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1.
Am J Clin Pathol ; 158(2): 167-172, 2022 Aug 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032012

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Despite the clear benefits of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination in mitigating the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, there are emerging reports of postvaccination myocarditis, the majority of which are diagnosed based on the clinical and radiologic findings without biopsy confirmation. We report a case of biopsy-confirmed lymphohistiocytic myocarditis after Moderna mRNA-1273 vaccination. METHODS: We describe a case of a previously healthy 45-year-old woman who had palpitations, exercise intolerance, and syncope 1 week after her first mRNA-1273 vaccine dose. Laboratory tests and cardiac imaging were compatible with myocarditis. Given her unusual clinical presentation, an endomyocardial biopsy was performed to exclude other potential etiologies. RESULTS: The endomyocardial biopsy specimen showed patchy endocardial and intramyocardial lymphohistiocytic infiltrates with scattered eosinophils and focal myocyte injury. CD3 and CD68 immunostains confirmed the lymphocytic and histiocytic nature of the infiltrate, respectively. A focal histiocytic collection suggestive of an ill-defined granuloma was present. The histologic and immunohistochemical findings of a lymphohistiocytic myocarditis were highly suggestive of a postvaccination hypersensitivity reaction. CONCLUSIONS: Myocarditis following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination is a rare adverse event. The findings of a lymphohistiocytic myocarditis with scattered eosinophils and a possible ill-defined granuloma are highly suggestive of a hypersensitivity reaction. The mechanism by which this inflammation occurs remains uncertain. Despite our findings, the benefits of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination far outweigh the risks.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , COVID-19 , Myocarditis , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Granuloma , Humans , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocarditis/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 9(4)2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962935

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Evidence regarding the safety and efficacy of messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) after immunosuppressive therapies is scarce. Our aim is to determine whether the mRNA-1273 vaccine is safe and able to induce humoral and cellular responses in patients with MG. METHODS: We performed an observational, longitudinal, prospective study including 100 patients with MG of a referral center for MG in our country, conducted from April 2021 to November 2021 during the vaccination campaign. The mRNA-1273 vaccine was scheduled for all participants. Blood samples were collected before vaccination and 3 months after a second dose. Clinical changes in MG were measured using the MG activities of daily life score at baseline and 1 week after the first and second doses. A surveillance of all symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was conducted throughout the study. Humoral and cellular immune responses after vaccination were assessed using a spike-antibody ELISA and interferon gamma release assay in plasma. The primary outcomes were clinically significant changes in MG symptoms after vaccination, adverse events (AEs), and seroconversion and T-cell immune response rates. RESULTS: Ninety-nine patients completed the full vaccination schedule, and 98 had 2 blood samples taken. A statistically significant worsening of symptoms was identified after the first and second doses of the mRNA-1273 vaccine, but this was not clinically relevant. Mild AEs occurred in 14 patients after the first dose and in 21 patients after the second dose. Eighty-seven patients developed a humoral response and 72 patients showed a T-cell response after vaccination. A combined therapy with prednisone and other immunosuppressive drugs correlated with a lower seroconversion ratio (OR = 5.97, 95% CI 1.46-24.09, p = 0.015) and a lower T-cell response ratio (OR = 2.83, 95% CI 1.13-7.13, p = 0.024). DISCUSSION: Our findings indicate that the mRNA vaccination against COVID-19 is safe in patients with MG and show no negative impact on the disease course. Patients achieved high humoral and cellular immune response levels. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class IV evidence that patients with MG receiving the mRNA-1273 vaccine did not show clinical worsening after vaccination and that most of the patients achieved high cellular or immune response levels.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , COVID-19 , Myasthenia Gravis , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/adverse effects , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Longitudinal Studies , Myasthenia Gravis/complications , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
3.
BMJ ; 378: e070483, 2022 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1932664

