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4.
Lancet Planet Health ; 5(10): e671-e680, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1461903

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding how environmental factors affect SARS-CoV-2 transmission could inform global containment efforts. Despite high scientific and public interest and multiple research reports, there is currently no consensus on the association of environmental factors and SARS-CoV-2 transmission. To address this research gap, we aimed to assess the relative risk of transmission associated with weather conditions and ambient air pollution. METHODS: In this global analysis, we adjusted for the delay between infection and detection, estimated the daily reproduction number at 3739 global locations during the COVID-19 pandemic up until late April, 2020, and investigated its associations with daily local weather conditions (ie, temperature, humidity, precipitation, snowfall, moon illumination, sunlight hours, ultraviolet index, cloud cover, wind speed and direction, and pressure data) and ambient air pollution (ie, PM2·5, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and sulphur dioxide). To account for other confounding factors, we included both location-specific fixed effects and trends, controlling for between-location differences and heterogeneities in locations' responses over time. We built confidence in our estimations through synthetic data, robustness, and sensitivity analyses, and provided year-round global projections for weather-related risk of global SARS-CoV-2 transmission. FINDINGS: Our dataset included data collected between Dec 12, 2019, and April 22, 2020. Several weather variables and ambient air pollution were associated with the spread of SARS-CoV-2 across 3739 global locations. We found a moderate, negative relationship between the estimated reproduction number and temperatures warmer than 25°C (a decrease of 3·7% [95% CI 1·9-5·4] per additional degree), a U-shaped relationship with outdoor ultraviolet exposure, and weaker positive associations with air pressure, wind speed, precipitation, diurnal temperature, sulphur dioxide, and ozone. Results were robust to multiple assumptions. Independent research building on our estimates provides strong support for the resulting projections across nations. INTERPRETATION: Warmer temperature and moderate outdoor ultraviolet exposure result in a slight reduction in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2; however, changes in weather or air pollution alone are not enough to contain the spread of SARS-CoV-2 with other factors having greater effects. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Global Health , Weather , Air Pollution/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(10): 1494-1501, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454090

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine if commercially available mouthwash with ß-cyclodextrin and citrox (bioflavonoids) (CDCM) could decrease the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) salivary viral load. METHODS: In this randomized controlled trial, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) PCR-positive patients aged 18-85 years with asymptomatic to mild coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptoms for <8 days were recruited. A total of 176 eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to CDCM or placebo. Three rinses daily were performed for 7 days. Saliva sampling was performed on day 1 at 09.00 (T1), 13.00 (T2) and 18.00 (T3). On the following 6 days, one sample was taken at 15.00. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to detect SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: The intention-to-treat analysis demonstrated that, over the course of 1 day, CDCM was significantly more effective than placebo 4 hours after the first dose (p 0.036), with a median percentage (log10 copies/mL) decrease T1-T2 of -12.58% (IQR -29.55% to -0.16%). The second dose maintained the low median value for the CDCM (3.08 log10 copies/mL; IQR 0-4.19), compared with placebo (3.31 log10 copies/mL; IQR 1.18-4.75). At day 7, there was still a greater median percentage (log10 copies/mL) decrease in salivary viral load over time in the CDCM group (-58.62%; IQR -100% to -34.36%) compared with the placebo group (-50.62%; IQR -100% to -27.66%). These results were confirmed by the per-protocol analysis. CONCLUSIONS: This trial supports the relevance of using CDCM on day 1 (4 hours after the initial dose) to reduce the SARS-CoV-2 viral load in saliva. For long-term effect (7 days), CDMC appears to provide a modest benefit compared with placebo in reducing viral load in saliva.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Mouthwashes/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/transmission , Double-Blind Method , Female , Flavonoids/analysis , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Intention to Treat Analysis , Male , Middle Aged , Mouthwashes/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saliva/virology , Viral Load/drug effects , Young Adult , beta-Cyclodextrins/analysis , beta-Cyclodextrins/therapeutic use
7.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 6054-6058, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453608

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variant of concern with higher infectivity has already resulted in the enormous increase in infection cases worldwide. We report an unrecognized introduction of the variant B.1.1.7 in Gabon in December 2020, which was the initial phase of the variant introduction to Africa. The B.1.1.7 variant was also detected in a hospitalized patient in January 2021, indicating a rapid spread of the variant in Gabon since its first detection. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the detected B.1.1.7 variants originated from the distinct regions, strongly suggesting that the B.1.1.7 variant had been repeatedly introduced to Gabon since December 2020. These results provide insights on the unrecognized risks of infections with variants of concern, and show the necessity to conduct continuous genomic monitoring for immediate alert and control of novel SARS-CoV-2 variant infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Africa, Central/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Genome, Viral , Humans , Mutation , Phylogeny , RNA, Viral , Whole Genome Sequencing
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(40): 1425-1426, 2021 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456570

