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3.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 50: 8-14, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1959411

ABSTRACT

COVID19 has emerged as one of the worst pandemics in the history of mankind. Several vaccines have been approved by different government agencies worldwide, but data on their efficacy and safety are limited, and distribution remains a massive challenge. As per WHO, personal immunity is vital for protection against COVID19. Earlier, Vitamin C-mediated pathways have been shown to play critical role in boosting immunity attributed to its antioxidant properties. Recently, the involvement of such pathways in protection against COVID19 has been suggested. The controlled doses of Vitamin C administered through intravenous (IV) injections are being studied for determining its role in the prognosis of COVID19. In this article, we have discussed the potential role of Vitamin C in the management in COVID19 patients and presented recent clinical trials data. Additionally, we have elaborated the possibility of administering Vitamin C through inhalers in order to achieve local high concentration and the challenges of such approach.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamins/therapeutic use
4.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2022: 7089576, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962495

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can enter the host cells by binding the viral surface spike glycoprotein (SG) to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. Since antiviral photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has been described as a new method for inhibiting viral infections, it is important to evaluate whether it can be used as a photoactivated disinfectant to control COVID-19. In this in silico study, SARS-CoV-2-SG was selected as a novel target for curcumin as a photosensitizer during aPDT to exploit its physicochemical properties, molecular modeling, hierarchical nature of protein structure, and functional analysis using several bioinformatics tools and biological databases. The results of a detailed computational investigation revealed that SARS-CoV-2-SG is most similar to 6VXX_A, with 100% query cover and identity. The predicted structure of SARS-CoV-2-SG displayed that it is a protein with a positive charge and random coil dominates other secondary structures located outside the viral cell. The protein-protein interaction network showed that SARS-CoV-2-SG interacted with ten potential interacting partners. In addition, primary screening of binding modes through molecular docking showed that curcumin desires to bind and interact with residues of SARS-CoV-2-SG as the main site to enhance the yield of aPDT. Overall, the computer simulation reveals that SARS-CoV-2-SG can be a suitable target site for interaction with curcumin during aPDT.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Curcumin , Photochemotherapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Computer Simulation , Curcumin/pharmacology , Curcumin/therapeutic use , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
5.
J Diabetes Res ; 2022: 6620661, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962494

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of garlic (Allium sativum L.) tablets as a complimentary herbal medication in diabetic macular edema. Methods: A total of 91 diabetic participants (117 eyes) with central involved macular edema underwent a double-blind randomized trial. The patients used garlic tablets (500 mg) (2 tab/day) or placebo for 4 weeks and subsequently were examined by an expert ophthalmologist. Clinical manifestations including the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA, logMAR), central macular thickness (CMT, µm), and intraocular pressure (IOP) were measured as the main outcomes. Results: BCVA was significantly improved by a 0.18 decrease in mean logMAR value in the garlic-treated patients in comparison with 0.06 in the control ones (P value = 0.027). CMT was decreased in both groups by a 102.99 µm decrease in the garlic group compared to 52.67 µm in the placebo group, albeit in a nonsignificant manner (P value: 0.094). IOP was decreased in the garlic group by 1.03 mmHg (P value: 0.024) and increased by 0.3 mmHg (P value: 0.468) in the placebo group. Conclusion: Our trial suggests that garlic supplements can improve visual acuity, decrease the CMT and lower the IOP, and can be considered as an adjuvant treatment in patients with diabetic macular edema. Garlic was satisfactorily tolerated in diabetic patients, and no significant adverse effect interrupting the safety profile was observed.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Retinopathy , Garlic , Macular Edema , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetic Retinopathy/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids , Humans , Macular Edema/drug therapy , Tablets/therapeutic use , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Treatment Outcome , Visual Acuity
6.
Fam Med Community Health ; 10(3)2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962334

