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1.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 9(4)2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962935

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Evidence regarding the safety and efficacy of messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) after immunosuppressive therapies is scarce. Our aim is to determine whether the mRNA-1273 vaccine is safe and able to induce humoral and cellular responses in patients with MG. METHODS: We performed an observational, longitudinal, prospective study including 100 patients with MG of a referral center for MG in our country, conducted from April 2021 to November 2021 during the vaccination campaign. The mRNA-1273 vaccine was scheduled for all participants. Blood samples were collected before vaccination and 3 months after a second dose. Clinical changes in MG were measured using the MG activities of daily life score at baseline and 1 week after the first and second doses. A surveillance of all symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was conducted throughout the study. Humoral and cellular immune responses after vaccination were assessed using a spike-antibody ELISA and interferon gamma release assay in plasma. The primary outcomes were clinically significant changes in MG symptoms after vaccination, adverse events (AEs), and seroconversion and T-cell immune response rates. RESULTS: Ninety-nine patients completed the full vaccination schedule, and 98 had 2 blood samples taken. A statistically significant worsening of symptoms was identified after the first and second doses of the mRNA-1273 vaccine, but this was not clinically relevant. Mild AEs occurred in 14 patients after the first dose and in 21 patients after the second dose. Eighty-seven patients developed a humoral response and 72 patients showed a T-cell response after vaccination. A combined therapy with prednisone and other immunosuppressive drugs correlated with a lower seroconversion ratio (OR = 5.97, 95% CI 1.46-24.09, p = 0.015) and a lower T-cell response ratio (OR = 2.83, 95% CI 1.13-7.13, p = 0.024). DISCUSSION: Our findings indicate that the mRNA vaccination against COVID-19 is safe in patients with MG and show no negative impact on the disease course. Patients achieved high humoral and cellular immune response levels. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class IV evidence that patients with MG receiving the mRNA-1273 vaccine did not show clinical worsening after vaccination and that most of the patients achieved high cellular or immune response levels.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , COVID-19 , Myasthenia Gravis , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/adverse effects , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Longitudinal Studies , Myasthenia Gravis/complications , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
2.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(7)2022 Jul 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917620

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Hemodialysis patients (HD) and kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) have been heavily impacted by COVID-19, showing increased risk of infection, worse clinical outcomes, and higher mortality rates than the general population. Although mass vaccination remains the most successful measure in counteracting the pandemic, less evidence is available on vaccine effectiveness in immunodepressed subjects previously infected and recovered from COVID-19. Materials and Methods: This study aimed at investigating the ability to develop an adequate antibody response after vaccination in a 2-dose series against SARS-CoV-2 in HD patients and KTR that was administered after laboratory and clinical recovery from COVID-19. Results: Comparing SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 IgG levels measured before and after 2 doses of mRNA vaccine (BNT162b2 vaccine, Comirnaty, Pfizer-BioNTech or mRNA-1273 vaccine, Spikevax, Moderna), highly significant increases of antibody titers were observed. The antibody peak level was reached at 3 months following second dose administration, regardless of the underlying cause of immune depression and the time of pre-vaccine serology assessment after negativization. Conclusions: Our data indicate that HD patients and KTR exhibit a satisfying antibody response to a 2-dose series of mRNA vaccine, even in cases when infection-induced humoral immunity was poor or rapidly fading. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of booster doses in conferring effective and durable protection in weak patient categories.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Inactivated
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(28): e2204607119, 2022 Jul 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908385

