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1.
Dis Markers ; 2022: 5988976, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2113116

ABSTRACT

Several studies have discovered a relationship between specific blood types, genetic variations of the ABO gene, and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between ABO rs657152 polymorphisms and ABO blood groups with COVID-19 mortality. The tetraprimer amplification refractory mutation system, polymerase chain reaction method, was used for ABO rs657152 polymorphism genotyping in 1,211 dead and 1,442 improved patients. In the current study, the frequency of ABO rs657152 AA than CC genotypes was significantly higher in dead patients than in improved patients. Our findings indicated that blood type A was associated with the highest risk of COVID-19 mortality compared to other blood groups, and patients with blood type O have a lower risk of infection, suggesting that blood type O may be a protective factor against COVID-19 mortality. Multivariate logistic regression test indicated that higher COVID-19 mortality rates were linked with alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, high density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, fasting blood glucose, uric acid, creatinine, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, real-time PCR Ct values, ABO blood groups, and ABO rs657152 AA genotype. In conclusion, the AA genotype of ABO rs657152 and blood type A were associated with a considerably increased frequency of COVID-19 mortality. Further research is necessary to validate the obtained results.


Subject(s)
ABO Blood-Group System , COVID-19 , Humans , ABO Blood-Group System/genetics , Iran/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Genotype , Polymorphism, Genetic
2.
J Int Med Res ; 50(11): 3000605221133147, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108537

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The primary goals of this research were to analyze the relationship between ABO blood types and the severity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and investigate the effect of vaccination in Iraq. METHODS: Data and outcomes were gathered from the medical records of 200 patients. Patients were categorized by blood group and vaccination status in the analysis. RESULTS: In total, 200 hospitalized patients (125 men and 75 women) with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and blood group (ABO) and clinical data were enrolled. Of the 200 patients, 155 (77.5%) were vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2. The results illustrated that 25 patients died, which might have been attributable to a lack of vaccination or older age. Our analysis revealed that blood group O individuals were much less likely to be infected by SARS-CoV-2 than non-O subjects, whereas blood group A individuals carried a higher risk of infection. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings illustrated that immunization significantly reduces COVID-19 risk across all age groups, but there has been an increase in the number of cases because of decreased vaccine efficacy in older patients and persons with comorbidities. However, 45% vaccination coverage lowered the outbreak's peak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Male , Humans , Female , Aged , ABO Blood-Group System , COVID-19/epidemiology , Iraq/epidemiology , Vaccination
3.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 25(10): 1660-1665, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100049

ABSTRACT

Aim and Background: Because of there is no sufficient evidence showing a relationship between blood types and severity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, this study was planned to investigate the effects of ABO blood group on the clinical outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Patients and Methods: The data of the patients were examined retrospectively. The patients who were hospitalized in wards or intensive care unit, constituted the study group. The patients who presented to the hospital because of other causes and whose blood type examinations were performed, were included in the control group. Results: The study group consisted of 406 six patients were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Control group consisted of 38079 patients whose blood group was determined for any reason in the same period. The rate of Rh negativity was significantly higher in the patient group (p = 0,01). Hospitalization duration in intensive care was significantly longer in the blood type A and AB groups compared to the blood type O group (p = 0,03). Conclusion: Our results are in agreement with other studies suggesting that blood group O individuals are somewhat more resistant to clinically overt infection with SARS-CoV-2 than other blood groups. In addition, Rh negativity may also be an individual risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Blood Grouping and Crossmatching , ABO Blood-Group System
4.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol ; 36: 3946320221133952, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064535