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Because of their increased interaction with patients, healthcare workers (HCWs) face greater vulnerability to COVID-19 exposure than the general population. We examined prevalence and correlates of ever COVID-19 diagnosis and vaccine uncertainty among HCWs. DESIGN: Cross-sectional data from the Household Pulse Survey (HPS) conducted during July to October 2021. SETTING: HPS is designed to yield representative estimates of the US population aged ≥18 years nationally, by state and across selected metropolitan areas. PARTICIPANTS: Our primary analytical sample was adult HCWs in the New York Metropolitan area (n=555), with HCWs defined as individuals who reported working in a 'Hospital'; 'Nursing and residential healthcare facility'; 'Pharmacy' or 'Ambulatory healthcare setting'. In the entire national sample, n=25 909 HCWs completed the survey. Descriptive analyses were performed with HCW data from the New York Metropolitan area, the original epicentre of the pandemic. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed on pooled national HCW data to explore how HCW COVID-19-related experiences, perceptions and behaviours varied as a function of broader geographic, clinical and sociodemographic characteristics. RESULTS: Of HCWs surveyed in the New York Metropolitan area, 92.3% reported being fully vaccinated, and 20.9% had ever been diagnosed of COVID-19. Of the subset of HCWs in the New York Metropolitan area not yet fully vaccinated, 41.8% were vaccine unsure, 4.5% planned to get vaccinated for the first time soon, 1.6% had got their first dose but were not planning to receive the remaining dose, while 52.1% had got their first dose and planned to receive the remaining dose. Within pooled multivariable analysis of the national HCW sample, personnel in nursing/residential facilities were less likely to be fully vaccinated (adjusted OR, AOR 0.79, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.98) and more likely to report ever COVID-19 diagnosis (AOR 1.35, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.62), than those working in hospitals. Of HCWs not yet vaccinated nationally, vaccine-unsure individuals were more likely to be White and work in pharmacies, whereas vaccine-accepting individuals were more likely to be employed by non-profit organisations and work in ambulatory care facilities. Virtually no HCW was outrightly vaccine-averse, only unsure. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in vaccination coverage existed by individual HCW characteristics and healthcare operational settings. Targeted efforts are needed to increase vaccination coverage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , New York/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
7.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(7)2022 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962131

ABSTRACT

We report a patient with seronegative rheumatoid arthritis diagnosed with Whipple's disease following treatment of tumour necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFI) therapy. Whipple's disease should be considered in patients with seronegative rheumatoid arthritis and other unexplained multisystem illness. The TNFI therapy and immunosuppressive therapies can unmask latent Whipple's disease.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Whipple Disease , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/diagnosis , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Humans , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Whipple Disease/diagnosis , Whipple Disease/drug therapy
8.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(7)2022 Jul 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962126

ABSTRACT

Thrombotic complications during COVID-19 infections occur frequently, and anticoagulants to prevent and treat deep vein thrombosis appear to have a good safety profile in these patients. In addition, haemorrhagic complications during COVID-19 infections have also been reported. Hepatic inflammation can occur in COVID-19 infections as a direct consequence of cellular infection and cytopathy. Spontaneous subcapsular hepatic haematoma is extremely rare and can be life-threatening.A woman in her 40s presented to the hospital with fever and shortness of breath and was diagnosed with COVID-19 infection with respiratory failure requiring intubation. On day 49 of hospitalisation, she developed melena and acute anaemia; her haemoglobin dropped from 97g/L (9.7g/dL) to 56g/L (5.6g/dL). Abdominal and pelvic CT scans showed a large subcapsular liver haematoma with retroperitoneal extension. The patient received blood transfusions and remained haemodynamically stable. She was eventually extubated and discharged home.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Diseases , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Female , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/complications , Hematoma/diagnostic imaging , Hematoma/etiology , Hematoma/therapy , Hemoperitoneum/complications , Humans , Liver Diseases/complications
9.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(655): eabn3041, 2022 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962063

ABSTRACT

As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic evolves and vaccine rollout progresses, the availability and demand for monoclonal antibodies for the prevention and treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are also accelerating. This longitudinal serological study evaluated the magnitude and potency of the endogenous antibody response to COVID-19 vaccination in participants who first received a COVID-19 monoclonal antibody in a prevention study. Over the course of 6 months, serum samples were collected from a population of nursing home residents and staff enrolled in a clinical trial who were randomized to either bamlanivimab treatment or placebo. In an unplanned component of this trial, a subset of these participants was subsequently fully vaccinated with two doses of either SpikeVax (Moderna) or Comirnaty (BioNTech/Pfizer) COVID-19 mRNA vaccines. This post hoc analysis assessed the immune response to vaccination for 135 participants without prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. Antibody titers and potency were assessed using three assays against SARS-CoV-2 proteins that bamlanivimab does not efficiently bind to, thereby reflecting the endogenous antibody response. All bamlanivimab and placebo recipients mounted a robust immune response to full COVID-19 vaccination, irrespective of age, risk category, and vaccine type with any observed differences of uncertain clinical importance. These findings are pertinent for informing public health policy with results that suggest that the benefit of receiving COVID-19 vaccination at the earliest opportunity outweighs the minimal effect on the endogenous immune response due to prior prophylactic COVID-19 monoclonal antibody infusion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
10.
Intern Med J ; 51 Suppl 7: 143-176, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961593