ABSTRACT

According to sequencing data reported by CDC, the highly transmissible B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, has been the predominant lineage circulating in Louisiana since the week of June 20, 2021 (1). In Louisiana, the increased spread of the Delta variant corresponded with the start of the state's fourth and largest increase in average daily COVID-19 incidence to date (1,2). This report describes COVID-19 outbreaks in Louisiana youth summer camps as the Delta variant became the predominant lineage during June-July 2021. This activity was reviewed by the Louisiana Department of Health (LDH) and was conducted consistent with applicable state law and LDH policy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Camping , Disease Outbreaks , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Contact Tracing , Humans , Louisiana/epidemiology , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seasons , Young Adult
9.
Am J Public Health ; 111(8): 1534-1541, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456158

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To empirically evaluate the relationship between presence of a state or federal prison and COVID-19 case and death counts. Methods. We merged data on locations of federal and state prisons and of local and county jails with daily case and death counts in the United States. We used a selection-on-observables design to estimate the correlation between prisons and COVID-19 spread, controlling for known correlates of COVID-19. Results. We found empirical evidence that the presence and capacities of prisons are strong correlates of county-level COVID-19 case counts. The presence of a state or federal prison in a county corresponded with a 9% increase in the COVID-19 case count during the first wave of the pandemic, ending July 1, 2020. Conclusions. Our results suggest that the public health implications of these facilities extend beyond the health of employees and incarcerated individuals, and policymakers should explicitly consider the public health concerns posed by these facilities when developing pandemic-response policy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Prisoners/statistics & numerical data , Prisons/statistics & numerical data , Humans , United States
10.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 114, 2021 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455972

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Suboptimal breastfeeding rates in South Africa have been attributed to the relatively easy access that women and families have had to infant formula, in part as a result of programs to prevent maternal-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. This policy may have had an undesirable spill-over effect on HIV-negative women as well. Thus, the aims of this scoping review were to: (a) describe EBF practices in South Africa, (b) determine how EBF has been affected by the WHO HIV infant feeding policies followed since 2006, and (c) assess if the renewed interest in The Code has had any impact on breastfeeding practices in South Africa. METHODS: We applied the Joanna Briggs Institute guidelines for scoping reviews and reported our work in compliance with the PRISMA Extension (PRISMA-ScR). Twelve databases and platforms were searched. We included all study designs (no language restrictions) from South Africa published between 2006 and 2020. Eligible participants were women in South Africa who delivered a healthy live newborn who was between birth and 24 months of age at the time of study, and with known infant feeding practices. RESULTS: A total of 5431 citations were retrieved. Duplicates were removed in EndNote and by Covidence. Of the 1588 unique records processed in Covidence, 179 records met the criteria for full-text screening and 83 were included in the review. It was common for HIV-positive women who initiated breastfeeding to stop doing so prior to 6 months after birth (1-3 months). EBF rates rapidly declined after birth. School and work commitments were also reasons for discontinuation of EBF. HIV-positive women expressed fear of HIV MTCT transmission as a reason for not breastfeeding. CONCLUSION: The Review found that while enforcing the most recent WHO HIV infant feeding guidelines and the WHO Code may be necessary to improve breastfeeding outcomes in South Africa, they may not be sufficient because there are additional barriers that impact breastfeeding outcomes. Mixed-methods research, including in-depth interviews with key informants representing different government sectors and civil society is needed to prioritize actions and strategies to improve breastfeeding outcomes in South Africa.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding , Guideline Adherence , World Health Organization , Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , Feeding Behavior , Female , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Guidelines as Topic , HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV Infections/transmission , Humans , Infant , Infant Formula/supply & distribution , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Public Policy , South Africa
11.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(1): 7-9, 2020 Feb 27.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456574

ABSTRACT

Since the end of 2019, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been extensively epidemic in China, which not only seriously threatens the safety and health of Chinese people, but also challenges the management of other infectious diseases. Currently, there are still approximately three thousand malaria cases imported into China every year. If the diagnosis and treatment of malaria cases as well as the investigation and response of the epidemic foci are not carried out timely, it may endanger patients'lives and cause the possible of secondary transmission, which threatens the achievements of malaria elimination in China. Due to the extensive spread and high transmission ability of the COVID-19, there is a possibility of virus infections among malaria cases during the medical care-seeking behaviors and among healthcare professionals during clinical diagnosis and treatment, sample collection and testing and epidemiological surveys. This paper analyzes the challenges of the COVID-19 for Chinese malaria elimination programme, and proposes the countermeasures in response to the COVID-19 outbreak, so as to provide the reference for healthcare professionals.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Malaria , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Malaria/epidemiology , Malaria/prevention & control , Malaria/transmission , National Health Programs , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
12.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242839, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456058

