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J Int Adv Otol ; 16(1)2020 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002612
Science ; 377(6604): 357, 2022 07 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1997224


Findings suggest rising gun violence will spill into the political sphere, driven by conspiracy theories.

Gun Violence , Politics , Gun Violence/trends , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(15)2022 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994134


Transport-sharing systems are eco-friendly and the most promising services in smart urban environments, where the booming Internet of things (IoT) technologies play an important role in the smart infrastructure. Due to the imbalanced bike distribution, bikes and stalls in the docking stations could be unavailable when needed, leading to bad customer experiences. We develop a dynamic repositioning strategy for the management of bikes in this paper, which supports dispatchers to keep stations in service. Two open datasets are examined, and the exploratory data analysis presents that there is a significant difference of travel patterns between working and non-working days, where the former has an excess demand at rush hours and the latter is usually at a low demand. To evaluate the effect when the demand outstrips a station's capacity, we propose a non-linear scaling technique to transform demand patterns and perform the clustering analysis for each of five categories obtained from the sophisticated analysis of the dataset. Our repositioning strategy is developed according to the transformed demands. Compared with the previous work, numerical simulations reveal that our strategy has a better performance for high-demand stations, and thus can substantially reduce the repositioning cost, which brings benefit to bike-sharing operators for managing the city bike system.

Bicycling , Induced Demand , Transportation/methods , Bicycling/classification , Bicycling/statistics & numerical data , Cities , Cluster Analysis , Humans , Induced Demand/trends , Transportation/statistics & numerical data , Travel
Psicol. USP ; 33: e200096, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1990280


Resumo Este artigo compreende oito cartas trocadas entre as autoras ao longo do mês de abril de 2020, tendo por eixo norteador o tema das análises online. Em uma retomada metodológica da produção teórica pela via das correspondências, amplamente utilizada entre Freud e seus interlocutores, propõe uma tessitura em ato de conceitos-acontecimentos em torno do atendimento mediado pelas tecnologias da informação e da comunicação, bem como dos deslocamentos no estatuto da escuta clínica, que reverberam especialmente sobre o inconsciente, a presença do analista e a questão do registro. A escrita epistolar possibilitou uma elaboração afetuosa e desinstitucionalizada, rompendo com a lógica academicista, sem perder o rigor conceitual do campo freudo-lacaniano na interlocução com outros autores. As discussões apresentadas refletem sobre quais vidas são passíveis de escuta nas análises, online ou não, em variados desdobramentos que circunscrevem uma clínica do contemporâneo.

Abstract This essay consists of eight letters exchanged between the authors over the course of April 2020, on the topic of online analysis. Resuming the methodological approach of theoretical production via correspondence, widely used by Freud and his interlocutors, the article weaves concepts-events regarding psychological care mediated by information and communication technologies, as well as shifts in the status of clinical listening, which reverberate especially on the unconscious, the presence of the analyst and issue of recording. The epistolary writing enabled an affectionate and deinstitutionalized elaboration, breaking with academic logic, without losing the conceptual rigor of the Freudian-Lacanian field in dialogue with other authors. The discussions presented reflect on which lives can be heard in analysis, online or otherwise, in varying unfoldings that circumscribe a contemporary clinic.

Resumen Este artículo consta de ocho cartas intercambiadas entre las autoras durante el mes de abril de 2020, teniendo como eje central el tema de los análisis en línea. En una retomada metodológica de la producción teórica a través de las correspondencias, ampliamente utilizadas entre Freud y sus interlocutores, se propone una costura en acto de conceptos acontecimientos sobre la atención mediada por las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación, así como de los desplazamientos en el estatuto de la escucha clínica, que repercute especialmente en el inconsciente, la presencia del analista y la cuestión del registro. La escritura epistolar posibilitó una elaboración afectuosa y no institucional, rompiendo con la lógica academicista, sin perder el rigor conceptual con el campo freudo-lacaniano en la interlocución con otros autores. Las discusiones que se presentan aquí reflexionan sobre cuáles vidas son susceptibles de escucha en los análisis, en línea o no, en diversos desplazamientos en materia de una clínica de la contemporaneidad.