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the ABO blood type and indirect bilirubin to predict early mortality in adults with severe COVID-19. METHODS: This retrospective observational study was conducted on 268 adult patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 who had attended the intensive care unit (ICU), Quena general hospital and Luxor International Hospital, and other hospitals or centers for the treatment of COVID-19, during the period from January 2021 till December 2021. RESULTS: Relation between mortality and ABO group were highly significant, as we found non-O blood group with more risk of early mortality and intensive care unit admission ICU. There were significant differences between dead and alive cases as regards platelets, white blood cells WBCs (neutrophil, lymphocyte), albumin, liver enzymes aspartate transeferase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT), total direct and indirect bilirubin, creatinine, and urea. CONCLUSION: There was a highly significant relation between dead cases and ABO blood group as between the O and non-O groups; also, group O was associated with less severe manifestations and or ventilation and less mortality in patients with severe COVID-19 infection. Direct bilirubin >0.5 was found to be the best predictor for mortality in cases with COVID-19 so indirect bilirubin may be considered a good protector against complications of the infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , ABO Blood-Group System , Alanine , Alanine Transaminase , Albumins , Aspartic Acid , Bilirubin , Creatinine , Humans , Phenotype , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Urea
5.
Vox Sang ; 117(10): 1230-1234, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2063956

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It is reported that ABO antibodies have a role in COVID-19 infection and severity; however, ABO antibody titres vary with advanced age. The aim was to analyse the association between ABO blood group and risk of COVID-19 infection and complications in elderly patients, and to contrast this data with findings in the overall adult population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective cohort study of the Navarre (Spain) population aged ≥60 years and a meta-analysis of published studies including participants of ≥60 years were carried out. RESULTS: In the Navarre elderly population, a higher risk of COVID-19 infection was identified in the A versus non-A and O group and lower risk in O versus non-O, with no significant association between hospitalization, intensive care unit admission or mortality and any of the blood groups, results that coincide with those of the overall Navarre adult population. The meta-analyses using studies that included participants of ≥60 years demonstrated a higher risk of hospitalization and mortality in A versus non-A and a lower mortality risk with B versus non-B. Similar mortality results were found in the meta-analyses of the overall adult population. CONCLUSION: There are no relevant differences between the overall adult population and population aged ≥60 years in the risk of COVID-19 infection and severity according to ABO blood groups, suggesting that age-related changes in ABO would be of limited clinical significance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , ABO Blood-Group System , Adult , Aged , Blood Grouping and Crossmatching , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Prospective Studies
6.
Protoplasma ; 259(6): 1381-1395, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2059870

ABSTRACT

There is no doubt that genetic factors of the host play a role in susceptibility to infectious diseases. An association between ABO blood groups and SARS-CoV-2 infection as well as the severity of COVID-19 has been suggested relatively early during the pandemic and gained enormously high public interest. It was postulated that blood group A predisposes to a higher risk of infection as well as to a much higher risk of severe respiratory disease and that people with blood group O are less frequently and less severely affected by the disease. However, as to the severity of COVID-19, a thorough summary of the existing literature does not support these assumptions in general. Accordingly, at this time, there is no reason to suppose that knowledge of a patient's ABO phenotype should directly influence therapeutical decisions in any way. On the other hand, there are many data available supporting an association between the ABO blood groups and the risk of contracting SARS-CoV-2. To explain this association, several interactions between the virus and the host cell membrane have been proposed which will be discussed here.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , ABO Blood-Group System/genetics , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 370, 2022 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053904

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: West Africa has recorded a relatively higher proportion of asymptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases than the rest of the world, and West Africa-specific host factors could play a role in this discrepancy. Here, we assessed the association between COVID-19 severity among Ghanaians with their immune profiles and ABO blood groups. METHODS: Plasma samples were obtained from Ghanaians PCR-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-positive individuals. The participants were categorized into symptomatic and asymptomatic cases. Cytokine profiling and antibody quantification were performed using Luminex™ multiplex assay whereas antigen-driven agglutination assay was used to assess the ABO blood groups. Immune profile levels between symptomatic and asymptomatic groups were compared using the two-tailed Mann-Whitney U test. Multiple comparisons of cytokine levels among and between days were tested using Kruskal-Wallis with Dunn's post hoc test. Correlations within ABO blood grouping (O's and non-O's) and between cytokines were determined using Spearman correlations. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the association of various cytokines with asymptomatic phenotype. RESULTS: There was a trend linking blood group O to reduced disease severity, but this association was not statistically significant. Generally, symptomatic patients displayed significantly (p < 0.05) higher cytokine levels compared to asymptomatic cases with exception of Eotaxin, which was positively associated with asymptomatic cases. There were also significant (p < 0.05) associations between other immune markers (IL-6, IL-8 and IL-1Ra) and disease severity. Cytokines' clustering patterns differ between symptomatic and asymptomatic cases. We observed a steady decrease in the concentration of most cytokines over time, while anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels were stable for at least a month, regardless of the COVID-19 status. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that genetic background and pre-existing immune response patterns may in part shape the nature of the symptomatic response against COVID-19 in a West African population. This study offers clear directions to be explored further in larger studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , ABO Blood-Group System , Biomarkers , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cytokines , Ghana/epidemiology , Humans , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein , Interleukin-6 , Interleukin-8 , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Am J Clin Pathol ; 158(5): 570-573, 2022 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017713