ABSTRACT

Exponential growth bias is the phenomenon whereby humans underestimate exponential growth. In the context of infectious diseases, this bias may lead to a failure to understand the magnitude of the benefit of non-pharmaceutical interventions. Communicating the same scenario in different ways (framing) has been found to have a large impact on people's evaluations and behavior in the contexts of social behavior, risk taking and health care. We find that framing matters for people's assessment of the benefits of non-pharmaceutical interventions. In two commonly used frames, most subjects in our experiment drastically underestimate the number of cases avoided by adopting non-pharmaceutical interventions. Framing growth in terms of doubling times rather than growth rates reduces the bias. When the scenario is framed in terms of time gained rather than cases avoided, the median subject assesses the benefit of non-pharmaceutical interventions correctly. These findings suggest changes that could be adopted to better communicate the exponential spread of infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases/transmission , Communication , Bias , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires , Time Factors
17.
Trop Biomed ; 38(3): 462-468, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1451067

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has spread rapidly worldwide. The role of fomites in facilitating onward transmission is plausible. This study aimed to determine the presence of viable virus and its persistence on the surfaces of fomites in wards treating COVID-19 patients in Malaysia. This study was conducted in two stages. First, environmental sampling was performed on random days in the intensive care unit (ICU) and general wards. Then, in the second stage, samples were collected serially on alternate days for 7 days in two selected general wards. In Stage 1, a total of 104 samples were collected from the surfaces of highly touched and used areas by patients and healthcare workers. Only three samples were tested positive for SARS-COV-2. In Stage 2, three surface samples were detected positive, but no persistence of the virus was observed. However, none of the SARS-CoV-2 RNA was viable through tissue culture. Overall, the environmental contamination of SARS-CoV-2 was low in this hospital setting. Hospitals' strict infection control and the compliance of patients with wearing masks may have played a role in these findings, suggesting adherence to those measures to reduce occupational exposure of COVID-19 in hospital settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Fomites/virology , Infection Control/methods , Equipment Contamination , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Malaysia , Patients' Rooms/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
18.
Rev Invest Clin ; 73(5): 329-334, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1451038

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, when severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 emerged in Wuhan, China, this virus and the resulting disease, coronavirus disease (COVID-19), has spread worldwide. What has occurred in this year and a half goes beyond anything we have dealt with, as humankind, in the past two centuries, perhaps obscured only by war. An incredible number of articles, whether scientific or in the press, have been published, making it impossible to discern between what is biological and what is social in nature. Here, we aim to reflect on the basic structure of the virus and associate its behavior to that of determining factors of the human condition that may be modifiable soon. Needless to say, we find our effort clearly incomplete, and that both scientific and social aspects regarding COVID-19 or any other pandemic encountered in the future, will be constantly changing, from their beginning to their end.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Humans , Pandemics
19.
Int Marit Health ; 72(3): 228-236, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450928

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment session carries a high risk for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission since patients stay in a closed area for 2 hours. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the preventive measures taken in the HBO centre. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study evaluated the measures taken during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic for multiplace hyperbaric chamber operated in department (Health Sciences University-Gulhane Research and Training Hospital, Ankara, Turkey) between March 16th, 2020 and December 31st, 2020. The medical records of patients who underwent HBO treatment during this period were evaluated retrospectively. Their demographic attributes, the presence of risk factors, HBO indications, HBO session data, and COVID-19 inquiry forms were analysed. RESULTS: A total of 122 patients underwent HBO treatment, and 150 people were subjected to pressure tolerance test (PTT). No COVID-19 case was treated with HBO in our department. The hyperbaric chamber was operated 608 times in total. Of these, 9.7% (n = 59) procedures were carried out under emergency conditions, and 10% (n = 61) were PTTs. Accordingly, 59.8% (n = 73) of the HBO-treated patients were considered at risk for a severe clinical presentation of SARS-CoV-2. SARS-CoV-2 was detected in 5.7% (n = 7) of the HBO-treated patients during the HBO treatment period. Besides, two inside attendants (14.3%) were diagnosed with COVID-19. There were only two concurrent cases in the same session among SARS-CoV-2 positive cases. The records revealed that these patients were sitting three seats away from each other. Another patient was sitting in between the two infected patients but was not diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONS: There is no clear evidence that these two patients infected each other; on the contrary, since no other patient was infected with SARS-CoV-2 in the same session, we may suspect that the infections were coincidental. The measures taken in our department seem to suffice in preventing in-session transmission of COVID-19 and similar infectious diseases in an HBO centre.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Hyperbaric Oxygenation , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child, Preschool , Female , Health Facilities , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Turkey
20.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(38): e274, 2021 Oct 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450798

ABSTRACT

Applying work restrictions for asymptomatic healthcare personnel (HCP) with potential exposure to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is recommended to prevent transmission from potentially contagious HCP to patients and other HCP. However, it can lead to understaffing, which threatens the safety of both patients and HCP. We evaluated 203 COVID-19 exposure events at a single tertiary hospital from January 2020 to June 2021. A total of 2,365 HCP were potentially exposed, and work restrictions were imposed on 320 HCP, leading to the loss of 3,311 working days. However, only one of the work-restricted HCP was confirmed with COVID-19. During the study period, the work restriction measures might be taken excessively compared to their benefit, so establishing more effective standards for work restriction is required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Health Personnel , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Occupational Health , Primary Prevention/methods , Humans , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Workplace
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