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1.
FASEB J ; 36(3): e22234, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702985

ABSTRACT

The transmembrane protease angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a protective regulator within the renin angiotensin system and additionally represents the cellular receptor for SARS-CoV. The release of soluble ACE2 (sACE2) from the cell surface is hence believed to be a crucial part of its (patho)physiological functions, as both, ACE2 protease activity and SARS-CoV binding ability, are transferred from the cell membrane to body fluids. Yet, the molecular sources of sACE2 are still not completely investigated. In this study, we show different sources and prerequisites for the release of sACE2 from the cell membrane. By using inhibitors as well as CRISPR/Cas9-derived cells, we demonstrated that, in addition to the metalloprotease ADAM17, also ADAM10 is an important novel shedding protease of ACE2. Moreover, we observed that ACE2 can also be released in extracellular vesicles. The degree of either ADAM10- or ADAM17-mediated ACE2 shedding is dependent on stimulatory conditions and on the expression level of the pro-inflammatory ADAM17 regulator iRhom2. Finally, by using structural analysis and in vitro verification, we determined for the first time that the susceptibility to ADAM10- and ADAM17-mediated shedding is mediated by the collectrin-like part of ACE2. Overall, our findings give novel insights into sACE2 release by several independent molecular mechanisms.


Subject(s)
ADAM10 Protein/metabolism , ADAM17 Protein/metabolism , Amyloid Precursor Protein Secretases/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , SARS Virus/metabolism , ADAM10 Protein/genetics , ADAM17 Protein/genetics , Amyloid Precursor Protein Secretases/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats , Extracellular Vesicles/genetics , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/genetics , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism , Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/genetics , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(5): 1-12, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575376

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) enters the host cell by binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. Other important proteins involved in this process include disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 17 (ADAM17) also known as tumour necrosis factor-α-converting enzyme and transmembrane serine protease 2. ACE2 converts angiotensin II (Ang II) to angiotensin (1-7), to balance the renin angiotensin system. Membrane-bound ACE2 ectodomain shedding is mediated by ADAM17 upon viral spike binding, Ang II overproduction and in several diseases. The shed soluble ACE2 (sACE2) retains its catalytic activity, but its precise role in viral entry is still unclear. Therapeutic sACE2 is claimed to exert dual effects; reduction of excess Ang II and blocking viral entry by masking the spike protein. Nevertheless, the paradox is why SARS-CoV-2 comorbid patients struggle to attain such benefit in viral infection despite having a high amount of sACE2. In this review, we discuss the possible detrimental role of sACE2 and speculate on a series of events where protease primed or non-primed virus-sACE2 complex might enter the host cell. As extracellular virus can bind many sACE2 molecules, sACE2 level could be reduced drastically upon endocytosis by the host cell. A consequential rapid rise in Ang II level could potentially aggravate disease severity through Ang II-angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1R) axis in comorbid patients. Hence, monitoring sACE2 and Ang II level in coronavirus disease 2019 comorbid patients are crucial to ensure safe and efficient intervention using therapeutic sACE2 and vaccines.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/enzymology , ADAM17 Protein/genetics , ADAM17 Protein/metabolism , Angiotensin I/metabolism , Angiotensin II/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Humans , Peptide Fragments/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
3.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(6): e2221, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575100