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: A possible association between blood group systems (ABO and Rh) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity has recently been investigated by various studies with conflicting results. However, due to variations in the prevalence of the ABO and Rh blood groups in different populations, their association with COVID-19 might be varied as well. Therefore, we conducted this study on Libyan participants to further investigate this association and make population-based data available to the worldwide scientific community. METHODS: In this case-control study, ABO and Rh blood groups in 419 confirmed COVID-19 cases in Zawia, Libya, and 271 healthy controls were compared using descriptive statistics and χ 2 tests. RESULTS: Blood group A was significantly more prevalent in patients with severe COVID-19 (64/125; 51.2%) than in patients with nonsevere COVID-19 (108/294, 36.7%) (P < .034), whereas the O blood group prevalence was higher in nonsevere COVID-19 cases (131/294, 44.5%) compared with severe cases (43/125, 34.4%) (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The results showed a significant association between blood group A and the severity of COVID-19, whereas patients with blood group O showed a low risk of developing severe COVID-19 infection. No significant association was found between Rh and susceptibility/severity of the disease.


Subject(s)
ABO Blood-Group System , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Rh-Hr Blood-Group System , Case-Control Studies , Risk
11.
Infect Dis (Lond) ; 54(12): 897-908, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004938

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: ABO blood group system modulates the inflammatory response and has been implicated in COVID-19. Group O protects against SARS-CoV-2 infection, but there are no data regarding post-COVID-19 syndrome (PCS). Our aim was to assess this possible association. METHODS: Case-control study in a community setting, with subjects who had experienced mild COVID-19. Cases were PCS+, controls were PCS-, and the exposure variable, group O. We collected age, sex, BMI, smoking, comorbidities, inflammatory markers, anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies, blood type and clinical data. Five composite inflammatory indices were developed. Multivariate analyses were performed. RESULTS: We analysed 121 subjects (56.2% women), mean age 45.7 ± 16 years. Blood group frequencies were 41.5%, 7.9%, 5.9%, and 44.5% for A, B, AB and O, respectively. Thirty-six patients were PCS+, without significant differences between cases and controls. Compared to non-O, a higher prevalence of PCS (p = .036), and number of symptoms of PCS (p = .017) were noted in group O. Concerning biomarkers, PCS + and PCS- showed no differences in A, B, and AB groups. In contrast, group O PCS + patients had significantly lower albumin-to-globulin ratio and higher lymphocyte count, fibrinogen, CRP levels, and higher percentages of 3 composite indices, than PCS- subjects. Group O showed a 6-fold increased risk of PCS, compared to non-O (adjusted OR = 6.25 [95%CI, 1.6-23]; p = .007). CONCLUSIONS: Group O has shown a consistent relationship with PCS, characterised by a more intense inflammatory burden than the other blood groups. Blood group O could be part of the immunological link between acute COVID-19 and PCS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , ABO Blood-Group System , Case-Control Studies , Outpatients , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Comorbidity , Immunoglobulin G , Biomarkers , Fibrinogen , Albumins
12.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0271451, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963030

