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1.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e929489, 2021 Mar 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1184052

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The damage caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been extensive. Pregnant women are a group requiring special attention in medicine given the anatomical and physiological changes that occur during pregnancy. Skin rash is commonly associated with pregnancy, with the most common form of an erythematous maculopapular rash being pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy. Skin rash is also an increasingly reported initial presentation in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), due to infection with SARS-CoV-2. CASE REPORT A 34-year-old woman with a diamniotic dichorionic twin pregnancy presented with clinical picture characterized by dermatological manifestations, namely an erythematous and papular skin rash associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. A real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (GeneFinder) test was positive for SARS-CoV-2 detection. CONCLUSIONS Ten months after the onset of this pandemic, there is no conclusive evidence indicating that pregnant women represent a sector more or less vulnerable to severe forms of COVID-19 than the general population. This report has highlighted the importance of performing a reliable diagnostic test for SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients who present with a skin rash, particularly pregnant women.


Subject(s)
/diagnosis , Erythema/virology , Exanthema/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Adult , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy, Twin
2.
Nutrition ; 84: 111106, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1182641

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has disproportionally affected a variety of patients with underlying risk factors such as respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, obesity, and black race. Vitamin D deficiency, which can result in a compromised immune response, has been also linked to increased risk and increased morbidities associated with COVID-19. In the absence of large-scale longitudinal studies to determine the strength of association between vitamin deficiency and COVID-19, cross-sectional studies of large patient cohorts can be used. METHODS: We used the i2b2 patient's registry platform at the University of Florida Health Center to generate a count of patients using the international classification of diseases (ICD)-10 diagnosis codes for the period of October 1, 2015, through June 30, 2020. Logistic regression of the aggregates was used for the analysis. RESULTS: Patients with vitamin D deficiency were 4.6 times more likely to be positive for COVID-19 (indicated by the ICD-10 diagnostic code COVID19) than patients with no deficiency (P < 0.001). The association decreased slightly after adjusting for sex (odds ratio [OR] = 4.58; P < 0.001) and malabsorption (OR = 4.46; P < 0.001), respectively. The association decreased significantly but remained robust (P < 0.001) after adjusting for race (OR = 3.76; P < 0.001), periodontal disease status (OR = 3.64; P < 0.001), diabetes (OR = 3.28; P < 0.001), and obesity (OR = 2.27; P < 0.001), respectively. In addition, patients with vitamin D deficiency were 5 times more likely to be infected with COVID-19 than patients with no deficiency after adjusting for age groups (OR = 5.155; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D deficiency is significantly associated with increased risk for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Florida/epidemiology , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Registries , Risk Factors , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Young Adult
3.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(3): e1008785, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1181165

ABSTRACT

Non-human primates infected with SARS-CoV-2 exhibit mild clinical signs. Here we used a mathematical model to characterize in detail the viral dynamics in 31 cynomolgus macaques for which nasopharyngeal and tracheal viral load were frequently assessed. We identified that infected cells had a large burst size (>104 virus) and a within-host reproductive basic number of approximately 6 and 4 in nasopharyngeal and tracheal compartment, respectively. After peak viral load, infected cells were rapidly lost with a half-life of 9 hours, with no significant association between cytokine elevation and clearance, leading to a median time to viral clearance of 10 days, consistent with observations in mild human infections. Given these parameter estimates, we predict that a prophylactic treatment blocking 90% of viral production or viral infection could prevent viral growth. In conclusion, our results provide estimates of SARS-CoV-2 viral kinetic parameters in an experimental model of mild infection and they provide means to assess the efficacy of future antiviral treatments.


Subject(s)
/virology , Macaca fascicularis/virology , /physiology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Basic Reproduction Number , /prevention & control , Cytokines/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Nasopharynx/virology , Trachea/virology , Viral Load , Virus Replication/drug effects
5.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 134(21): 2851-2871, 2020 11 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1177131