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of adverse events associated with heterologous primary (two dose) and booster (three dose) vaccine schedules for covid-19 with Oxford-AstraZeneca's ChAdOx1-S priming followed by mRNA vaccines (Pfizer-BioNTech's BNT162b2 or Moderna's mRNA-1273) as compared with homologous mRNA vaccine schedules for covid-19. DESIGN: Nationwide cohort study. SETTING: Denmark, 1 January 2021 to 26 March 2022. PARTICIPANTS: Adults aged 18-65 years who received a heterologous vaccine schedule of priming with ChAdOx1-S and one or two mRNA booster doses (with either the BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 vaccine) were compared with adults who received a homologous BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 vaccine schedule (ie, two dose v two dose, and three dose v three dose schedule). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The incidence of hospital contacts for a range of adverse cardiovascular and haemostatic events within 28 days after the second or third vaccine dose, comparing heterologous versus homologous vaccine schedules. Secondary outcomes included additional prioritised adverse events of special interest. Poisson regression was used to estimate incidence rate ratios with adjustment for selected covariates. RESULTS: Individuals who had had a heterologous primary vaccine (n=137 495) or a homologous vaccine (n=2 688 142) were identified, in addition to those who had had a heterologous booster (n=129 770) or a homologous booster (n=2 197 213). Adjusted incidence rate ratios of adverse cardiovascular and haemostatic events within 28 days for the heterologous primary and booster vaccine schedules in comparison with the homologous mRNA vaccine schedules were 1.22 (95% confidence interval 0.79 to 1.91) and 1.00 (0.58 to 1.72) for ischaemic cardiac events, 0.74 (0.40 to 1.34) and 0.72 (0.37 to 1.42) for cerebrovascular events, 1.12 (0.13 to 9.58) and 4.74 (0.94 to 24.01) for arterial thromboembolisms, 0.79 (0.45 to 1.38) and 1.09 (0.60 to 1.98) for venous thromboembolisms, 0.84 (0.18 to 3.96) and 1.04 (0.60 to 4.55) for myocarditis or pericarditis, 0.97 (0.45 to 2.10) and 0.89 (0.21 to 3.77) for thrombocytopenia and coagulative disorders, and 1.39 (1.01 to 1.91) and 1.02 (0.70 to 1.47) for other bleeding events, respectively. No associations with any of the outcomes were found when restricting to serious adverse events defined as stay in hospital for more than 24 h. CONCLUSION: Heterologous primary and booster covid-19 vaccine schedules of ChAdOx1-S priming and mRNA booster doses as both second and third doses were not associated with increased risk of serious adverse events compared with homologous mRNA vaccine schedules. These results are reassuring but given the rarity of some of the adverse events, associations cannot be excluded.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hemostatics , Thromboembolism , mRNA Vaccines , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/adverse effects , Adult , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cohort Studies , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , RNA, Messenger , Thromboembolism/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines/adverse effects
4.
BioDrugs ; 36(4): 509-520, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906579

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The comparative safety profile of SARS-Cov2 vaccines requires further characterization in real-world settings. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the VigilVacCOVID study was to assess the short-term safety of BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 during the vaccination campaign of healthcare professionals (HCPs) and solid-organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) at a hospital clinic. METHODS: We conducted an observational, prospective, single-center, post-authorization study to characterize short-term adverse reactions (ARs) after vaccination. The primary endpoint was to assess between-vaccine differences (HCPs receiving BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273) and between-population differences (HCPs and SOTRs, both receiving mRNA-1273) in the risk of any ARs. Propensity score and covariate-adjusted multivariate models were used. The key secondary endpoint was to provide a descriptive assessment of the frequencies and intensity distribution of ARs. RESULTS: We included 5088 HCPs and 1289 patients. mRNA-1273 showed greater reactogenicity than BNT162b2, with an odds ratio (OR) for any AR of 3.04 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.48-3.73; p value: < 0.001) and a higher frequency and intensity of reported ARs. Compared with HCPs vaccinated with mRNA-1273, SOTRs showed a lower risk of ARs (OR = 0.36; 95% CI 0.25-0.50), with fewer and less severe ARs. Age, sex, and previous SARS-CoV-2 infection were statistically significant covariates for the risk of any AR. A history of drug allergy was significant in the comparison between vaccines (BNT162b2 vs. mRNA-1273), but not in that between SOTRs and HCPs. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that mRNA-1273 had greater reactogenicity than BNT162b2. Overall, both vaccines had an adequate tolerability profile. mRNA-1273 vaccination caused fewer ARs with milder severity in SOTRs.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , BNT162 Vaccine , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/adverse effects , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Immunization Programs , Male , Prospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers
6.
Int J Hematol ; 116(1): 55-59, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1877965