ABSTRACT

We have been experiencing a global pandemic with baleful consequences for mankind, since the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first identified in Wuhan of China, in December 2019. So far, several potential risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection have been identified. Among them, the role of ABO blood group polymorphisms has been studied with results that are still unclear. The aim of this study was to collect and meta-analyze available studies on the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection and different blood groups, as well as Rhesus state. We performed a systematic search on PubMed/MEDLINE and Scopus databases for published articles and preprints. Twenty-two studies, after the removal of duplicates, met the inclusion criteria for meta-analysis with ten of them also including information on Rhesus factor. The odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for the extracted data. Random-effects models were used to obtain the overall pooled ORs. Publication bias and sensitivity analysis were also performed. Our results indicate that blood groups A, B and AB have a higher risk for COVID-19 infection compared to blood group O, which appears to have a protective effect: (i) A group vs O (OR = 1.29, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.15 to 1.44), (ii) B vs O (OR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.25), and (iii) AB vs. O (OR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.57). An association between Rhesus state and COVID-19 infection could not be established (Rh+ vs Rh- OR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.13).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , ABO Blood-Group System , Blood Grouping and Crossmatching , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Immunohematology ; 38(1): 5-12, 2022 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1955264

ABSTRACT

The relationship between ABO blood group and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 - coronavirus disease 19 [COVID-19]) infection has been investigated, and several studies have reported discordant findings. This systematic review and meta-analysis study were conducted to investigate the relationship between ABO blood group and COVID-19 infection. The international databases Institute for Scientific Information (ISI)/Web of Science, PubMed, and Scopus were systematically searched from 1 January 2020 through 14 June 2021. Twenty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria for meta-analysis including 23,285 COVID-19 case subjects and 590,593 control subjects. The odds of having each blood group among COVID-19 patients compared with control subjects were calculated. The random effects model was used to obtain the overall pooled odds ratio (OR). Publication bias and subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed to explore the source of heterogeneity. According to the random effects model, the results indicated that the pooled estimates of OR (95% confidence interval) for blood groups A, O, B, and AB were 1.26 (1.13-1.40), 0.77 (0.71-0.82), 1.05 (0.99-1.12), and 1.11 (0.99-1.25), respectively. Therefore, individuals infected with COVID-19 have higher odds of having blood group A and lower odds of having blood group O. In conclusion, this study indicated that individuals with blood group A are more susceptible to COVID-19 infection, whereas those with blood group O are less susceptible to COVID-19 infection. However, further studies are warranted to support these findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , ABO Blood-Group System , Blood Grouping and Crossmatching , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
14.
BMJ Open ; 12(7): e059944, 2022 Jul 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1950183

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare outcomes between O and non-O blood groups, and by modified RNA (mRNA) and adenovirus-vectored (Ad-V) vaccines. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING: All of Ontario, Canada. Linked data sets captured clinical encounters, vaccinations and laboratory testing for SARS-CoV-2. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 12+ years with known ABO blood group and free of SARS-CoV-2 before 15 January 2021. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: The main exposure, first SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, was modelled in a time-varying manner. O and non-O blood group was known prior to vaccination. SARS-CoV-2 infection, and severe COVID-19 (hospitalisation or death), were assessed starting 14 days after vaccination, up to 27 June 2021. RESULTS: 2 472 261 individuals were included. 1 743 916 (70.5%) had at least one vaccination, of which 24.6% were fully vaccinated. Those vaccinated were more likely to be women, older in age, residing in a higher-income area and have higher rates of certain comorbid conditions, like cancer, diabetes and hypertension. Relative to unvaccinated, after receiving their first mRNA (adjusted HR (aHR) 0.46, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.47) or Ad-V (aHR 0.49, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.54) vaccine, the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection was lower, as was severe COVID-19 (aHR 0.29, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.43 (mRNA); aHR 0.29, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.33 (Ad-V)). Stratifying by blood group produced similar results. For example, after first mRNA vaccination, the aHR of severe COVID-19 was 0.31 (95% CI 0.27 to 0.36) among non-O blood groups, and 0.27 (95% CI 0.22 to 0.32) among O blood groups, relative to unvaccinated. Fully vaccinated individuals had the lowest risk of SARS-CoV-2 and severe COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe COVID-19 are reduced by vaccination. This effect does not vary by vaccine type or blood group, but is more pronounced among fully, than partially, vaccinated individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , ABO Blood-Group System , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Ontario/epidemiology , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
16.
J Int Med Res ; 50(7): 3000605221110493, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1932969