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is well-known for its role in blood pressure regulation via the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) but also functions in fertility, immunity, haematopoiesis and diseases such as obesity, fibrosis and Alzheimer's dementia. Like ACE, the human homologue ACE2 is also involved in blood pressure regulation and cleaves a range of substrates involved in different physiological processes. Importantly, it is the functional receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-coronavirus (CoV)-2 responsible for the 2020, coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Understanding the interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and ACE2 is crucial for the design of therapies to combat this disease. This review provides a comparative analysis of methodologies and findings to describe how structural biology techniques like X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy have enabled remarkable discoveries into the structure-function relationship of ACE and ACE2. This, in turn, has enabled the development of ACE inhibitors for the treatment of cardiovascular disease and candidate therapies for the treatment of COVID-19. However, despite these advances the function of ACE homologues in non-human organisms is not yet fully understood. ACE homologues have been discovered in the tissues, body fluids and venom of species from diverse lineages and are known to have important functions in fertility, envenoming and insect-host defence mechanisms. We, therefore, further highlight the need for structural insight into insect and venom ACE homologues for the potential development of novel anti-venoms and insecticides.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/enzymology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/enzymology , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Conformation , Receptors, Virus/chemistry , Structure-Activity Relationship
7.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 22(4): 310-317, 2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175474

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, the novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)) has spread to many countries around the world, developing into a global pandemic with increasing numbers of deaths reported worldwide. To data, although some vaccines have been developed, there are no ideal drugs to treat novel coronavirus pneumonia (coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)). By examining the structure of the coronavirus and briefly describing its possible pathogenesis based on recent autopsy reports conducted by various teams worldwide, this review analyzes the possible structural and functional changes of the human body upon infection with SARS-CoV-2. We observed that the most prominent pathological changes in COVID-19 patients are diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) of the lungs and microthrombus formation, resulting in an imbalance of the ventilation/perfusion ratio and respiratory failure. Although direct evidence of viral infection can also be found in other organs and tissues, the viral load is relatively small. The conclusion that the injuries of the extra-pulmonary organs are directly caused by the virus needs further investigation.


Subject(s)
/pathology , Lung/pathology , /physiopathology , Human Body , Humans , Immune Evasion , Lung/virology , Viral Load
8.
Orv Hetil ; 162(17): 652-667, 2021 04 10.
Article in Hungarian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175460

ABSTRACT

Összefoglaló. A SARS-CoV-2-fertozés ritka gyermekkori szövodménye a sokszervi gyulladás, angol terminológiával paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome (PIMS). Két vagy több szerv érintettségével járó, súlyos tünetekkel induló betegségrol van szó, amelynek tünetei átfedést mutatnak a Kawasaki-betegséggel, a toxikus sokk szindrómával és a makrofágaktivációs szindrómával. A PIMS-betegek intenzív terápiás osztályon vagy intenzív terápiás háttérrel rendelkezo intézményben kezelendok, ahol biztosítottak a kardiológiai ellátás feltételei is. A szükséges immunterápia a klinikai prezentációtól függ. A jelen közleményben a szerzok a releváns nemzetközi irodalom áttekintését követoen ajánlást tesznek a PIMS diagnosztikai és terápiás algoritmusára. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(17): 652-667. Summary. Pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome (PIMS) is a rare complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children. PIMS is a severe condition, involving two or more organ systems. The symptoms overlap with Kawasaki disease, toxic shock syndrome and macrophage activation syndrome. PIMS patients should be treated in an intensive care unit or in an institution with an intensive care background, where cardiological care is also provided. The required specific immunotherapy depends on the clinical presentation. In this paper, after reviewing the relevant international literature, the authors make a recommendation for the diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm for PIMS. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(17): 652-667.


Subject(s)
Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Algorithms , /diagnosis , /virology , Child , Critical Care , Humans , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 335, 2021 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175296

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Unusually high snowfall in western Washington State in February 2019 led to widespread school and workplace closures. We assessed the impact of social distancing caused by this extreme weather event on the transmission of respiratory viruses. METHODS: Residual specimens from patients evaluated for acute respiratory illness at hospitals in the Seattle metropolitan area were screened for a panel of respiratory viruses. Transmission models were fit to each virus to estimate the magnitude reduction in transmission due to weather-related disruptions. Changes in contact rates and care-seeking were informed by data on local traffic volumes and hospital visits. RESULTS: Disruption in contact patterns reduced effective contact rates during the intervention period by 16 to 95%, and cumulative disease incidence through the remainder of the season by 3 to 9%. Incidence reductions were greatest for viruses that were peaking when the disruption occurred and least for viruses in an early epidemic phase. CONCLUSION: High-intensity, short-duration social distancing measures may substantially reduce total incidence in a respiratory virus epidemic if implemented near the epidemic peak. For SARS-CoV-2, this suggests that, even when SARS-CoV-2 spread is out of control, implementing short-term disruptions can prevent COVID-19 deaths.