Résumé Cet essai comprend huit lettres échangées entre les autrices au cours du mois d'avril 2020, sur le thème de l'analyse en ligne. Reprenant l'approche méthodologique de la production théorique par correspondance, largement utilisée par Freud et ses interlocuteurs, l'article tisse des concepts-événements concernant le soin psychologique médiatisé par les technologies de l'information et de la communication, ainsi que des déplacements du statut de l'écoute clinique, qui se répercutent notamment sur l'inconscient, la présence de l'analyste et la question de l'enregistrement. L'écriture épistolaire a permis une élaboration affectueuse et désinstitutionnalisée, en rupture avec la logique académique, sans perdre la rigueur conceptuelle du champ freudo-lacanien en dialogue avec d'autres auteurs. Les discussions présentées réfléchissent sur les vies qui peuvent être entendues en analyse, en ligne ou non, dans des déroulements divers qui circonscrivent une clinique du contemporain.

Humans , Female , Psychoanalysis/trends , Correspondence as Topic , Psychological Techniques/trends , Information Technology , COVID-19/psychology
Can Fam Physician ; 66(12): 940, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384054
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(18): 2376-2378, 2020 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1382454
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(14): 519-522, 2021 04 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384037


CDC's National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) collects and reports annual mortality statistics using data from U.S. death certificates. Because of the time needed to investigate certain causes of death and to process and review data, final annual mortality data for a given year are typically released 11 months after the end of the calendar year. Daily totals reported by CDC COVID-19 case surveillance are timely but can underestimate numbers of deaths because of incomplete or delayed reporting. As a result of improvements in timeliness and the pressing need for updated, quality data during the global COVID-19 pandemic, NVSS expanded provisional data releases to produce near real-time U.S. mortality data.* This report presents an overview of provisional U.S. mortality data for 2020, including the first ranking of leading causes of death. In 2020, approximately 3,358,814 deaths† occurred in the United States. From 2019 to 2020, the estimated age-adjusted death rate increased by 15.9%, from 715.2 to 828.7 deaths per 100,000 population. COVID-19 was reported as the underlying cause of death or a contributing cause of death for an estimated 377,883 (11.3%) of those deaths (91.5 deaths per 100,000). The highest age-adjusted death rates by age, race/ethnicity, and sex occurred among adults aged ≥85 years, non-Hispanic Black or African American (Black) and non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native (AI/AN) persons, and males. COVID-19 death rates were highest among adults aged ≥85 years, AI/AN and Hispanic persons, and males. COVID-19 was the third leading cause of death in 2020, after heart disease and cancer. Provisional death estimates provide an early indication of shifts in mortality trends and can guide public health policies and interventions aimed at reducing numbers of deaths that are directly or indirectly associated with the COVID-19 pandemic.

COVID-19/mortality , Mortality/trends , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/ethnology , Cause of Death/trends , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality/ethnology , United States/epidemiology , Vital Statistics , Young Adult
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 607, 2022 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1978774


INTRODUCTION: Clinical examinations (assessments) are integral to ensuring that medical students can treat patients safely and effectively. The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted traditional formats of clinical examinations. This prompted Medical Schools to adapt their approaches to conducting these examinations to make them suitable for delivery in the pandemic. This systematic review aims to identify the approaches that Medical Schools, internationally, adopted in adapting their clinical examinations of medical students in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Three databases and four key medical education journals were systematically searched up to 22 October 2021; a grey literature search was also undertaken. Two reviewers independently screened at title, abstract stage and full text stage against predefined eligibility criteria. Discrepancies were resolved by discussion and involvement of senior authors. Risk of bias assessment was performed using an adapted version of a pre-existing risk of bias assessment tool for medical education developments. Results were summarised in a narrative synthesis. RESULTS: A total of 36 studies were included, which documented the approaches of 48 Medical Schools in 17 countries. Approaches were categorised into in-person clinical examinations (22 studies) or online clinical examinations (14 studies). Authors of studies reporting in-person clinical examinations described deploying enhanced infection control measures along with modified patient participation. Authors of studies reporting online clinical examinations described using online software to create online examination circuits. All authors reported that adapted examinations were feasible, scores were comparable to previous years' student cohorts, and participant feedback was positive. Risk of bias assessment highlighted heterogeneity in reporting of the clinical examinations. CONCLUSIONS: This review identified two broad approaches to adapting clinical examinations in the pandemic: in-person and online. Authors reported it was feasible to conduct clinical examinations in the pandemic where medical educators are given sufficient time and resources to carefully plan and introduce suitable adaptations. However, the risk of bias assessment identified few studies with high reporting quality, which highlights the need for a common framework for reporting of medical education developments to enhance reproducibility across wider contexts. Our review provides medical educators with the opportunity to reflect on past practises and facilitate the design and planning of future examinations.