ABSTRACT

The current pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus infection is known as Covid-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). This disease can be asymptomatic or can affect multiple organ systems. Damage induced by the virus is related to dysfunctional activity of the immune system, but the activity of molecules such as C-reactive protein (CRP) as a factor capable of inducing an inflammatory status that may be involved in the severe evolution of the disease, has not been extensively evaluated. A systematic review was performed using the NCBI-PubMed database to find articles related to Covid-19 immunity, inflammatory response, and CRP published from December 2019 to December 2020. High levels of CRP were found in patients with severe evolution of Covid-19 in which several organ systems were affected and in patients who died. CRP activates complement, induces the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and induces apoptosis which, together with the inflammatory status during the disease, can lead to a severe outcome. Several drugs can decrease the level or block the effect of CRP and might be useful in the treatment of Covid-19. From this review it is reasonable to conclude that CRP is a factor that can contribute to severe evolution of Covid-19 and that the use of drugs able to lower CRP levels or block its activity should be evaluated in randomized controlled clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein/antagonists & inhibitors , COVID-19/drug therapy , Complement System Proteins/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , ADAM17 Protein/antagonists & inhibitors , ADAM17 Protein/genetics , ADAM17 Protein/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/genetics , C-Reactive Protein/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Celecoxib/therapeutic use , Complement System Proteins/genetics , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Cytokines/antagonists & inhibitors , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/immunology , Disease Progression , Doxycycline/therapeutic use , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
4.
Biol Futur ; 72(3): 291-297, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261840

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a disease-causing current pandemic. It prevails in patients with pre-existing conditions such as diabetes and hypertension. Renin-angiotensin system was identified as a center of COVID-19 pathophysiology. There is a current controversy concerning the usage of ACE inhibitors and AR blockers in patients with COVID-19. Multiple clinical trials are on the way to determine the effect of RAS blockers in patients with COVID-19. ACE2 receptor is thought to be the point of entry utilized by a coronavirus. However, other factors have been identified which potentially facilitate SARS-CoV-2 entry into the cell. ADAM17 could facilitate viral entry in hyperglycemic and diabetic patients. Insulin is an ADAM17 inhibitor. Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 level is reduced in diabetic patients, contributing to the worst outcome for patients with poor glycemic control. The combined therapy of glycemic control and antioxidant response to oxidative stress could be explored in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
ADAM17 Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Hyperglycemia , SARS-CoV-2 , ADAM17 Protein/genetics , Humans , Virus Internalization
5.
J Cell Mol Med ; 25(8): 3840-3855, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116957

ABSTRACT

Congestive heart failure (CHF) is often associated with kidney and pulmonary dysfunction. Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) contributes to avid sodium retention, cardiac hypertrophy and oedema formation, including lung congestion. While the status of the classic components of RAAS such as renin, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin II (Ang II) and angiotensin II receptor AT-1 is well studied in CHF, the expression of angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), a key enzyme of angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7) generation in the pulmonary, cardiac and renal systems has not been studied thoroughly in this clinical setting. This issue is of a special interest as Ang 1-7 counterbalance the vasoconstrictory, pro-inflammatory and pro-proliferative actions of Ang II. Furthermore, CHF predisposes to COVID-19 disease severity, while ACE2 also serves as the binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 in human host-cells, and acts in concert with furin, an important enzyme in the synthesis of BNP in CHF, in permeating viral functionality along TMPRSST2. ADAM17 governs ACE2 shedding from cell membranes. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the expression of ACE2, furin, TMPRSS2 and ADAM17 in the lung, heart and kidneys of rats with CHF to understand the exaggerated susceptibility of clinical CHF to COVID-19 disease. Heart failure was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats by the creation of a surgical aorto-caval fistula. Sham-operated rats served as controls. One week after surgery, the animals were subdivided into compensated and decompensated CHF according to urinary sodium excretion. Both groups and their controls were sacrificed, and their hearts, lungs and kidneys were harvested for assessment of tissue remodelling and ACE2, furin, TMPRSS2 and ADAM17 immunoreactivity, expression and immunohistochemical staining. ACE2 immunoreactivity and mRNA levels increased in pulmonary, cardiac and renal tissues of compensated, but not in decompensated CHF. Furin immunoreactivity was increased in both compensated and decompensated CHF in the pulmonary, cardiac tissues and renal cortex but not in the medulla. Interestingly, both the expression and abundance of pulmonary, cardiac and renal TMPRSS2 decreased in CHF in correlation with the severity of the disease. Pulmonary, cardiac and renal ADAM17 mRNA levels were also downregulated in decompensated CHF. Circulating furin levels increased in proportion to CHF severity, whereas plasma ACE2 remained unchanged. In summary, ACE2 and furin are overexpressed in the pulmonary, cardiac and renal tissues of compensated and to a lesser extent of decompensated CHF as compared with their sham controls. The increased expression of the ACE2 in heart failure may serve as a compensatory mechanism, counterbalancing the over-activity of the deleterious isoform, ACE. Downregulated ADAM17 might enhance membranal ACE2 in COVID-19 disease, whereas the suppression of TMPRSS2 in CHF argues against its involvement in the exaggerated susceptibility of CHF patients to SARS-CoV2.