Subject(s)
Epidemics/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Infections/transmission , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Weather , Cities , Humans , Incidence , Models, Theoretical , Retrospective Studies , Washington
10.
Biosci Rep ; 41(1)2021 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174708

ABSTRACT

Millions of people infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been diagnosed with coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19). The prevalence and severity of COVID-19 differ between sexes. To explain these differences, we analyzed clinical features and laboratory values in male and female COVID-19 patients. The present study included a cohort of 111 people, i.e. 36 COVID-19 patients, 54 sex- and age-matched common viral community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients, and 21 healthy controls. Monocyte counts, lymphocyte subset counts, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in the peripheral blood were analyzed. Higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scores, monocyte counts, and CRP and ALT levels were found in male COVID-19 patients. Decreased lymphocyte subset counts and proportions were observed in COVID-19 patients, except for the CD3+ and CD8+ T cell proportions. The lower CD4+ T cell proportions and higher CD8+ T cell proportions were observed in male and severe COVID-19 patients and the differences were independent of estrogen level. The CD4+ T cell proportion was negatively associated with the CD8+ T cell proportion in male COVID-19 patients; this correlation was non-significant in females. Our work demonstrates differences between sexes in circulating monocyte counts and CD4+ T cell and CD8+ T cell proportions in COVID-19 patients, independent of estrogen levels, are associated with the clinical manifestations in COVID-19 patients with high specificity.


Subject(s)
/immunology , Immunity, Innate , Lymphocytes/virology , Monocytes/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , /pathogenicity , Adult , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , CD4-CD8 Ratio , /virology , Case-Control Studies , Community-Acquired Infections , Estradiol/blood , Female , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocytes/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 820, 2020 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-916970

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Respiratory infections are a serious threat to human health. So, rapid detection of all respiratory pathogens can facilitate prompt treatment and prevent the deterioration of respiratory disease. Previously published primers and probes of the TaqMan array card (TAC) for respiratory pathogens are not sensitive to Chinese clinical specimens. This study aimed to develop and improve the TAC assay to detect 28 respiratory viral and bacterial pathogens in a Chinese population. METHODS: To improve the sensitivity, we redesigned the primers and probes, and labeled the probes with minor groove binders. The amplification efficiency, sensitivity, and specificity of the primers and probes were determined using target-gene containing standard plasmids. The detection performance of the TAC was evaluated on 754 clinical specimens and the results were compared with those from conventional methods. RESULTS: The performance of the TAC assay was evaluated using 754 clinical throat swab samples and the results were compared with those from gold-standard methods. The sensitivity and specificity were 95.4 and 96.6%, respectively. The lowest detection limit of the TAC was 10 to 100 copies/µL. CONCLUSIONS: TAC is an efficient, accurate, and high-throughput approach to detecting multiple respiratory pathogens simultaneously and is a promising tool for the identification of pathogen outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Viruses/genetics , China/epidemiology , DNA Primers , Data Accuracy , Humans , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Sensitivity and Specificity
12.
Orv Hetil ; 162(16): 602-607, 2021 04 07.
Article in Hungarian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172895