ABSTRACT

Invasive aspergillosis (IA) in haematology/oncology patients presents as primary infection or breakthrough infection, which can become refractory to antifungal treatment and has a high associated mortality. Other emerging patient risk groups include patients in the intensive care setting with severe respiratory viral infections, including COVID-19. These guidelines present key diagnostic and treatment recommendations in light of advances in knowledge since the previous guidelines in 2014. Culture and histological-based methods remain central to the diagnosis of IA. There is increasing evidence for the utility of non-culture methods employing fungal biomarkers in pre-emptive screening for infection, as well as for IA diagnosis when used in combination. Although azole resistance appears to be uncommon in Australia, susceptibility testing of clinical Aspergillus fumigatus complex isolates is recommended. Voriconazole remains the preferred first-line antifungal agent for treating primary IA, including for extrapulmonary disease. Recommendations for paediatric treatment broadly follow those for adults. For breakthrough and refractory IA, a change in class of antifungal agent is strongly recommended, and agents under clinical trial may need to be considered. Newer immunological-based imaging modalities warrant further study, while surveillance for IA and antifungal resistance remain essential to informing the relevance of current treatment recommendations.


Subject(s)
Aspergillosis , COVID-19 , Adult , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Aspergillus fumigatus , Child , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Voriconazole/therapeutic use
11.
Subst Abus ; 43(1): 1317-1321, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960702

ABSTRACT

Background: Racial, sex, and age disparities in buprenorphine treatment have previously been demonstrated. We evaluated trends in buprenorphine treatment disparities before and after the onset of the COVID pandemic in Massachusetts. Methods: This cross-sectional study used data from an integrated health system comparing 12-months before and after the March 2020 Massachusetts COVID state of emergency declaration, excluding March as a washout period. Among patients with a clinical encounter during the study periods with a diagnosis of opioid use disorder or opioid poisoning, we extracted outpatient buprenorphine prescription rates by age, sex, race and ethnicity, and language. Generating univariable and multivariable Poisson regression models, we calculated the probability of receiving buprenorphine. Results: Among 4,530 patients seen in the period before the COVID emergency declaration, 57.9% received buprenorphine. Among 3,653 patients seen in the second time period, 55.1% received buprenorphine. Younger patients (<24) had a lower likelihood of receiving buprenorphine in both time periods (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR), 0.56; 95% CI, 0.42-0.75 before vs. aPR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.60-0.96 after). Male patients had a greater likelihood of receiving buprenorphine compared to female patients in both time periods (aPR: 1.05; 95% CI, 1.00-1.11 vs. aPR: 1.09; 95% CI, 1.02-1.16). Racial disparities emerged in the time period following the COVID pandemic, with non-Hispanic Black patients having a lower likelihood of receiving buprenorphine compared to non-Hispanic white patients in the second time period (aPR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.72-0.99). Conclusions: Following the onset of the COVID pandemic in Massachusetts, ongoing racial, age, and gender disparities were evident in buprenorphine treatment with younger, Black, and female patients less likely to be treated with buprenorphine across an integrated health system.


Subject(s)
Buprenorphine , COVID-19 , Buprenorphine/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Massachusetts/epidemiology , Pandemics
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(31): e2200592119, 2022 Aug 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960616

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variant contains extensive sequence changes relative to the earlier-arising B.1, B.1.1, and Delta SARS-CoV-2 variants that have unknown effects on viral infectivity and response to existing vaccines. Using SARS-CoV-2 virus-like particles (VLPs), we examined mutations in all four structural proteins and found that Omicron and Delta showed 4.6-fold higher luciferase delivery overall relative to the ancestral B.1 lineage, a property conferred mostly by enhancements in the S and N proteins, while mutations in M and E were mostly detrimental to assembly. Thirty-eight antisera samples from individuals vaccinated with Pfizer/BioNTech, Moderna, or Johnson & Johnson vaccines and convalescent sera from unvaccinated COVID-19 survivors had 15-fold lower efficacy to prevent cell transduction by VLPs containing the Omicron mutations relative to the ancestral B.1 spike protein. A third dose of Pfizer vaccine elicited substantially higher neutralization titers against Omicron, resulting in detectable neutralizing antibodies in eight out of eight subjects compared to one out of eight preboosting. Furthermore, the monoclonal antibody therapeutics casirivimab and imdevimab had robust neutralization activity against B.1 and Delta VLPs but no detectable neutralization of Omicron VLPs, while newly authorized bebtelovimab maintained robust neutralization across variants. Our results suggest that Omicron has similar assembly efficiency and cell entry compared to Delta and that its rapid spread is due mostly to reduced neutralization in sera from previously vaccinated subjects. In addition, most currently available monoclonal antibodies will not be useful in treating Omicron-infected patients with the exception of bebtelovimab.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 12920, 2022 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960505