ABSTRACT

Messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are highly effective at inducing protective immunity. However, weak antibody responses are seen in some individuals, and cellular correlates of immunity remain poorly defined, especially for B cells. Here we used unbiased approaches to longitudinally dissect primary antibody, plasmablast, and memory B cell (MBC) responses to the two-dose mRNA-1273 vaccine in SARS-CoV-2-naive adults. Coordinated immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG antibody responses were preceded by bursts of spike-specific plasmablasts after both doses but earlier and more intensely after dose 2. While antibody and B cell cellular responses were generally robust, they also varied within the cohort and decreased over time after a dose-2 peak. Both antigen-nonspecific postvaccination plasmablast frequency after dose 1 and their spike-specific counterparts early after dose 2 correlated with subsequent antibody levels. This correlation between early plasmablasts and antibodies remained for titers measured at 6 months after vaccination. Several distinct antigen-specific MBC populations emerged postvaccination with varying kinetics, including two MBC populations that correlated with 2- and 6-month antibody titers. Both were IgG-expressing MBCs: one less mature, appearing as a correlate after the first dose, while the other MBC correlate showed a more mature and resting phenotype, emerging as a correlate later after dose 2. This latter MBC was also a major contributor to the sustained spike-specific MBC response observed at month 6. Thus, these plasmablasts and MBCs that emerged after both the first and second doses with distinct kinetics are potential determinants of the magnitude and durability of antibodies in response to mRNA-based vaccination.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Antibody Formation , B-Lymphocytes , COVID-19 , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/administration & dosage , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , RNA, Messenger/administration & dosage , RNA, Messenger/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination
4.
N Engl J Med ; 387(1): 21-34, 2022 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890356

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The protection conferred by natural immunity, vaccination, and both against symptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection with the BA.1 or BA.2 sublineages of the omicron (B.1.1.529) variant is unclear. METHODS: We conducted a national, matched, test-negative, case-control study in Qatar from December 23, 2021, through February 21, 2022, to evaluate the effectiveness of vaccination with BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) or mRNA-1273 (Moderna), natural immunity due to previous infection with variants other than omicron, and hybrid immunity (previous infection and vaccination) against symptomatic omicron infection and against severe, critical, or fatal coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). RESULTS: The effectiveness of previous infection alone against symptomatic BA.2 infection was 46.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 39.5 to 51.9). The effectiveness of vaccination with two doses of BNT162b2 and no previous infection was negligible (-1.1%; 95% CI, -7.1 to 4.6), but nearly all persons had received their second dose more than 6 months earlier. The effectiveness of three doses of BNT162b2 and no previous infection was 52.2% (95% CI, 48.1 to 55.9). The effectiveness of previous infection and two doses of BNT162b2 was 55.1% (95% CI, 50.9 to 58.9), and the effectiveness of previous infection and three doses of BNT162b2 was 77.3% (95% CI, 72.4 to 81.4). Previous infection alone, BNT162b2 vaccination alone, and hybrid immunity all showed strong effectiveness (>70%) against severe, critical, or fatal Covid-19 due to BA.2 infection. Similar results were observed in analyses of effectiveness against BA.1 infection and of vaccination with mRNA-1273. CONCLUSIONS: No discernable differences in protection against symptomatic BA.1 and BA.2 infection were seen with previous infection, vaccination, and hybrid immunity. Vaccination enhanced protection among persons who had had a previous infection. Hybrid immunity resulting from previous infection and recent booster vaccination conferred the strongest protection. (Funded by Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar and others.).


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Immunity, Innate , Immunization , SARS-CoV-2 , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/therapeutic use , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Immunization, Secondary , Recurrence , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination
5.
Diabetes ; 71(8): 1800-1806, 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847103

ABSTRACT

Patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) may develop severe outcomes during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but their ability to generate an immune response against the SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines remains to be established. We evaluated the safety, immunogenicity, and glycometabolic effects of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) mRNA vaccines in patients with T1D. A total of 375 patients (326 with T1D and 49 subjects without diabetes) who received two doses of the SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines (mRNA-1273, BNT162b2) between March and April 2021 at ASST Fatebenefratelli Sacco were included in this monocentric observational study. Local and systemic adverse events were reported in both groups after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination, without statistical differences between them. While both patients with T1D and subjects without diabetes exhibited a parallel increase in anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike titers after vaccination, the majority of patients with T1D (70% and 78%, respectively) did not show any increase in the SARS-CoV-2-specific cytotoxic response compared with the robust increase observed in all subjects without diabetes. A reduced secretion of the T-cell-related cytokines interleukin-2 and tumor necrosis factor-α in vaccinated patients with T1D was also observed. No glycometabolic alterations were evident in patients with T1D using continuous glucose monitoring during follow-up. Administration of the SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine is associated with an impaired cellular SARS-CoV-2-specific cytotoxic immune response in patients with T1D.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , BNT162 Vaccine , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/adverse effects , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/immunology , Humans
6.
N Engl J Med ; 386(21): 2011-2023, 2022 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1839612