ABSTRACT

Összefoglaló. Újabb megfigyelések szerint a SARS-CoV-2-fertozést követoen gyermekekben a paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome (PIMS) elnevezésu, sokkállapottal szövodött Kawasaki-megbetegedéshez hasonlító, többszervi elégtelenségnek megfelelo tünetegyüttes alakulhat ki. A gyermekek többségében ilyenkor a direkt víruskimutatás már sikertelen, azonban a SARS-CoV-2 ellen képzodött antitest igazolhatja a diagnózist. Dolgozatunk célja az egyik elso hazai eset ismertetése. Egy 15 éves fiú került gyermek intenzív osztályos felvételre több napon át észlelt magas láz, kesztyu-, zokniszeru exanthema, conjunctivitis, többszervi elégtelenség, szeptikus sokk tüneteivel, akut gyulladásra utaló laboratóriumi eltérésekkel és diffúz hasi panaszokkal. Felvételét megelozoen néhány héttel SARS-CoV-2-fertozésen esett át. Felvételekor a direkt víruskimutatás sikertelen volt, ám a SARS-CoV-2 elleni antitest vizsgálata pozitív lett. Komplex intenzív terápia mellett állapota stabilizálódott. Az irodalmi ajánlásoknak megfeleloen immunglobulin-, acetilszalicilsav- és szteroidkezelésben részesítettük, melynek hatására állapota maradványtünetek nélkül rendezodött. A növekvo esetszámú gyermekkori SARS-CoV-2-fertozés mellett egyre gyakrabban várható a SARS-CoV-2-fertozést követo, a Kawasaki-betegség tüneteire emlékezteto PIMS kialakulása. Gyermekekben súlyos szeptikus állapot és többszervi elégtelenség esetén gondolni kell a PIMS lehetoségére, mely esetenként intenzív osztályos ellátást és célzott terápiát igényel. Legjobb tudomásunk szerint a leírásra került beteg a Magyarországon diagnosztizált egyik legkorábbi eset. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(16): 602-607. Summary. Recently following SARS-CoV-2 infection, a new, multisystem disease (paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome, PIMS) with fever was recognized in children with shock and multiorgan failure. On of the first Hungarian cases will be described. A 15-year-old boy was admitted to the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit with persistent high fever, diffuse abdominal pain, septic shock, multiple organ failure, gloves- and socks-shaped cutan exanthema, conjunctivitis and laboratory signs of inflammation. Some weeks preceding his admission, symptoms of mild SARS-CoV-2 infection were revealed. At admission, the SARS-CoV-2 PCR and antigen tests were negative, however, the presence of IgG antibody was shown. Following complex supportive intensive care along with internationally recommended immunoglobulin, aspirin and steroid treatment, the patient was completely cured without any sequalae. In children after SARS-CoV-2 infection, PIMS could occur mimicking Kawasaki syndrome. At this time, in children virus PCR or antigen tests are usually negative already, but the presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibody could prove the preceding disease. Due to the increasing number of SARS-CoV-2 infections, the occurrence of post-SARS-CoV-2 PIMS in childhood is expected to increase. For paediatric patients, in case of severe septic state and multiple organ failure, PIMS should be also considered, which may require intensive care and targeted therapy. As far as we know, the described case is one of the earliest cases of PIMS in Hungary. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(16): 602-607.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain/etiology , Fever/etiology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Adolescent , /virology , Conjunctivitis/virology , Exanthema/virology , Hospitalization , Humans , Hungary , Inflammation/virology , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Male , Multiple Organ Failure/virology , Shock, Septic/virology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 606, 2020 Aug 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-718135

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infections due to Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) and Influenza virus (FLU) are leading causes of hospitalization in young children. Yet, there is little data on factors associated with antibiotic use in these patients. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, single-center study of all patients below 2 years of age hospitalized between 2014 and 2018. We compared children with RSV infection to children with FLU infection analyzing clinical characteristics and factors contributing to an increased rate of antimicrobial utilization. RESULTS: RSV infection was diagnosed in 476/573 (83.1%), FLU in 95/573 (16.6%), and RSV-FLU-co-infection in 2/573 (0.3%) patients. Median age was lower for RSV compared to FLU (4 vs. 12 months; p < 0.0001). Children with RSV had longer hospitalization (5 vs. 4 days; p = 0.0023) and needed oxygen more frequently (314/476 vs. 23/95; p < 0.0001) than FLU patients. There was no significant difference in the overall antibiotic utilization between RSV and FLU patients (136/476 vs. 21/95; p = 0.2107). Logistic regression analyses revealed that septic appearance on admission (odds ratio [OR] 8.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5-54.1), acute otitis media (OR 4.5, 95% CI 2.1-9.4), a longer oxygen therapy (OR 1.40; 95% CI 1.13-1.74) and a higher C-reactive protein (CRP) (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.5-2.0) were significantly associated with antibiotic use in both groups, but not age or pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: In our cohort, the rate of antibiotic utilization was comparable between RSV and FLU patients, while for both groups distinct clinical presentation and a high CRP value were associated with higher antibiotic use.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/diagnosis , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Coinfection/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Hyperbaric Oxygenation , Infant , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/virology , Length of Stay , Logistic Models , Male , Odds Ratio , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
15.
Infect Dis (Lond) ; 53(4): 274-280, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039080