ABSTRACT

During the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, symptoms of depression are commonly documented among both symptomatic and asymptomatic quarantined COVID-19 patients. Despite that many of the FDA-approved drugs have been showed anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity in vitro and remarkable efficacy against COVID-19 in clinical trials, no pharmaceutical products have yet been declared to be fully effective for treating COVID-19. Antidepressants comprise five major drug classes for the treatment of depression, neuralgia, migraine prophylaxis, and eating disorders which are frequently reported symptoms in COVID-19 patients. Herein, the efficacy of eight frequently prescribed FDA-approved antidepressants on the inhibition of both SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV was assessed. Additionally, the in vitro anti-SARS-CoV-2 and anti-MERS-CoV activities were evaluated. Furthermore, molecular docking studies have been performed for these drugs against the spike (S) and main protease (Mpro) pockets of both SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV. Results showed that Amitriptyline, Imipramine, Paroxetine, and Sertraline had potential anti-viral activities. Our findings suggested that the aforementioned drugs deserve more in vitro and in vivo studies targeting COVID-19 especially for those patients suffering from depression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning/methods , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2
14.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0271795, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963035

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of fungal secondary infections among COVID-19 patients and efficacy of antifungal therapy used in such patients is still unknown. Hence, we conducted this study to find the prevalence of fungal secondary infections among COVID-19 patients and patient outcomes in terms of recovery or all-cause mortality following antifungal therapy (AFT) in such patients. METHODS: We performed a comprehensive literature search in PubMed®, Scopus®, Web of Sciences™, The Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrial.gov, MedRxiv.org, bioRxiv.org, and Google scholar to identify the literature that used antifungal therapy for the management fungal secondary infections in COVID-19 patients. We included case reports, case series, prospective & retrospective studies, and clinical trials. Mantel Haenszel random-effect model was used for estimating pooled risk ratio for required outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 33 case reports, 3 case series, and 21 cohort studies were selected for final data extraction and analysis. The prevalence of fungal secondary infections among COVID-19 patients was 28.2%. Azoles were the most commonly (65.1%) prescribed AFT. Study shows that high survival frequency among patients using AFT, received combination AFT and AFT used for >28 days. The meta-analysis showed, no significant difference in all-cause mortality between patients who received AFT and without AFT (p = 0.17), between types of AFT (p = 0.85) and the duration of AFT (p = 0.67). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of fungal secondary infections among COVID-19 patients was 28.2%. The survival frequency was high among patients who used AFT for fungal secondary infections, received combination AFT and AFT used for >28 days. However, meta-analysis results found that all-cause mortality in COVID-19 patients with fungal secondary infections is not significantly associated with type and duration of AFT, mostly due to presence of confounding factors such as small number of events, delay in diagnosis of fungal secondary infections, presence of other co-infections and multiple comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Mycoses , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/drug therapy , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , Humans , Mycoses/complications , Mycoses/drug therapy , Mycoses/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies
15.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0270196, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963014

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has claimed >4 million lives globally, and these deaths often occurred in hospitalized patients with comorbidities. Therefore, the proposed review aims to distinguish the inpatient mortality and invasive mechanical ventilation risk in COVID-19 patients treated with the anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies and/or the antiviral agents. METHODS: A search in PubMed, Embase, and Scopus will ensue for the publications on randomized controlled trials testing the above, irrespective of the publication date or geographic boundary. Risk of bias assessment of the studies included in the review will occur using the Cochrane risk of bias tool for randomized trials (RoB 2). Frequentist method network meta-analyses (NMA) will compare each outcome's risk across both types of anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents in one model and each in separate models. Additional NMA models will compare these in COVID-19 patients who were severely or critically ill, immunocompromised, admitted to the intensive care unit, diagnosed by nucleic acid amplification test, not treated with steroids, <18 years old, and at risk of infection due to variants of concern. The plan of excluding non-hospitalized patients from the proposed review is to minimize intransitivity risk. The acceptance of the network consistency assumption will transpire if the local and overall inconsistency assessment indicates no inconsistency. For each NMA model, the effect sizes (risk ratio) and their 95% confidence intervals will get reported in league tables. The best intervention prediction and quality of evidence grading will happen using the surface under the cumulative ranking curve values and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation-based Confidence in Network Meta-Analysis approach, respectively. Sensitivity analysis will repeat the preliminary NMA while excluding the trials at high risk of bias. The Stata statistical software (v16) will be used for analysis. The statistical significance will get determined at p<0.05 and 95% confidence interval. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO Registration No: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?ID=CRD42021277663.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Network Meta-Analysis , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Treatment Outcome
16.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0266901, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962992