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccination of children to prevent coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is an urgent public health need. The safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of the mRNA-1273 vaccine in children 6 to 11 years of age are unknown. METHODS: Part 1 of this ongoing phase 2-3 trial was open label for dose selection; part 2 was an observer-blinded, placebo-controlled expansion evaluation of the selected dose. In part 2, we randomly assigned children (6 to 11 years of age) in a 3:1 ratio to receive two injections of mRNA-1273 (50 µg each) or placebo, administered 28 days apart. The primary objectives were evaluation of the safety of the vaccine in children and the noninferiority of the immune response in these children to that in young adults (18 to 25 years of age) in a related phase 3 trial. Secondary objectives included determination of the incidences of confirmed Covid-19 and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, regardless of symptoms. Interim analysis results are reported. RESULTS: In part 1 of the trial, 751 children received 50-µg or 100-µg injections of the mRNA-1273 vaccine, and on the basis of safety and immunogenicity results, the 50-µg dose level was selected for part 2. In part 2 of the trial, 4016 children were randomly assigned to receive two injections of mRNA-1273 (50 µg each) or placebo and were followed for a median of 82 days (interquartile range, 14 to 94) after the first injection. This dose level was associated with mainly low-grade, transient adverse events, most commonly injection-site pain, headache, and fatigue. No vaccine-related serious adverse events, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, myocarditis, or pericarditis were reported as of the data-cutoff date. One month after the second injection (day 57), the neutralizing antibody titer in children who received mRNA-1273 at a 50-µg level was 1610 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1457 to 1780), as compared with 1300 (95% CI, 1171 to 1443) at the 100-µg level in young adults, with serologic responses in at least 99.0% of the participants in both age groups, findings that met the prespecified noninferiority success criterion. Estimated vaccine efficacy was 88.0% (95% CI, 70.0 to 95.8) against Covid-19 occurring 14 days or more after the first injection, at a time when B.1.617.2 (delta) was the dominant circulating variant. CONCLUSIONS: Two 50-µg doses of the mRNA-1273 vaccine were found to be safe and effective in inducing immune responses and preventing Covid-19 in children 6 to 11 years of age; these responses were noninferior to those in young adults. (Funded by the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; KidCOVE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04796896.).


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , COVID-19 , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/adverse effects , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Child , Double-Blind Method , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Vaccine Efficacy , Young Adult
7.
Med (N Y) ; 3(5): 309-324.e6, 2022 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796324

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in 2019, viral variants with greater transmissibility or immune-evasion properties have arisen, which could jeopardize recently deployed vaccine- and antibody-based countermeasures. METHODS: Here, we evaluated in mice and hamsters the efficacy of a pre-clinical version of the Moderna mRNA vaccine (mRNA-1273) and the Johnson & Johnson recombinant adenoviral-vectored vaccine (Ad26.COV2.S) against the B.1.621 (Mu) variant of SARS-CoV-2, which contains spike mutations T95I, Y144S, Y145N, R346K, E484K, N501Y, D614G, P681H, and D950N. FINDINGS: Immunization of 129S2 and K18-human ACE2 transgenic mice with the mRNA-1273 vaccine protected against weight loss, lung infection, and lung pathology after challenge with the B.1.621 or WA1/2020 N501Y/D614G SARS-CoV-2 strain. Similarly, immunization of 129S2 mice and Syrian hamsters with a high dose of Ad26.COV2.S reduced lung infection after B.1.621 virus challenge. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, immunity induced by the mRNA-1273 or Ad26.COV2.S vaccine can protect against the B.1.621 variant of SARS-CoV-2 in multiple animal models. FUNDING: This study was supported by the NIH (R01 AI157155 and U01 AI151810), NIAID Centers of Excellence for Influenza Research and Response [CEIRR] contracts 75N93021C00014 and 75N93021C00016, and the Collaborative Influenza Vaccine Innovation Centers [CIVIC] contract 75N93019C00051. It was also supported, in part, by the National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Center for Research on Influenza Pathogenesis (HHSN272201400008C) and the Japan Program for Infectious Diseases Research and Infrastructure (JP21wm0125002) from the Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED).