COVID-19 , Education, Medical/methods , Pandemics , Students, Medical , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Education, Medical/trends , Humans , Reproducibility of Results
Chaos ; 32(7): 073123, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1978070


In this study, we examine the impact of information-driven awareness on the spread of an epidemic from the perspective of resource allocation by comprehensively considering a series of realistic scenarios. A coupled awareness-resource-epidemic model on top of multiplex networks is proposed, and a Microscopic Markov Chain Approach is adopted to study the complex interplay among the processes. Through theoretical analysis, the infection density of the epidemic is predicted precisely, and an approximate epidemic threshold is derived. Combining both numerical calculations and extensive Monte Carlo simulations, the following conclusions are obtained. First, during a pandemic, the more active the resource support between individuals, the more effectively the disease can be controlled; that is, there is a smaller infection density and a larger epidemic threshold. Second, the disease can be better suppressed when individuals with small degrees are preferentially protected. In addition, there is a critical parameter of contact preference at which the effectiveness of disease control is the worst. Third, the inter-layer degree correlation has a "double-edged sword" effect on spreading dynamics. In other words, when there is a relatively lower infection rate, the epidemic threshold can be raised by increasing the positive correlation. By contrast, the infection density can be reduced by increasing the negative correlation. Finally, the infection density decreases when raising the relative weight of the global information, which indicates that global information about the epidemic state is more efficient for disease control than local information.

Epidemics , Resource Allocation , Epidemics/prevention & control , Epidemics/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Markov Chains , Models, Biological , Monte Carlo Method , Resource Allocation/statistics & numerical data , Resource Allocation/trends
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13149, 2022 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1972660


Covering the face with masks in public settings has been recommended since the start of the pandemic. Because faces provide information about identity, and that face masks hide a portion of the face, it is plausible to expect individuals who wear a mask to consider themselves less identifiable. Prior research suggests that perceived identifiability is positively related to prosocial behavior, and with two pre-registered field studies (total N = 5706) we provide a currently relevant and practical test of this relation. Our findings indicate that mask wearers and non-wearers display equivalent levels of helping behavior (Studies 1 and 2), although mask wearers have a lower level of perceived identifiability than those without a mask (Study 2). Overall, our findings suggest that claims that face masks are related to selfish behavior are not warranted, and that there is no practical link between perceived identifiability and prosocial behavior.

Altruism , COVID-19/prevention & control , Masks , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Masks/adverse effects , Masks/trends
JAMA ; 328(4): 360-366, 2022 07 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1971153


Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic caused a large decrease in US life expectancy in 2020, but whether a similar decrease occurred in 2021 and whether the relationship between income and life expectancy intensified during the pandemic are unclear. Objective: To measure changes in life expectancy in 2020 and 2021 and the relationship between income and life expectancy by race and ethnicity. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective ecological analysis of deaths in California in 2015 to 2021 to calculate state- and census tract-level life expectancy. Tracts were grouped by median household income (MHI), obtained from the American Community Survey, and the slope of the life expectancy-income gradient was compared by year and by racial and ethnic composition. Exposures: California in 2015 to 2019 (before the COVID-19 pandemic) and 2020 to 2021 (during the COVID-19 pandemic). Main Outcomes and Measures: Life expectancy at birth. Results: California experienced 1 988 606 deaths during 2015 to 2021, including 654 887 in 2020 to 2021. State life expectancy declined from 81.40 years in 2019 to 79.20 years in 2020 and 78.37 years in 2021. MHI data were available for 7962 of 8057 census tracts (98.8%; n = 1 899 065 deaths). Mean MHI ranged from $21 279 to $232 261 between the lowest and highest percentiles. The slope of the relationship between life expectancy and MHI increased significantly, from 0.075 (95% CI, 0.07-0.08) years per percentile in 2019 to 0.103 (95% CI, 0.098-0.108; P < .001) years per percentile in 2020 and 0.107 (95% CI, 0.102-0.112; P < .001) years per percentile in 2021. The gap in life expectancy between the richest and poorest percentiles increased from 11.52 years in 2019 to 14.67 years in 2020 and 15.51 years in 2021. Among Hispanic and non-Hispanic Asian, Black, and White populations, life expectancy declined 5.74 years among the Hispanic population, 3.04 years among the non-Hispanic Asian population, 3.84 years among the non-Hispanic Black population, and 1.90 years among the non-Hispanic White population between 2019 and 2021. The income-life expectancy gradient in these groups increased significantly between 2019 and 2020 (0.038 [95% CI, 0.030-0.045; P < .001] years per percentile among Hispanic individuals; 0.024 [95% CI: 0.005-0.044; P = .02] years per percentile among Asian individuals; 0.015 [95% CI, 0.010-0.020; P < .001] years per percentile among Black individuals; and 0.011 [95% CI, 0.007-0.015; P < .001] years per percentile among White individuals) and between 2019 and 2021 (0.033 [95% CI, 0.026-0.040; P < .001] years per percentile among Hispanic individuals; 0.024 [95% CI, 0.010-0.038; P = .002] years among Asian individuals; 0.024 [95% CI, 0.011-0.037; P = .003] years per percentile among Black individuals; and 0.013 [95% CI, 0.008-0.018; P < .001] years per percentile among White individuals). The increase in the gradient was significantly greater among Hispanic vs White populations in 2020 and 2021 (P < .001 in both years) and among Black vs White populations in 2021 (P = .04). Conclusions and Relevance: This retrospective analysis of census tract-level income and mortality data in California from 2015 to 2021 demonstrated a decrease in life expectancy in both 2020 and 2021 and an increase in the life expectancy gap by income level relative to the prepandemic period that disproportionately affected some racial and ethnic minority populations. Inferences at the individual level are limited by the ecological nature of the study, and the generalizability of the findings outside of California are unknown.

COVID-19 , Economic Status , Ethnicity , Life Expectancy , Pandemics , Racial Groups , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/ethnology , California/epidemiology , Economic Status/statistics & numerical data , Ethnicity/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Income/statistics & numerical data , Life Expectancy/ethnology , Life Expectancy/trends , Minority Groups/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/economics , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Racial Groups/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Socioeconomic Factors , United States/epidemiology
Enferm Clin ; 32: S54-S57, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966551


Positive COVID-19 cases in Malang City, Indonesia continue to increase. Until 04 August 2021, the COVID-19 update shows 3301 positive cases with 7754 cured and 832 deaths. This study aims to identify nurses preparedness in rural area community health centers during the COVID-19 pandemic in Malang for self-control to implement health protocol. This study intends to provide insights on controlling COVID-19 spread in Malang, Indonesia. This research is a quantitative study with correlative analytic observational design and a cross-sectional approach involving 120 nurses from 16 primary health centers. The results of the bivariate analysis using gamma correlation test are: knowledge factors (p = 0.005; r = 0.35), attitude (p = 0.000; r = 0.46), means of infrastructure (p = 0.000; r = 0.54), and self-control (p = 0.000; r = 0.52) for the quarantined COVID-19 patients. Knowledge, attitude, infrastructure, and safe house factors can influence self-control for COVID-19. In rural areas, health education-as education and empowerment for patient self-control-is an effort to encourage them to obey health protocol during the pandemic. Nurse readiness and preparedness during the pandemic is crucial for strengthening the assertive behavior commitment through self-control. This ensures the community's awareness of the importance of complying with health protocols for the common good. Mental nursing intervention needs to be added as a part of psychosocial therapy for the community's social problems, primarily in reducing the pressure due to the social distancing enforcement to control and prevent COVID-19 spread.

COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Community Health Centers/standards , Disasters , Nurses, Community Health , Pandemics , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/nursing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disasters/prevention & control , Humans , Indonesia/epidemiology , Nurses, Community Health/standards , Nurses, Community Health/trends , Pandemics/prevention & control , Rural Population