ABSTRACT

Autoimmune and complement-related hematological side effects have been observed with messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) vaccines. Here, we report the incidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine-induced hemolysis in patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH). We reviewed the medical records of seventeen patients with PNH visiting the University of Tsukuba Hospital who had received two doses of the SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine between May 2021 and November 2021. Twelve patients were being treated with complement inhibitors. The median age of all patients was 62 years (range 29-89 years).; six were males and eleven were females. Fourteen patients received the BNT162b2 vaccine (Pfizer/BioNTech) and three received the mRNA-1273 vaccine (Moderna). The median percentages of PNH clones in erythrocytes and granulocytes were 37.61% (range 8.11-85.71%) and 59.73% (range 3.76-97.82%), respectively. Of the twelve patients receiving complement inhibitors, only one had a hemolytic reaction after vaccination, but it did not meet the definition of breakthrough hemolysis. By contrast, hemolytic attacks were observed in two of the five untreated patients with PNH, and one of them required a blood transfusion. Appropriate administration of complement inhibitors to patients with PNH may prevent hemolysis induced by SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal , Hemolysis , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/adverse effects , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Complement Inactivating Agents/therapeutic use , Female , Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal/complications , Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
8.
Diabetes ; 71(8): 1800-1806, 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847103

ABSTRACT

Patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) may develop severe outcomes during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but their ability to generate an immune response against the SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines remains to be established. We evaluated the safety, immunogenicity, and glycometabolic effects of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) mRNA vaccines in patients with T1D. A total of 375 patients (326 with T1D and 49 subjects without diabetes) who received two doses of the SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines (mRNA-1273, BNT162b2) between March and April 2021 at ASST Fatebenefratelli Sacco were included in this monocentric observational study. Local and systemic adverse events were reported in both groups after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination, without statistical differences between them. While both patients with T1D and subjects without diabetes exhibited a parallel increase in anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike titers after vaccination, the majority of patients with T1D (70% and 78%, respectively) did not show any increase in the SARS-CoV-2-specific cytotoxic response compared with the robust increase observed in all subjects without diabetes. A reduced secretion of the T-cell-related cytokines interleukin-2 and tumor necrosis factor-α in vaccinated patients with T1D was also observed. No glycometabolic alterations were evident in patients with T1D using continuous glucose monitoring during follow-up. Administration of the SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine is associated with an impaired cellular SARS-CoV-2-specific cytotoxic immune response in patients with T1D.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , BNT162 Vaccine , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/adverse effects , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/immunology , Humans
9.
N Engl J Med ; 386(21): 2011-2023, 2022 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1839612