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , mRNA Vaccines , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/pharmacology , Ad26COVS1 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Cricetinae , Humans , Mice , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , mRNA Vaccines/immunology , mRNA Vaccines/pharmacology
8.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 149(6): 1949-1957, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783444

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with inborn errors of immunity (IEI) are at increased risk of severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Effective vaccination against COVID-19 is therefore of great importance in this group, but little is known about the immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccines in these patients. OBJECTIVES: We sought to study humoral and cellular immune responses after mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccination in adult patients with IEI. METHODS: In a prospective, controlled, multicenter study, 505 patients with IEI (common variable immunodeficiency [CVID], isolated or undefined antibody deficiencies, X-linked agammaglobulinemia, combined B- and T-cell immunodeficiency, phagocyte defects) and 192 controls were included. All participants received 2 doses of the mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine. Levels of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2-specific binding antibodies, neutralizing antibodies, and T-cell responses were assessed at baseline, 28 days after first vaccination, and 28 days after second vaccination. RESULTS: Seroconversion rates in patients with clinically mild antibody deficiencies and phagocyte defects were similar to those in healthy controls, but seroconversion rates in patients with more severe IEI, such as CVID and combined B- and T-cell immunodeficiency, were lower. Binding antibody titers correlated well to the presence of neutralizing antibodies. T-cell responses were comparable to those in controls in all IEI cohorts, with the exception of patients with CVID. The presence of noninfectious complications and the use of immunosuppressive drugs in patients with CVID were negatively correlated with the antibody response. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 vaccination with mRNA-1273 was immunogenic in mild antibody deficiencies and phagocyte defects and in most patients with combined B- and T-cell immunodeficiency and CVID. Lowest response was detected in patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia and in patients with CVID with noninfectious complications. The assessment of longevity of immune responses in these vulnerable patient groups will guide decision making for additional vaccinations.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 , Genetic Diseases, Inborn , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/blood , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/therapeutic use , Adult , Agammaglobulinemia/genetics , Agammaglobulinemia/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/genetics , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/immunology , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/blood , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/genetics , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/immunology , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/genetics , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/immunology , Humans , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/blood , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/genetics , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/immunology , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/genetics , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/immunology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
9.
J Clin Virol ; 150-151: 105156, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773461

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Taiwan, the vaccination program started in March 2021, with ChAdOx1-S being the first available WHO-approved COVID-19 vaccine, followed by Moderna vaccine. This study aimed to investigate the immunogenicity and safety of homologous and heterologous prime-boost regimens with ChAdOx1-S and mRNA-1273. METHODS: From March to November 2021, homologous or heterologous regimens with ChAdOx1-S and mRNA-1273 vaccination (ChAdOx1-S/ChAdOx1-S, mRNA-1273/mRNA-1273, ChAdOx1-S/mRNA-1273) were given to 945 healthy participants. Serum samples were collected at designated time points. The anti-RBD/S1 antibody titers and neutralizing ability were measured by three different immunoassays: Elecsys® Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany), AdviseDx SARS-CoV-2 IgG II (Abbott Diagnostics Division, Sligo, Ireland), and cPass™ SARS-CoV-2 Neutralization Antibody Detection Kit (GenScript, New Jersey, USA). RESULTS: We found that heterologous vaccination with ChAdOx1-S/mRNA-1273 had an acceptable safety profile and induced higher total anti-RBD/S1 antibody production (p < 0.0001), yet lower anti-RBD/S1 IgG titer (p < 0.0001) and neutralizing ability (p = 0.0101) than mRNA-1273/mRNA-1273 group. Both regimens showed higher antibody titers and superior neutralizing abilities than ChAdOx1-S/ChAdOx1-S. An age-dependent antibody response to ChAdOx1-S/mRNA-1273 was shown after both the priming and the booster doses. Younger age was associated with higher antibody production and neutralizing ability. CONCLUSIONS: Heterologous ChAdOx1-S/mRNA-1273 vaccination regimen is generally safe and induces a robust humoral immune response that is non-inferior to that of mRNA-1273/mRNA-1273.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , COVID-19 , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/adverse effects , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/adverse effects , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , Taiwan , Vaccination
10.
Am J Transplant ; 22(8): 2089-2093, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735853