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of respiratory virus infections (RVI) in patients undergoing autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-SCT) is not well described. METHODS: Our goal was to describe the epidemiology of respiratory virus infections (RVI) in patients undergoing autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-SCT) in a single tertiary centre observation study during two respiratory virus seasons (2015-2017). All symptomatic auto-SCT patients were tested for RVI by nasopharyngeal swab. RESULTS: 156 transplantation episodes were included, 69% were male and, the median age was 57 years. We detected 19 RVIs in 156 transplantation episodes (12%). The median time to RVI after hospitalization was 13 days [IQR 7-13] and 15/19 (79%) had a possible nosocomial origin (occurrence ≥ 5 days after admission). The nosocomial infections included 5/15 (33%) 'severe' RVIs (3 influenza viruses, 1 parainfluenza virus, and 1 adenovirus) as well as 10/15 (66%) non-severe virus infections (including human rhinovirus and human coronavirus). CONCLUSION: In approximately 10% of auto-SCT transplantation episodes, an RVI with likely nosocomial origin was detected and included 'severe viruses' such as influenza. Our study suggests that infection prevention measures in auto-SCT patients can be improved. ABBREVIATIONS: AdV: adenovirus; ALL: acute lymphatic leukaemia; AML: acute myeloid leukaemia; auto-SCT: autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation; hCoV: human coronavirus; HD: Hodgkin's disease; hMPV: human metapneumovirus; HRV: human rhinovirus; HSCT: allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation; IQR: interquartile range; GCT: germ cell tumour; MM: multiple myeloma; NHL: non-Hodgkin lymphoma; PIV: parainfluenza virus; RSV: respiratory syncytial virus.


Subject(s)
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Respiratory Tract Infections , Virus Diseases , Female , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Switzerland , Tertiary Care Centers , Virus Diseases/epidemiology
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(1)2020 Dec 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006614

ABSTRACT

Being opportunistic intracellular pathogens, viruses are dependent on the host for their replication. They hijack host cellular machinery for their replication and survival by targeting crucial cellular physiological pathways, including transcription, translation, immune pathways, and apoptosis. Immediately after translation, the host and viral proteins undergo a process called post-translational modification (PTM). PTMs of proteins involves the attachment of small proteins, carbohydrates/lipids, or chemical groups to the proteins and are crucial for the proteins' functioning. During viral infection, host proteins utilize PTMs to control the virus replication, using strategies like activating immune response pathways, inhibiting viral protein synthesis, and ultimately eliminating the virus from the host. PTM of viral proteins increases solubility, enhances antigenicity and virulence properties. However, RNA viruses are devoid of enzymes capable of introducing PTMs to their proteins. Hence, they utilize the host PTM machinery to promote their survival. Proteins from viruses belonging to the family: Togaviridae, Flaviviridae, Retroviridae, and Coronaviridae such as chikungunya, dengue, zika, HIV, and coronavirus are a few that are well-known to be modified. This review discusses various host and virus-mediated PTMs that play a role in the outcome during the infection.


Subject(s)
Protein Processing, Post-Translational , RNA Virus Infections/enzymology , RNA Virus Infections/virology , RNA Viruses/metabolism , RNA Viruses/pathogenicity , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Acetylation , Chikungunya virus/metabolism , Coronavirus/metabolism , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral , Glycosylation , HIV/metabolism , HIV/pathogenicity , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Phosphorylation , RNA Virus Infections/immunology , RNA Virus Infections/metabolism , RNA Viruses/immunology , Ubiquitination , Virus Replication/physiology , Zika Virus/metabolism , Zika Virus/pathogenicity
17.
Viruses ; 13(1)2020 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1025055