Subject(s)
ADAM17 Protein/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Furin/metabolism , Heart Failure/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , ADAM17 Protein/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Gene Expression , Heart Failure/genetics , Humans , Kidney/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Male , Myocardium/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics
6.
FASEB J ; 35(3): e21419, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1075599

ABSTRACT

In the early phase of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, it was postulated that the renin-angiotensin-system inhibitors (RASi) increase the infection risk. This was primarily based on numerous reports, which stated that the RASi could increase the organ Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the receptor of Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), in rodents. RASi can theoretically antagonize the potential influence of angiotensin II (Ang II) on ACE2. However, while Ang II decreases the ACE2 levels in cultured cells, there is little evidence that supports this phenomenon in living animals. In this study, we tested whether Ang II or Ang II combined with its antagonist would alter the ACE2 and other molecules associated with the infection of SARS-CoV-2. Male C57BL6/J mice were administered vehicle, Ang II (400 ng/kg/min), or Ang II with losartan (10 mg/kg/min) for 2 weeks. ACE2 knockout mice were used as a negative control for the ACE2 assay. We found that both Ang II, which elevated blood pressure by 30 mm Hg, and Ang II with losartan, had no effect on the expression or protein activity of ACE2 in the lung, left ventricle, kidney, and ileum. Likewise, these interventions had no effect on the expression of Transmembrane Protease Serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and Furin, proteases that facilitate the virus-cell fusion, and the expression or activity of Tumor Necrosis Factor α-Convertase (TACE) that cleaves cell-surface ACE2. Collectively, physiological concentrations of Ang II do not modulate the molecules associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. These results support the recent observational studies suggesting that the use of RASi is not a risk factor for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/pharmacology , Angiotensin II/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Losartan/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , ADAM17 Protein/genetics , ADAM17 Protein/metabolism , Angiotensin II/administration & dosage , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Furin/genetics , Furin/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/drug effects , Losartan/administration & dosage , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Vasoconstrictor Agents/pharmacology
7.
Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 19(5): 456-470, 2020 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068112

ABSTRACT

The new coronavirus, known as "SARS-CoV-2"; is the cause of one of the most prevalent infectious viral diseases that was recently announced pandemic by the world health organization. Ongoing research in the fields of prevention, management, and therapy establishes a functional scaffold for clinics during the time of crisis. To obtain this goal, it is necessary that all pathophysiologic aspects of COVID-19 from infection to predisposing backgrounds of infection be identified, so that all the ambiguities of researchers regarding transmission mechanisms, variable clinical manifestation, and therapeutic response can be solved. Here, we firstly discuss about the homology screening between nCoV-2019 and beta-coronavirus family using phylogenetic analyses. Secondly, we analyzed the viral motifs to show that viral entry into the host cells requires a primary activation step performed by FURIN and FURIN-like-mediated enzymatic cleavage on the structural glycoprotein. The cleavage increases viral performance by 1000 folds. We then present a comprehensive view on host cells and the significance of gene variants affecting activation enzymes, supportive entry, and spread mechanisms in humans including renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) a pathway results in certain phenotypes or exacerbate infection-related phenotypes in different organs, hence causes variable clinical manifestations. This is followed by discussing about the importance of personalized medicine in nCoV-2019 exposure. Moreover, chemical drugs prescribed for individuals affected with COVID-19, as well as genes involved in drug transport and metabolisms are reviewed as a prelude to drug response. Finally, we suggest some therapeutic approaches developed based on new methods and technology such as anti-sense therapy and antibodies.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Furin/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , ADAM17 Protein/genetics , ADAM17 Protein/metabolism , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/transmission , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Furin/metabolism , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genome, Human , Genome, Viral , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Phylogeny , Precision Medicine , Receptors, Coronavirus/genetics , Receptors, Coronavirus/metabolism , Renin-Angiotensin System/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization
9.
Br J Cancer ; 124(8): 1344-1345, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060915