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus Omicron variant has now supplanted wild-type virus as the dominant circulating strain globally. Three doses of mRNA COVID-19 vaccine are recommended for transplant recipients as their primary vaccine series. However, the immunogenicity of mRNA vaccines as they specifically relate to the Omicron variant are not well studied. We analyzed Omicron-specific neutralization in transplant recipients after three-doses of mRNA-1273 vaccine. Neutralization was determined using a SARS-CoV-2 spike pseudotyped lentivirus assay with constructs for Omicron and Delta variants. A total of 60 transplant patients (kidney, kidney-pancreas, lung, heart, liver) were analyzed 1 month and 3 months after completion of three doses of mRNA-1273. At 1 month, 11/60 (18.3%) patients had detectable neutralizing antibody responses to Omicron (log10 ID50 of 2.38 [range 1.34-3.57]). At 3 months, 8/51 (15.7%) were positive (median log10 ID50 [1.68; range 1.12-3.61; approximate fivefold reduction over time]). The proportion of positive patients was lower for Omicron versus wild-type, and Omicron vs. Delta (p < .001). No demographic variables were found to be significantly associated with Omicron response. Many patients with a positive anti-RBD response still had undetectable Omicron-specific neutralizing antibody. In conclusion, three doses of mRNA vaccine results in poor neutralizing responses against the Omicron variant in transplant patients.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , COVID-19 , Transplant Recipients , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
12.
Lancet ; 399(10327): 814-823, 2022 02 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665565

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccine effectiveness against COVID-19 beyond 6 months remains incompletely understood. We aimed to investigate the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccination against the risk of infection, hospitalisation, and death during the first 9 months after vaccination for the total population of Sweden. METHODS: This retrospective, total population cohort study was done using data from Swedish nationwide registers. The cohort comprised all individuals vaccinated with two doses of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, mRNA-1273, or BNT162b2, and matched unvaccinated individuals, with data on vaccinations and infections updated until Oct 4, 2021. Two outcomes were evaluated. The first was SARS-CoV-2 infection of any severity from Jan 12 to Oct 4, 2021. The second was severe COVID-19, defined as hospitalisation for COVID-19 or all-cause 30-day mortality after confirmed infection, from March 15 to Sept 28, 2021. FINDINGS: Between Dec 28, 2020, and Oct 4, 2021, 842 974 individuals were fully vaccinated (two doses), and were matched (1:1) to an equal number of unvaccinated individuals (total study cohort n=1 685 948). For the outcome SARS-CoV-2 infection of any severity, the vaccine effectiveness of BNT162b2 waned progressively over time, from 92% (95% CI 92 to 93; p<0·001) at 15-30 days, to 47% (39 to 55; p<0·001) at 121-180 days, and to 23% (-2 to 41; p=0·07) from day 211 onwards. Waning was slightly slower for mRNA-1273, with a vaccine effectiveness of 96% (94 to 97; p<0·001) at 15-30 days and 59% (18 to 79; p=0·012) from day 181 onwards. Waning was also slightly slower for heterologous ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 plus an mRNA vaccine, for which vaccine effectiveness was 89% (79 to 94; p<0·001) at 15-30 days and 66% (41 to 80; p<0·001) from day 121 onwards. By contrast, vaccine effectiveness for homologous ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine was 68% (52 to 79; p<0·001) at 15-30 days, with no detectable effectiveness from day 121 onwards (-19% [-98 to 28]; p=0·49). For the outcome of severe COVID-19, vaccine effectiveness waned from 89% (82 to 93; p<0·001) at 15-30 days to 64% (44 to 77; p<0·001) from day 121 onwards. Overall, there was some evidence for lower vaccine effectiveness in men than in women and in older individuals than in younger individuals. INTERPRETATION: We found progressively waning vaccine effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 infection of any severity across all subgroups, but the rate of waning differed according to vaccine type. With respect to severe COVID-19, vaccine effectiveness seemed to be better maintained, although some waning became evident after 4 months. The results strengthen the evidence-based rationale for administration of a third vaccine dose as a booster. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Severity of Illness Index , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/administration & dosage , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/administration & dosage , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/administration & dosage , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Sweden , Time Factors , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
13.
Science ; 375(6576): 43-50, 2022 Jan 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649486