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccination of children to prevent coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is an urgent public health need. The safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of the mRNA-1273 vaccine in children 6 to 11 years of age are unknown. METHODS: Part 1 of this ongoing phase 2-3 trial was open label for dose selection; part 2 was an observer-blinded, placebo-controlled expansion evaluation of the selected dose. In part 2, we randomly assigned children (6 to 11 years of age) in a 3:1 ratio to receive two injections of mRNA-1273 (50 µg each) or placebo, administered 28 days apart. The primary objectives were evaluation of the safety of the vaccine in children and the noninferiority of the immune response in these children to that in young adults (18 to 25 years of age) in a related phase 3 trial. Secondary objectives included determination of the incidences of confirmed Covid-19 and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, regardless of symptoms. Interim analysis results are reported. RESULTS: In part 1 of the trial, 751 children received 50-µg or 100-µg injections of the mRNA-1273 vaccine, and on the basis of safety and immunogenicity results, the 50-µg dose level was selected for part 2. In part 2 of the trial, 4016 children were randomly assigned to receive two injections of mRNA-1273 (50 µg each) or placebo and were followed for a median of 82 days (interquartile range, 14 to 94) after the first injection. This dose level was associated with mainly low-grade, transient adverse events, most commonly injection-site pain, headache, and fatigue. No vaccine-related serious adverse events, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, myocarditis, or pericarditis were reported as of the data-cutoff date. One month after the second injection (day 57), the neutralizing antibody titer in children who received mRNA-1273 at a 50-µg level was 1610 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1457 to 1780), as compared with 1300 (95% CI, 1171 to 1443) at the 100-µg level in young adults, with serologic responses in at least 99.0% of the participants in both age groups, findings that met the prespecified noninferiority success criterion. Estimated vaccine efficacy was 88.0% (95% CI, 70.0 to 95.8) against Covid-19 occurring 14 days or more after the first injection, at a time when B.1.617.2 (delta) was the dominant circulating variant. CONCLUSIONS: Two 50-µg doses of the mRNA-1273 vaccine were found to be safe and effective in inducing immune responses and preventing Covid-19 in children 6 to 11 years of age; these responses were noninferior to those in young adults. (Funded by the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; KidCOVE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04796896.).


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , COVID-19 , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/adverse effects , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Child , Double-Blind Method , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Vaccine Efficacy , Young Adult
11.
J Clin Virol ; 150-151: 105156, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773461

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Taiwan, the vaccination program started in March 2021, with ChAdOx1-S being the first available WHO-approved COVID-19 vaccine, followed by Moderna vaccine. This study aimed to investigate the immunogenicity and safety of homologous and heterologous prime-boost regimens with ChAdOx1-S and mRNA-1273. METHODS: From March to November 2021, homologous or heterologous regimens with ChAdOx1-S and mRNA-1273 vaccination (ChAdOx1-S/ChAdOx1-S, mRNA-1273/mRNA-1273, ChAdOx1-S/mRNA-1273) were given to 945 healthy participants. Serum samples were collected at designated time points. The anti-RBD/S1 antibody titers and neutralizing ability were measured by three different immunoassays: Elecsys® Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany), AdviseDx SARS-CoV-2 IgG II (Abbott Diagnostics Division, Sligo, Ireland), and cPass™ SARS-CoV-2 Neutralization Antibody Detection Kit (GenScript, New Jersey, USA). RESULTS: We found that heterologous vaccination with ChAdOx1-S/mRNA-1273 had an acceptable safety profile and induced higher total anti-RBD/S1 antibody production (p < 0.0001), yet lower anti-RBD/S1 IgG titer (p < 0.0001) and neutralizing ability (p = 0.0101) than mRNA-1273/mRNA-1273 group. Both regimens showed higher antibody titers and superior neutralizing abilities than ChAdOx1-S/ChAdOx1-S. An age-dependent antibody response to ChAdOx1-S/mRNA-1273 was shown after both the priming and the booster doses. Younger age was associated with higher antibody production and neutralizing ability. CONCLUSIONS: Heterologous ChAdOx1-S/mRNA-1273 vaccination regimen is generally safe and induces a robust humoral immune response that is non-inferior to that of mRNA-1273/mRNA-1273.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , COVID-19 , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/adverse effects , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/adverse effects , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , Taiwan , Vaccination
12.
Indian J Tuberc ; 69(3): 369-370, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768194