ABSTRACT

Bats are often claimed to be a major source for future viral epidemics, as they are associated with several viruses with zoonotic potential. Here we describe the presence and biodiversity of bats associated with intensive pig farms devoted to the production of heavy pigs in northern Italy. Since chiropters or signs of their presence were not found within animal shelters in our study area, we suggest that fecal viruses with high environmental resistance have the highest likelihood for spillover through indirect transmission. In turn, we investigated the circulation of mammalian orthoreoviruses (MRVs), coronaviruses (CoVs) and astroviruses (AstVs) in pigs and bats sharing the same environment. Results of our preliminary study did not show any bat virus in pigs suggesting that spillover from these animals is rare. However, several AstVs, CoVs and MRVs circulated undetected in pigs. Among those, one MRV was a reassortant strain carrying viral genes likely acquired from bats. On the other hand, we found a swine AstV and a MRV strain carrying swine genes in bat guano, indicating that viral exchange at the bat-pig interface might occur more frequently from pigs to bats rather than the other way around. Considering the indoor farming system as the most common system in the European Union (EU), preventive measures should focus on biosecurity rather than displacement of bats, which are protected throughout the EU and provide critical ecosystem services for rural settings.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera , Swine , Animals , Biodiversity , Chiroptera/virology , DNA Viruses/classification , DNA Viruses/genetics , Ecosystem , Phylogeny , RNA Viruses/classification , RNA Viruses/genetics , Reassortant Viruses/genetics , Swine/virology , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Swine Diseases/transmission , Swine Diseases/virology , Virus Diseases/veterinary
18.
J Trop Pediatr ; 67(1)2021 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171572

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 may produce neurological manifestations, including its occurrence in children, and newborns, which has been little reported so far in newborns with COVID-19. CASE: We present a case in Colombia, of community-acquired neonatal infection of SARS-CoV-2, with suggestive symptoms, such as fever, and showing neurological findings, such as drowsiness, poor suction and mild hypotonia for a short time. DISCUSSION: The clinical manifestations of SARS-COV-2 in neonates are beginning to be described in detail. We report a case of SARS-COV-2-associated neurological compromise in a newborn, with features of drowsiness, poor suction and hypotonia.


Subject(s)
/complications , Community-Acquired Infections/virology , Nervous System Diseases/virology , /diagnosis , Colombia , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Fever/virology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Muscle Hypotonia/virology , Sleepiness
19.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 727-732, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169498

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with droplets and contact as the main means of transmission. Since the first case appeared in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, the outbreak has gradually spread nationwide. Up to now, according to official data released by the Chinese health commission, the number of newly diagnosed patients has been declining, and the epidemic is gradually being controlled. Although most patients have mild symptoms and good prognosis after infection, some patients developed severe and die from multiple organ complications. The pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans remains unclear. Immune function is a strong defense against invasive pathogens and there is currently no specific antiviral drug against the virus. This article reviews the immunological changes of coronaviruses like SARS, MERS and other viral pneumonia similar to SARS-CoV-2. Combined with the published literature, the potential pathogenesis of COVID-19 is inferred, and the treatment recommendations for giving high-doses intravenous immunoglobulin and low-molecular-weight heparin anticoagulant therapy to severe type patients are proposed.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human/immunology , Mice , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS Virus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
20.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 221-236, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169480

ABSTRACT

A mysterious outbreak of atypical pneumonia in late 2019 was traced to a seafood wholesale market in Wuhan of China. Within a few weeks, a novel coronavirus tentatively named as 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) was announced by the World Health Organization. We performed bioinformatics analysis on a virus genome from a patient with 2019-nCoV infection and compared it with other related coronavirus genomes. Overall, the genome of 2019-nCoV has 89% nucleotide identity with bat SARS-like-CoVZXC21 and 82% with that of human SARS-CoV. The phylogenetic trees of their orf1a/b, Spike, Envelope, Membrane and Nucleoprotein also clustered closely with those of the bat, civet and human SARS coronaviruses. However, the external subdomain of Spike's receptor binding domain of 2019-nCoV shares only 40% amino acid identity with other SARS-related coronaviruses. Remarkably, its orf3b encodes a completely novel short protein. Furthermore, its new orf8 likely encodes a secreted protein with an alpha-helix, following with a beta-sheet(s) containing six strands. Learning from the roles of civet in SARS and camel in MERS, hunting for the animal source of 2019-nCoV and its more ancestral virus would be important for understanding the origin and evolution of this novel lineage B betacoronavirus. These findings provide the basis for starting further studies on the pathogenesis, and optimizing the design of diagnostic, antiviral and vaccination strategies for this emerging infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Genome, Viral , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Amino Acid Sequence , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , China , Humans , Phylogeny , Sequence Analysis, Protein , Travel , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/genetics
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