ABSTRACT

In the coronavirus efficacy (COVE) phase 3 clinical trial, vaccine recipients were assessed for neutralizing and binding antibodies as correlates of risk for COVID-19 disease and as correlates of protection. These immune markers were measured at the time of second vaccination and 4 weeks later, with values reported in standardized World Health Organization international units. All markers were inversely associated with COVID-19 risk and directly associated with vaccine efficacy. Vaccine recipients with postvaccination 50% neutralization titers 10, 100, and 1000 had estimated vaccine efficacies of 78% (95% confidence interval, 54 to 89%), 91% (87 to 94%), and 96% (94 to 98%), respectively. These results help define immune marker correlates of protection and may guide approval decisions for messenger RNA (mRNA) COVID-19 vaccines and other COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccine Efficacy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic , Female , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Male , Middle Aged , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Young Adult
14.
Nature ; 602(7898): 682-688, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616995

ABSTRACT

The Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was initially identified in November 2021 in South Africa and Botswana, as well as in a sample from a traveller from South Africa in Hong Kong1,2. Since then, Omicron has been detected globally. This variant appears to be at least as infectious as Delta (B.1.617.2), has already caused superspreader events3, and has outcompeted Delta within weeks in several countries and metropolitan areas. Omicron hosts an unprecedented number of mutations in its spike gene and early reports have provided evidence for extensive immune escape and reduced vaccine effectiveness2,4-6. Here we investigated the virus-neutralizing and spike protein-binding activity of sera from convalescent, double mRNA-vaccinated, mRNA-boosted, convalescent double-vaccinated and convalescent boosted individuals against wild-type, Beta (B.1.351) and Omicron SARS-CoV-2 isolates and spike proteins. Neutralizing activity of sera from convalescent and double-vaccinated participants was undetectable or very low against Omicron compared with the wild-type virus, whereas neutralizing activity of sera from individuals who had been exposed to spike three or four times through infection and vaccination was maintained, although at significantly reduced levels. Binding to the receptor-binding and N-terminal domains of the Omicron spike protein was reduced compared with binding to the wild type in convalescent unvaccinated individuals, but was mostly retained in vaccinated individuals.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Convalescence , Immune Evasion/immunology , Immune Sera/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/administration & dosage , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Models, Molecular , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
15.
Lancet ; 399(10319): 36-49, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1557000

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Given the importance of flexible use of different COVID-19 vaccines within the same schedule to facilitate rapid deployment, we studied mixed priming schedules incorporating an adenoviral-vectored vaccine (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 [ChAd], AstraZeneca), two mRNA vaccines (BNT162b2 [BNT], Pfizer-BioNTech, and mRNA-1273 [m1273], Moderna) and a nanoparticle vaccine containing SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein and Matrix-M adjuvant (NVX-CoV2373 [NVX], Novavax). METHODS: Com-COV2 is a single-blind, randomised, non-inferiority trial in which adults aged 50 years and older, previously immunised with a single dose of ChAd or BNT in the community, were randomly assigned (in random blocks of three and six) within these cohorts in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive a second dose intramuscularly (8-12 weeks after the first dose) with the homologous vaccine, m1273, or NVX. The primary endpoint was the geometric mean ratio (GMR) of serum SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike IgG concentrations measured by ELISA in heterologous versus homologous schedules at 28 days after the second dose, with a non-inferiority criterion of the GMR above 0·63 for the one-sided 98·75% CI. The primary analysis was on the per-protocol population, who were seronegative at baseline. Safety analyses were done for all participants who received a dose of study vaccine. The trial is registered with ISRCTN, number 27841311. FINDINGS: Between April 19 and May 14, 2021, 1072 participants were enrolled at a median of 9·4 weeks after receipt of a single dose of ChAd (n=540, 47% female) or BNT (n=532, 40% female). In ChAd-primed participants, geometric mean concentration (GMC) 28 days after a boost of SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike IgG in recipients of ChAd/m1273 (20 114 ELISA laboratory units [ELU]/mL [95% CI 18 160 to 22 279]) and ChAd/NVX (5597 ELU/mL [4756 to 6586]) was non-inferior to that of ChAd/ChAd recipients (1971 ELU/mL [1718 to 2262]) with a GMR of 10·2 (one-sided 98·75% CI 8·4 to ∞) for ChAd/m1273 and 2·8 (2·2 to ∞) for ChAd/NVX, compared with ChAd/ChAd. In BNT-primed participants, non-inferiority was shown for BNT/m1273 (GMC 22 978 ELU/mL [95% CI 20 597 to 25 636]) but not for BNT/NVX (8874 ELU/mL [7391 to 10 654]), compared with BNT/BNT (16 929 ELU/mL [15 025 to 19 075]) with a GMR of 1·3 (one-sided 98·75% CI 1·1 to ∞) for BNT/m1273 and 0·5 (0·4 to ∞) for BNT/NVX, compared with BNT/BNT; however, NVX still induced an 18-fold rise in GMC 28 days after vaccination. There were 15 serious adverse events, none considered related to immunisation. INTERPRETATION: Heterologous second dosing with m1273, but not NVX, increased transient systemic reactogenicity compared with homologous schedules. Multiple vaccines are appropriate to complete primary immunisation following priming with BNT or ChAd, facilitating rapid vaccine deployment globally and supporting recognition of such schedules for vaccine certification. FUNDING: UK Vaccine Task Force, Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI), and National Institute for Health Research. NVX vaccine was supplied for use in the trial by Novavax.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Vaccine/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Immunization, Secondary/adverse effects , Immunization, Secondary/methods , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , mRNA Vaccines/administration & dosage , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/administration & dosage , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , Aged , BNT162 Vaccine/administration & dosage , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/administration & dosage , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Single-Blind Method , United Kingdom , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccination/methods , mRNA Vaccines/immunology
17.
Br J Haematol ; 196(3): 548-558, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467542