ABSTRACT

We report an interesting case of an indeterminate MTB QuantiFERON for a 26-year-old healthy soldier planned for a routine field exercise to Brunei. Further medical history revealed that the patient had a Moderna mRNA Covid-19 vaccine the day before his MTB QuantiFERON test. The patient was subsequently asked to repeat a T-spot test which was non-reactive, there were no longer any issues with the positive control for the T-spot test. Current Covid-19 research suggests that infection causes a dysregulation of the immune system, perhaps this might also be extrapolated where a Covid-19 vaccine might provoke an immune response which might interfere with some immunological assays. In summary there should be more research invested into the immunological interactions that the newly developed Covid-19 vaccinations have with our existing immunological tests such as QuantiFERON tests which forms a key cornerstone in our fight against tuberculosis.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , COVID-19 , Tuberculin Test , Tuberculosis, Lymph Node , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/administration & dosage , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/adverse effects , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , False Negative Reactions , Humans , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Lymph Node/diagnosis , Vaccination
14.
Breastfeed Med ; 17(5): 412-421, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735499

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Breastfeeding women are generally excluded from clinical trials with new vaccines. The objective of the study was to explore whether the BNT162b2 mRNA and mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccines are safe for breastfeeding mothers and their breastfed infants. Methods: A convenience sample prospective cohort single institution study was performed on breastfeeding health care professionals, who were exposed to second dose of SARS-CoV2 vaccine at the beginning of the study period. They and their breastfed children's symptoms were followed up through online questionnaires for 14 days. Results: Of the 95 finally included participants, only 1 was lost to follow-up on day 7. Mean age of the mothers was 35.9 ± 3.9 years and that of their infants was 14.6 ± 12.1 months. At least one adverse event was reported by 85% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 76-91.5%) of the mothers. The most frequent was injection site pain in 81% of cases. Moreover, 31% (95% CI: 22-41%) observed some event in their breastfed children. Most frequently, 19% (95% CI: 13-30%) of the children were irritable. During the 14 days of follow-up, 36% of the children (95% CI: 27-46%) were diagnosed with respiratory infection. Conclusions: Most mothers' reactions were mild and transitory, generally limited to the first 3 days after vaccination. Many children's events were associated with concomitant infectious processes and we did not detect a notable peak on any particular day of follow-up. Neither mothers nor their infants developed serious adverse events nor were they diagnosed with COVID-19 within the study period.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/adverse effects , Adult , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , Breast Feeding , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Infant , Mothers , Prospective Studies , Vaccination/adverse effects
15.
J Med Virol ; 94(4): 1566-1580, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718403

ABSTRACT

To analyze the clinical presentation and outcomes of myocarditis after administration of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine. Nine case series and 15 case reports (74 patients) of myocarditis after administration of the BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 vaccine were reviewed from PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science. We analyzed clinical manifestations, diagnostic findings, and outcomes. In addition, we performed a pooled analysis and investigated risk factors leading to admission to the intensive care unit and recovery with conservative care. Most patients were male (94.6%), and the median age (range) was 17.6 (14-70) years. Patients who received the BNT162b2 (n = 58, 78.4%) vaccine presented fewer systemic symptoms and left ventricular dysfunction than mRNA-1273 recipients. Although patients under 20 years experienced more fever and myalgia, they had better ejection fraction and less prominent myocardial inflammation in magnetic resonance imaging than older patients. The clinical course of all patients was favorable without mortality, and one-third of patients resolved with conservative care alone. Risk factor analyses revealed that patients with gastrointestinal symptoms required intensive care (odds ratio: 20.3, 95% confidence interval 1.90-217, p = 0.013). The risk of fatality in myocarditis subjected to mRNA vaccination seems to be low. However, patients with gastrointestinal symptoms received more intensive care, and a significant proportion of patients recovered with conservative management.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/adverse effects , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Myocarditis/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Young Adult
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(6): e28756, 2022 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684895

