their hosts). Problems arise when pathogens jump species because the new host had not developed any resistance. These infections from related species are known as zoonoses. COVID-19 is the latest example of a virus entering another species but HIV (and various strains of influenza) were previous examples. HIV entered the human population from monkeys in Africa. These two papers outline the underlying principle of HIV and the differing epidemiologies in Africa, the USA and in Edinburgh. The underlying immunosuppression of HIV in Africa was initially hidden behind common infections and HIV first came to world awareness in focal areas of the USA as a disease seemingly limited to gay males. The epidemic of intravenous drug abuse in Edinburgh was associated with overlapping epidemics of bloodborne viruses like hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV.

Coinfection/virology , HIV Infections/physiopathology , Hepatitis B/physiopathology , Hepatitis C/physiopathology , Animals , Disease Outbreaks , HIV Infections/genetics , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/genetics , HIV-1/pathogenicity , Hepatitis B/genetics , Hepatitis C/genetics , Humans , Needle Sharing/statistics & numerical data , Phylogeny , Substance Abuse, Intravenous/epidemiology , Zoonoses
J Immigr Minor Health ; 25(3): 685-691, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242097


Previous studies have found Latinx cultural values to be positively associated with healthy behaviors. This study aims to examine socioeconomic and cultural correlates of alcohol use among Latinx adult men living in Miami-Dade County, Florida. The study sample included 122 Latinx adult men (mean age = 44, SD = 10), predominantly of South and Central American origin. Data was collected using REDCap. Interviews included the Timeline Follow-Back scale for alcohol use. Results indicate that Caribbean participants were significantly less likely to report drinking in the past 90 days (aOR = 0.08, p = 0.042) compared to their Venezuelan counterparts. Higher machismo scores were associated with low drinking frequency (aRR = 0.67, p = 0.043), while no significant associations were found between machismo and other drinking outcomes. Drinking quantity and frequency are significantly associated with higher income and authorized immigration status in the US among Latinx men in South Florida. Higher machismo scores were associated with low drinking frequency.

Alcohol Drinking , Hispanic or Latino , Adult , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/ethnology , Central American People , Cultural Characteristics , Florida/epidemiology , Hispanic or Latino/statistics & numerical data , Income , Social Values/ethnology , South American People
Nature ; 618(7965): 575-582, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241955


Poverty is an important social determinant of health that is associated with increased risk of death1-5. Cash transfer programmes provide non-contributory monetary transfers to individuals or households, with or without behavioural conditions such as children's school attendance6,7. Over recent decades, cash transfer programmes have emerged as central components of poverty reduction strategies of many governments in low- and middle-income countries6,7. The effects of these programmes on adult and child mortality rates remains an important gap in the literature, however, with existing evidence limited to a few specific conditional cash transfer programmes, primarily in Latin America8-14. Here we evaluated the effects of large-scale, government-led cash transfer programmes on all-cause adult and child mortality using individual-level longitudinal mortality datasets from many low- and middle-income countries. We found that cash transfer programmes were associated with significant reductions in mortality among children under five years of age and women. Secondary heterogeneity analyses suggested similar effects for conditional and unconditional programmes, and larger effects for programmes that covered a larger share of the population and provided larger transfer amounts, and in countries with lower health expenditures, lower baseline life expectancy, and higher perceived regulatory quality. Our findings support the use of anti-poverty programmes such as cash transfers, which many countries have introduced or expanded during the COVID-19 pandemic, to improve population health.

Child Mortality , Developing Countries , Mortality , Poverty , Adult , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Child Mortality/trends , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Developing Countries/economics , Poverty/economics , Poverty/prevention & control , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , Life Expectancy , Health Expenditures/statistics & numerical data , Public Health/methods , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Public Health/trends , Mortality/trends
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 716, 2023 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236491


INTRODUCTION: Antiretroviral medication coverage remains sub-optimal in much of the United States, particularly the Sothern region, and Non-Hispanic Black or African American persons (NHB) continue to be disproportionately impacted by the HIV epidemic. The "Ending the HIV Epidemic in the U.S." (EHE) initiative seeks to reduce HIV incidence nationally by focusing resources towards the most highly impacted localities and populations. This study evaluates the impact of hypothetical improvements in ART and PrEP coverage to estimate the levels of coverage needed to achieve EHE goals in the South. METHODS: We developed a stochastic, agent-based network model of 500,000 individuals to simulate the HIV epidemic and hypothetical improvements in ART and PrEP coverage. RESULTS: New infections declined by 78.6% at 90%/40% ART/PrEP and 94.3% at 100%/50% ART/PrEP. Declines in annual incidence rates surpassed 75% by 2025 with 90%/40% ART/PrEP and 90% by 2030 with 100%/50% ART/PrEP coverage. Increased ART coverage among NHB MSM was associated with a linear decline in incidence among all MSM. Declines in incidence among Hispanic/Latino and White/Other MSM were similar regardless of which MSM race group increased their ART coverage, while the benefit to NHB MSM was greatest when their own ART coverage increased. The incidence rate among NHB women declined by over a third when either NHB heterosexual men or NHB MSM increased their ART use respectively. Increased use of PrEP was associated with a decline in incidence for the groups using PrEP. MSM experienced the largest absolute declines in incidence with increasing PrEP coverage, followed by NHB women. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis indicates that it is possible to reach EHE goals. The largest reductions in HIV incidence can be achieved by increasing ART coverage among MSM and all race groups benefit regardless of differences in ART initiation by race. Improving ART coverage to > 90% should be prioritized with a particular emphasis on reaching NHB MSM. Such a focus will reduce the largest number of incident cases, reduce racial HIV incidence disparities among both MSM and women, and reduce racial health disparities among persons with HIV. NHB women should also be prioritized for PrEP outreach.