ABSTRACT

Patients affected by lymphoid malignancies (LM) are frequently immune-compromised, suffering increased mortality from COVID-19. This prospective study evaluated serological and T-cell responses after complete mRNA vaccination in 263 patients affected by chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, B- and T-cell lymphomas and multiple myeloma. Results were compared with those of 167 healthy subjects matched for age and sex. Overall, patient seroconversion rate was 64·6%: serological response was lower in those receiving anti-cancer treatments in the 12 months before vaccination: 55% vs 81·9% (P < 0·001). Anti-CD20 antibody plus chemotherapy treatment was associated with the lowest seroconversion rate: 17·6% vs. 71·2% (P < 0·001). In the multivariate analysis conducted in the subgroup of patients on active treatment, independent predictors for seroconversion were: anti-CD20 treatment (P < 0·001), aggressive B-cell lymphoma diagnosis (P = 0·002), and immunoglobulin M levels <40 mg/dl (P = 0·030). The T-cell response was evaluated in 99 patients and detected in 85 of them (86%). Of note, 74% of seronegative patients had a T-cell response, but both cellular and humoral responses were absent in 13·1% of cases. Our findings raise some concerns about the protection that patients with LM, particularly those receiving anti-CD20 antibodies, may gain from vaccination. These patients should strictly maintain all the protective measures.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/administration & dosage , BNT162 Vaccine/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , Immunity, Cellular/drug effects , Lymphoproliferative Disorders , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Hematologic Neoplasms/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Lymphoproliferative Disorders/drug therapy , Lymphoproliferative Disorders/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Seroconversion
18.
Nature ; 600(7889): 523-529, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462014

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants with mutations in major neutralizing antibody-binding sites can affect humoral immunity induced by infection or vaccination1-6. Here we analysed the development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody and T cell responses in individuals who were previously infected (recovered) or uninfected (naive) and received mRNA vaccines to SARS-CoV-2. While individuals who were previously infected sustained higher antibody titres than individuals who were uninfected post-vaccination, the latter reached comparable levels of neutralization responses to the ancestral strain after the second vaccine dose. T cell activation markers measured upon spike or nucleocapsid peptide in vitro stimulation showed a progressive increase after vaccination. Comprehensive analysis of plasma neutralization using 16 authentic isolates of distinct locally circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants revealed a range of reduction in the neutralization capacity associated with specific mutations in the spike gene: lineages with E484K and N501Y/T (for example, B.1.351 and P.1) had the greatest reduction, followed by lineages with L452R (for example, B.1.617.2). While both groups retained neutralization capacity against all variants, plasma from individuals who were previously infected and vaccinated displayed overall better neutralization capacity than plasma from individuals who were uninfected and also received two vaccine doses, pointing to vaccine boosters as a relevant future strategy to alleviate the effect of emerging variants on antibody neutralizing activity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , mRNA Vaccines/immunology , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/classification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
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