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The role of ABO types and RhD antigen in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity has been investigated in several recent studies. Thus, the objective of this study was to identify the relationship of ABO and RhD types with symptomatic COVID-19 disease and determine the groups associated with an increased risk of hospitalization. METHODS: This observational case-control study was performed in 530 Iraqi-Kurdish patients with COVID-19. Among them, 184 were severe cases that required hospitalization, while 346 were mild to moderate cases that were treated at home. ABO and RhD antigen groups were compared between cases and 1698 control records from 1 year before the pandemic. The diagnosis of COVID-19 was based on real-time polymerase chain reaction tests and high-resolution chest computed tomography scans with the typical clinical presentation. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in ABO and RhD antigen distributions between the COVID-19 cases and non-COVID controls. No ABO group was associated with the risk of hospitalization as a marker of the severity of infection. CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant association between symptomatic COVID-19 disease and any ABO group or RhD antigen type. No impact of ABO groups on hospitalization was documented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , ABO Blood-Group System , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(12): 4449-4455, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924915

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the mortality relationship between COVID-19 and ABO blood groups and comorbid diseases. The aim of this study was to determine whether ABO blood groups and comorbid diseases can be used as a prognostic factor for hospitalization. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included patients aged ≥ 18 years presenting to the adult emergency COVID-19 outpatient clinic. COVID-19 patients were divided into four stages according to their clinical status: mild, moderate, severe, and critical. Those with the comorbid disease were classified as Group I, and those without comorbid disease were classified as Group II. RESULTS: Of the 384 patients included in the study, 190 (49.5%) were male and 194 (50.5%) were female, with a mean age of 47.3 ± 18.4 years. The clinical data of the patients were scanned from the hospital automation system. Although the risk of transmission was higher, especially in people with A blood type, this rate was lower in the O blood group. The clinical course of the disease was more severe and the mortality rates were higher in the AB blood group (p < 0.001). In the hospital, 35 people who were treated for COVID-19 disease died. CONCLUSIONS: Certain ABO blood types and comorbid diseases were important risk factors for COVID-19 and were associated with mortality. We found that some ABO blood groups and comorbid diseases are associated with COVID-19 and may be important risk factors. While the risk of transmission of COVID-19 is high in blood group A, we think that the clinical course of COVID-19 may be more severe and the death rate higher in blood group AB.


Subject(s)
ABO Blood-Group System , COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Morbidity , Retrospective Studies
18.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 870096, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924080

ABSTRACT

Context: The possible associations between the different blood groups and clinical factors with COVID-19 infection among patients in Makkah city. Objective: To investigate the relationship between ABO blood groups and COVID-19 infection in patients who were tested positive and to elucidate the most common ABO blood groups with a higher infectivity of COVID-19 and disease association. Materials and Methods: This was an observational cross-sectional study that included COVID-19 patients diagnosed with PCR and who were hospitalized in Al-Noor Specialist Hospital (Makkah) during the period between March to November 2020. The ABO and Rhesus blood groups alongside the clinical characteristics were determined and retrieved from medical records and HESN of the Ministry of Health of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Results: The overall confirmed COVID-19 cases included in this study were 1,583 patients who underwent positive PCR testing between March and November 2020. The frequencies of blood groups were as follows: group O+ (37%), group A+ (29.2%), group B+ (22.6%), group AB+ (5.1%), group O- (2.8%), group B- (1.8%), group A- (1.1%), and group AB- (0.4%). However, no significant correlations were observed for ABO groups and Rh types with the severity of COVID-19 illness. Conversely, signs and symptoms of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), pneumonia, and respiratory failure symptoms, alongside a history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, chronic kidney diseases, and congestive heart failure significantly increased the risk of death from COVID-19 infection. Moreover, the rates of fever, cough, and asthma were markedly lower in the deceased group compared with the recovered group of patients. Conclusion: The association between the different blood groups with the prevalence and mortality of COVID-19 among infected patients has yet to be elucidated as we found no significant differences in the observed versus expected distribution of ABO phenotypes among the included cases. The prevalence of RDS, pneumonia, and respiratory failure was found higher among hospitalized COVID-19 patients in the deceased group. However, other factors such as fever, cough, and asthma appeared to be more significantly lower than in the recovered group.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , ABO Blood-Group System , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cough , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
19.
Microb Pathog ; 169: 105658, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1907585