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: While corticosteroids have been hypothesized to exert protective benefits in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, data remain mixed. This study sought to investigate the outcomes of methylprednisone administration in an Italian cohort of hospitalized patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: Patients with confirmatory testing for SARS-CoV-2 were retrospectively enrolled from a tertiary university hospital in Milan, Italy from March 1st to April 30th, 2020 and divided into two groups by administration of corticosteroids. Methylprednisolone was administered to patients not responding to pharmacological therapy and ventilatory support at 0.5-1mg/kg/day for 4 to 7 days. Inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) was used to adjust for baseline differences between the steroid and non-steroid cohorts via inverse probability of treatment weight. Primary outcomes included acute respiratory failure (ARF), shock, and 30-day mortality among surviving patients. RESULTS: Among 311 patients enrolled, 71 patients received steroids and 240 did not receive steroids. The mean age was 63.1 years, 35.4% were female, and hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, and chronic pulmonary disease were present in 3.5%, 1.3%, 14.8% and 12.2% respectively. Crude analysis revealed no statistically significant reduction in the incidence of 30-day mortality (36,6% vs 21,7%; OR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.18-3.70; p = 0.011), shock (2.8% vs 4.6%; OR, 0.60; 95% CI = 0.13-2.79; p = 0.514) or ARF (12.7% vs 15%; OR, 0.82; 95% CI = 0.38-1.80; p = 0.625) between the steroid and non-steroid groups. After IPTW analysis, the steroid-group had lower incidence of shock (0.9% vs 4.1%; OR, 0.21; 95% CI,0.06-0.77; p = 0.010), ARF (6.6% vs 16.0%; OR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.22-0.64; p<0.001) and 30-day mortality (20.3% vs 22.8%; OR 0.86; 95% CI, 0.59-1.26 p = 0.436); even though, for the latter no statistical significance was reached. Steroid use was also associated with increased length of hospital stay both in crude and IPTW analyses. Subgroup analysis revealed that patients with cardiovascular comorbidities or chronic lung diseases were more likely to be steroid responsive. No significant survival benefit was seen after steroid treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians should avoid routine methylprednisolone use in SARS-CoV-2 patients, since it does not reduce 30-day mortality. However, they must consider its use for severe patients with cardiovascular or respiratory comorbidities in order to reduce the incidence of either shock or acute respiratory failure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Probability , Respiratory Insufficiency/chemically induced , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 11(1): 100, 2022 07 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962896

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An effective use of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP) appears essential to prevent the development of infections linked to surgery while inappropriate and excessive prescriptions of prophylactic antibiotics increase the risk of adverse effects, bacterial resistance and Clostridium difficile infections. In this study, we aimed to analyze SAP practices in an acute secondary hospital in Belgium during the years 2016-2021 in order to evaluate the impacts of combined stewardship interventions, implemented thanks to a physician-pharmacist collaboration. METHODS: A quasi-experimental study on SAP practices was conducted during 5 years (2016-2021) in a Belgian University Hospital. We first performed a retrospective observational transversal study on a baseline group (2016.1-2016.4). Then, we constituted a group of patients (2017.1-2017.4) to test a combined intervention strategy of stewardship which integrated the central role of a pharmacist in antibiotic stewardship team and in the pre-operative delivery of nominative kits of antibiotics adapted to patient factors. After this test, we collected patient data (2018.1-2018.4) to evaluate the sustained effects of stewardship interventions. Furthermore, we evaluated SAP practices (2019.1-2019.4) after the diffusion of a computerized decision support system. Finally, we analyzed SAP practices in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic (2020.1-2020.4 and 2021.1-2021.4). The groups were compared from year to year in terms of compliance to institutional guidelines, as evaluated from seven criteria (χ2 test). RESULTS: In total, 760 surgical interventions were recorded. The observational study within the baseline group showed that true penicillin allergy, certain types of surgery and certain practitioners were associated with non-compliance (p < 0.05). Compared with the baseline group, the compliance was significantly increased in the test group for all seven criteria assessed (p < 0.05). However, the effects were not fully sustained after discontinuation of the active interventions. Following the diffusion of the computerized decision support system, the compliance to guidelines was not significantly improved. Finally, the COVID-19 pandemic did not appear to affect the practices in terms of compliance to guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that optimization of SAP practices is achievable within a proactive multidisciplinary approach including real-time pharmaceutical interventions in the operating area and in the care units practicing SAP.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physicians , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Guideline Adherence , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pharmacists , Retrospective Studies
18.
J Hematol Oncol ; 15(1): 81, 2022 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962866