Anti-HIV Agents , Disease Eradication , HIV Infections , Health Status Disparities , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Female , Humans , Male , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Goals , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male/statistics & numerical data , Incidence , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/statistics & numerical data , Sexual and Gender Minorities/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology , Disease Eradication/methods , Disease Eradication/statistics & numerical data
Health Psychol ; 42(7): 496-509, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233316


The development of effective interventions for COVID-19 vaccination has proven challenging given the unique and evolving determinants of that behavior. A tailored intervention to drive vaccination uptake through machine learning-enabled personalization of behavior change messages unexpectedly yielded a high volume of real-time short message service (SMS) feedback from recipients. A qualitative analysis of those replies contributes to a better understanding of the barriers to COVID-19 vaccination and demographic variations in determinants, supporting design improvements for vaccination interventions. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine unsolicited replies to a text message intervention for COVID-19 vaccination to understand the types of barriers experienced and any relationships between recipient demographics, intervention content, and reply type. METHOD: We categorized SMS replies into 22 overall themes. Interrater agreement was very good (all κpooled > 0.62). Chi-square analyses were used to understand demographic variations in reply types and which messaging types were most related to reply types. RESULTS: In total, 10,948 people receiving intervention text messages sent 17,090 replies. Most frequent reply types were "already vaccinated" (31.1%), attempts to unsubscribe (25.4%), and "will not get vaccinated" (12.7%). Within "already vaccinated" and "will not get vaccinated" replies, significant differences were observed in the demographics of those replying against expected base rates, all p > .001. Of those stating they would not vaccinate, 34% of the replies involved mis-/disinformation, suggesting that a determinant of vaccination involves nonvalidated COVID-19 beliefs. CONCLUSIONS: Insights from unsolicited replies can enhance our ability to identify appropriate intervention techniques to influence COVID-19 vaccination behaviors. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).

COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Qualitative Research , Text Messaging , Vaccination , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Machine Learning , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Demography , Anti-Vaccination Movement/psychology , Behavioral Sciences , COVID-19/prevention & control
West J Emerg Med ; 23(4): 570-578, 2022 Jul 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237020


INTRODUCTION: Unvaccinated emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are at increased risk of contracting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and potentially transmitting the virus to their families, coworkers, and patients. Effective vaccines for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus exist; however, vaccination rates among EMS professionals remain largely unknown. Consequently, we sought to document vaccination rates of EMS professionals and identify predictors of vaccination uptake. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of North Carolina EMS professionals after the COVID-19 vaccines were widely available. The survey assessed vaccination status as well as beliefs regarding COVID-19 illness and vaccine effectiveness. Prediction of vaccine uptake was modeled using logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 860 EMS professionals completed the survey, of whom 74.7% reported receiving the COVID-19 vaccination. Most respondents believed that COVID-19 is a serious threat to the population, that they are personally at higher risk of infection, that vaccine side effects are outweighed by illness prevention, and the vaccine is safe and effective. Despite this, only 18.7% supported mandatory vaccination for EMS professionals. Statistically significant differences were observed between the vaccinated and unvaccinated groups regarding vaccine safety and effectiveness, recall of employer vaccine recommendation, perceived risk of infection, degree of threat to the population, and trust in government to take actions to limit the spread of disease. Unvaccinated respondents cited reasons such as belief in personal health and natural immunity as protectors against infection, concerns about vaccine safety and effectiveness, inadequate vaccine knowledge, and lack of an employer mandate for declining the vaccine. Predictors of vaccination included belief in vaccine safety (odds ratio [OR] 5.5, P=<0.001) and effectiveness (OR 4.6, P=<0.001); importance of vaccination to protect patients (OR 15.5, P=<0.001); perceived personal risk of infection (OR 1.8, P=0.04); previous receipt of influenza vaccine (OR 2.5, P=0.003); and sufficient knowledge to make an informed decision about vaccination (OR 2.4, P=0.024). CONCLUSION: In this survey of EMS professionals, over a quarter remained unvaccinated for COVID-19. Given the identified predictors of vaccine acceptance, EMS systems should focus on countering misinformation through employee educational campaigns as well as on developing policies regarding workforce immunization requirements.

COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Emergency Medical Services , Health Personnel , Vaccination , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/supply & distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies , Decision Making , Health Personnel/psychology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Health Surveys , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , North Carolina , Occupational Health , Patient Safety , Vaccination/legislation & jurisprudence , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data