ABSTRACT

ABO blood group is long known to be an influencing factor for the susceptibility to infectious diseases, and many studies have been describing associations between ABO blood types and COVID-19 infection and severity, with conflicting findings. This narrative review aims to summarize the literature regarding associations between the ABO blood group and COVID-19. Blood type O is mostly associated with lower rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection, while blood type A is frequently described as a risk factor. Although results regarding the risk of severe outcomes are more variable, blood type A is the most associated with COVID-19 severity and mortality, while many studies describe O blood type as a protective factor for the disease progression. Furthermore, genetic associations with both the risk of infection and disease severity have been reported for the ABO locus. Some underlying mechanisms have been hypothesized to explain the reported associations, with incipient experimental data. Three major hypotheses emerge: SARS-CoV-2 could carry ABO(H)-like structures in its envelope glycoproteins and would be asymmetrically transmitted due to a protective effect of the ABO antibodies, ABH antigens could facilitate SARS-CoV-2 interaction with the host' cells, and the association of non-O blood types with higher risks of thromboembolic events could confer COVID-19 patients with blood type O a lower risk of severe outcomes. The hypothesized mechanisms would affect distinct aspects of the COVID-19 natural history, with distinct potential implications to the disease transmission and its management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , ABO Blood-Group System/genetics , Humans , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
20.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(11): e4471-e4486, 2021 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854902

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Estradiol is the primary female sex hormone and plays an important role for skeletal health in both sexes. Several enzymes are involved in estradiol metabolism, but few genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been performed to characterize the genetic contribution to variation in estrogen levels. OBJECTIVE: Identify genetic loci affecting estradiol levels and estimate causal effect of estradiol on bone mineral density (BMD). DESIGN: We performed GWAS for estradiol in males (n = 147 690) and females (n = 163 985) from UK Biobank. Estradiol was analyzed as a binary phenotype above/below detection limit (175 pmol/L). We further estimated the causal effect of estradiol on BMD using Mendelian randomization. RESULTS: We identified 14 independent loci associated (P < 5 × 10-8) with estradiol levels in males, of which 1 (CYP3A7) was genome-wide and 7 nominally (P < 0.05) significant in females. In addition, 1 female-specific locus was identified. Most loci contain functionally relevant genes that have not been discussed in relation to estradiol levels in previous GWAS (eg, SRD5A2, which encodes a steroid 5-alpha reductase that is involved in processing androgens, and UGT3A1 and UGT2B7, which encode enzymes likely to be involved in estradiol elimination). The allele that tags the O blood group at the ABO locus was associated with higher estradiol levels. We identified a causal effect of high estradiol levels on increased BMD in both males (P = 1.58 × 10-11) and females (P = 7.48 × 10-6). CONCLUSION: Our findings further support the importance of the body's own estrogen to maintain skeletal health in males and in females.


Subject(s)
Bone Density/genetics , Estradiol/blood , Estradiol/genetics , Genome-Wide Association Study , 3-Oxo-5-alpha-Steroid 4-Dehydrogenase/genetics , ABO Blood-Group System/genetics , Bone Density/physiology , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A/genetics , Estrogens/genetics , Estrogens/physiology , Female , Genotype , Glucuronosyltransferase/genetics , Humans , Male , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Middle Aged , N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferases/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , United Kingdom
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