ABSTRACT

Recipients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) or chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy are at increased risk for unfavorable outcomes after SARS-CoV-2 infection. The efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines remains undetermined in this vulnerable population, we therefore conducted a pooled analysis to evaluate the immune response after vaccination. A total of 46 studies were finally included, comprising 4757 HSCT and 174 CAR-T recipients. Our results indicated that HSCT and CAR-T recipients had an attenuated immune response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination compared with healthy individuals, while time interval between transplant and vaccination, immunosuppressive therapy (IST) and lymphocyte counts at vaccination significantly affected the humoral response in HSCT recipients. In addition, seroconversion was significantly higher in patients with BCMA-based CAR-T than those with CD19-based CAR-T. Thus, an adapted vaccination strategy for HSCT and CAR-T recipients may be required, and further research on the effect of a booster dose of COVID-19 vaccine and the role of cellular response after vaccination is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Humans , Immunity , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
19.
J Hematol Oncol ; 15(1): 67, 2022 05 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962865

ABSTRACT

Although messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines have established efficacy for prevention of severe SARS-CoV2 infection in the general population, their effectiveness in patients with malignancy, especially those on anti-neoplastic therapies, remains an area of open research. In order to better understand the risk of developing breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection and the outcomes associated with breakthrough infection for cancer patients, individual patient data from a curated outcomes database at the University of Kansas were retrospectively reviewed to determine the rate of breakthrough infection during an 8-month period encompassing the height of the delta variant surge. Although the rate of breakthrough infection in cancer patients after two doses of an mRNA vaccine remained low at 1.1%, hospitalization and death rates were 27 and 5%, respectively. Patients with hematologic malignancies, especially multiple myeloma, and those on anti-neoplastic therapy at the time of vaccination were found to be at higher risk for developing breakthrough infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Humans , RNA, Viral , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
20.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 17(1): 289, 2022 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962861

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: No results of controlled trials are available for any of the few treatments offered to children with interstitial lung diseases (chILD). We evaluated hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in a phase 2, prospective, multicentre, 1:1-randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group/crossover trial. HCQ (START arm) or placebo were given for 4 weeks. Then all subjects received HCQ for another 4 weeks. In the STOP arm subjects already taking HCQ were randomized to 12 weeks of HCQ or placebo (= withdrawal of HCQ). Then all subjects stopped treatment and were observed for another 12 weeks. RESULTS: 26 subjects were included in the START arm, 9 in the STOP arm, of these four subjects participated in both arms. The primary endpoint, presence or absence of a response to treatment, assessed as oxygenation (calculated from a change in transcutaneous O2-saturation of ≥ 5%, respiratory rate ≥ 20% or level of respiratory support), did not differ between placebo and HCQ groups. Secondary endpoints including change of O2-saturation ≥ 3%, health related quality of life, pulmonary function and 6-min-walk-test distance, were not different between groups. Finally combining all placebo and all HCQ treatment periods did not identify significant treatment effects. Overall effect sizes were small. HCQ was well tolerated, adverse events were not different between placebo and HCQ. CONCLUSIONS: Acknowledging important shortcomings of the study, including a small study population, the treatment duration, lack of outcomes like lung function testing below age of 6 years, the small effect size of HCQ treatment observed requires careful reassessments of prescriptions in everyday practice (EudraCT-Nr.: 2013-003714-40, www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu , registered 02.07.2013). Registration The study was registered on 2 July 2013 (Eudra-CT Number: 2013-003714-40), whereas the approval by BfArM was received 24.11.2014, followed by the approval by the lead EC of the University Hospital Munich on 20.01.2015. At clinicaltrials.gov the trial was additionally registered on November 8, 2015 (NCT02615938).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Child , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
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