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: The new vaccines are emergently authorized and currently approved for use to protect against the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and serious adverse events are uncommon. Moyamoya disease (MMD) with autoimmune disease is a rare entity and usually presents with intracranial hemorrhage in adults. PATIENT CONCERNS: We reported a 40-year-old female patient with Sjogren disease and autoimmune thyroiditis, who had received the second dose of Moderna (mRNA-1273) vaccination. Three days later, she presented with left intraventricular and intracerebral hemorrhage as a complication. DIAGNOSIS: After a series of diagnostic workups, left intracranial hemorrhage was associated with MMD. INTERVENTIONS: Emergent external ventricular drainage and subsequent stereotactic evacuation of hematoma with insertion of intracranial pressure monitoring were performed. OUTCOMES: Under the care of the neurocritical care team, her physical condition improved gradually. The neurological sequelae was noted by defects of cognitive function, apraxia, agnosia, and impaired executive function. She was discharged after eight weeks with a follow-up in the vascular neurology clinic planning for performing revascularization. LESSONS: To the best of our knowledge, no similar case has been reported before, and this is the first case of MMD complicated with intracerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage after mRNA-1273 vaccination. It is noticeable to assess the vaccine safety surveillance and raise the alertness about moyamoya in patients with autoimmune diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic. Further studies for risk evaluation of COVID-19 vaccines in patients with autoimmune diseases might be required in the future.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cerebral Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Intracranial Hemorrhages/chemically induced , Moyamoya Disease/complications , Thyroiditis, Autoimmune/complications , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/administration & dosage , Adult , Female , Humans , Pandemics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sjogren's Syndrome
17.
CEN Case Rep ; 11(3): 358-362, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650017

ABSTRACT

As mRNA COVID-19 vaccines have become widely available, cases of new-onset glomerular disease after receiving COVID-19 vaccination have been reported. Here, we present a case of kidney biopsy-proven new-onset IgA vasculitis after receiving the mRNA-1273 (Moderna) COVID-19 vaccination. A 47-year-old man with a 10-year medical history of hypertension and hyperuricemia visited our hospital 19 days after receiving an initial mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine injection for purpuric eruption on the legs and dorsal regions of the feet. Although the eruptions spontaneously improved within 5 days, they developed again at 15 days after the second injection. A histopathological examination of skin biopsy specimens was reminiscent of leukocytoclastic vasculitis, though direct immunofluorescence did not indicate IgA deposition within small vessel walls. Urinalysis indicated severe proteinuria (3 +) and occult blood (3 +). Thus, a kidney biopsy was performed and light microscopy revealed mild mesangial expansion, hypercellularity, and endocapillary hypercellularity, with cellular and fibrocellular crescents observed in three and one, respectively, of a total of 15 glomeruli. Immunofluorescence also showed diffuse granular mesangial staining (3 +) for IgA. Histopathological features were consistent with IgA vasculitis. Intravenous methylprednisolone at 1000 mg for 3 days was initiated, followed by oral prednisolone (0.6 mg/kg/day). Over the following 2-week period, serum creatinine level improved from 1.24 to 1.06 mg/dL and proteinuria decreased from 2.98 to 0.36 g/g Cr, though occult blood persisted. Findings in the present case indicate that new-onset IgA vasculitis after receiving mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine can be treated with corticosteroid therapy.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , COVID-19 , Glomerulonephritis, IGA , IgA Vasculitis , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/adverse effects , Biopsy , COVID-19/diagnosis , Glomerular Mesangium/pathology , Glomerulonephritis, IGA/chemically induced , Glomerulonephritis, IGA/diagnosis , Humans , IgA Vasculitis/chemically induced , IgA Vasculitis/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin A , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Proteinuria/etiology
18.
JAMA ; 327(4): 331-340, 2022 01 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649976

ABSTRACT

Importance: Vaccination against COVID-19 provides clear public health benefits, but vaccination also carries potential risks. The risks and outcomes of myocarditis after COVID-19 vaccination are unclear. Objective: To describe reports of myocarditis and the reporting rates after mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccination in the US. Design, Setting, and Participants: Descriptive study of reports of myocarditis to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) that occurred after mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccine administration between December 2020 and August 2021 in 192 405 448 individuals older than 12 years of age in the US; data were processed by VAERS as of September 30, 2021. Exposures: Vaccination with BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) or mRNA-1273 (Moderna). Main Outcomes and Measures: Reports of myocarditis to VAERS were adjudicated and summarized for all age groups. Crude reporting rates were calculated across age and sex strata. Expected rates of myocarditis by age and sex were calculated using 2017-2019 claims data. For persons younger than 30 years of age, medical record reviews and clinician interviews were conducted to describe clinical presentation, diagnostic test results, treatment, and early outcomes. Results: Among 192 405 448 persons receiving a total of 354 100 845 mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines during the study period, there were 1991 reports of myocarditis to VAERS and 1626 of these reports met the case definition of myocarditis. Of those with myocarditis, the median age was 21 years (IQR, 16-31 years) and the median time to symptom onset was 2 days (IQR, 1-3 days). Males comprised 82% of the myocarditis cases for whom sex was reported. The crude reporting rates for cases of myocarditis within 7 days after COVID-19 vaccination exceeded the expected rates of myocarditis across multiple age and sex strata. The rates of myocarditis were highest after the second vaccination dose in adolescent males aged 12 to 15 years (70.7 per million doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine), in adolescent males aged 16 to 17 years (105.9 per million doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine), and in young men aged 18 to 24 years (52.4 and 56.3 per million doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine and the mRNA-1273 vaccine, respectively). There were 826 cases of myocarditis among those younger than 30 years of age who had detailed clinical information available; of these cases, 792 of 809 (98%) had elevated troponin levels, 569 of 794 (72%) had abnormal electrocardiogram results, and 223 of 312 (72%) had abnormal cardiac magnetic resonance imaging results. Approximately 96% of persons (784/813) were hospitalized and 87% (577/661) of these had resolution of presenting symptoms by hospital discharge. The most common treatment was nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (589/676; 87%). Conclusions and Relevance: Based on passive surveillance reporting in the US, the risk of myocarditis after receiving mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines was increased across multiple age and sex strata and was highest after the second vaccination dose in adolescent males and young men. This risk should be considered in the context of the benefits of COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/adverse effects , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , Myocarditis/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Immunization, Secondary/adverse effects , Male , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Sex Distribution , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
20.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 52(2): e13713, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541727

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 and some anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines trigger a humoral autoimmune response against a broad range of endogenous components, which may affect recipients' prognosis in predisposed individuals. Autoantibodies directed against apolipoprotein A-1 (AAA1 IgG) the major protein fraction of High Density Lipoprotein have been shown to be raised in COVID-19 and in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and other populations where they have been associated with poorer outcomes. We wanted to assess the impact of anti-SARS-CoV-2 mRNA-based vaccination on AAA1 autoimmune biomarkers in RA patients. METHODS: 20 healthy controls and 77 RA mRNA-based vaccinated patients were collected at baseline, 3 weeks after the first vaccination, 2 and 8 weeks after the second vaccination. AAA1 and SARS-CoV-2 serologies were measured by immunoassays. Systemic and local symptoms occurring during the vaccination protocol were recorded. RESULTS: mRNA-based vaccination induced a significant increase in median AAA1 IgG levels in both healthy controls and RA patients overtime. However, in both populations, these medians trend did not translate into significant increase in AAA1 IgG seropositivity rates despite evolving from 5 to 10% in healthy controls, and from 9 to 12.9% in RA patients. No associations were retrieved between AAA1 IgG and symptoms of any kind during the vaccination protocol. CONCLUSIONS: mRNA-based vaccination seems to induce a light AAA1 IgG response in immunocompetent individuals within 2 months after the last injection. Although we did not observe any warning signs, the formal demonstration of the harmlessness of such biological warrants further studies.


Subject(s)
Apolipoprotein A-I/immunology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/immunology , Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , mRNA Vaccines/adverse effects , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/adverse effects , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , BNT162 Vaccine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Immunocompetence , Immunoglobulin G , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , mRNA Vaccines/therapeutic use
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