ABSTRACT

Cancer patients are vulnerable to COVID-19 with consequences on treatment delays and on mortality rate. This Comment explores the interaction between COVID-19 and cancer with attention paid to the modulation by cancer treatments of both ADAM17 and TMPRSS2, the proteases which control ACE2 processing, the SARS-CoV-2 target.


Subject(s)
ADAM17 Protein/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Neoplasms/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Mortality , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
10.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 135(3): 465-481, 2021 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1043627

ABSTRACT

The key link between renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and COVID-19 is ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2), which acts as a double-edged sword, because ACE2 increases the tissue anti-inflammatory response but it is also the entry receptor for the virus. There is an important controversy on several drugs that regulate RAS activity and possibly ACE2, and are widely used, particularly by patients most vulnerable to severe COVID-19. In the lung of healthy rats, we observed that candesartan (an angiotensin type-1, AT1, receptor blocker; ARB) and captopril (an ACE inhibitor; ACEI) up-regulated expression of tissue ACE2 and RAS anti-inflammatory axis receptors (AT2 and Mas receptors). This effect was particularly pronounced in rats with metabolic syndrome (obesity, increased blood pressure and hyperglycemia) and aged rats. Treatment of cultures of human type-II pneumocytes with candesartan or captopril induced up-regulation of ACE2 expression in cells. Treatment with viral spike protein induced a decrease in full-length (i.e. transmembrane) ACE2, an increase in levels of a short intracellular ACE2 polypeptide and an increase in ADAM17 activity in cells, together with an increase in levels of soluble ACE2 and major proinflammatory cytokines in the culture medium. Spike protein-induced changes and levels of spike protein internalization in cells were inhibited by pretreatment with the above-mentioned drugs. The results suggest that these drugs increase ACE2 levels and promote the anti-inflammatory RAS axis in the lung. Furthermore, possible up-regulation of viral entry by the drug-induced increase in expression of transmembrane ACE2 is counteracted by additional mechanisms, particularly by drug-induced inhibition of ADAM17 activity.


Subject(s)
Benzimidazoles/administration & dosage , Biphenyl Compounds/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Captopril/administration & dosage , Tetrazoles/administration & dosage , ADAM17 Protein/genetics , ADAM17 Protein/metabolism , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Lung/virology , Male , Rats , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
11.
Cell Commun Signal ; 18(1): 190, 2020 12 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992498

ABSTRACT

The rapid ability of SARS-CoV-2 to spread among humans, along with the clinical complications of coronavirus disease 2019-COVID-19, have represented a significant challenge to the health management systems worldwide. The acute inflammation and coagulation abnormalities appear as the main causes for thousands of deaths worldwide. The intense inflammatory response could be involved with the formation of thrombi. For instance, the presence of uncleaved large multimers of von Willebrand (vWF), due to low ADAMTS13 activity in plasma could be explained by the inhibitory action of pro-inflammatory molecules such as IL-1ß and C reactive protein. In addition, the damage to endothelial cells after viral infection and/or activation of endothelium by pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1ß, IL-6, IFN-γ, IL-8, and TNF-α induces platelets and monocyte aggregation in the vascular wall and expression of tissue factor (TF). The TF expression may culminate in the formation of thrombi, and activation of cascade by the extrinsic pathway by association with factor VII. In this scenario, the phosphatidylserine-PtdSer exposure on the outer leaflet of the cell membrane as consequence of viral infection emerges as another possible underlying mechanism to acute immune inflammatory response and activation of coagulation cascade. The PtdSer exposure may be an important mechanism related to ADAM17-mediated ACE2, TNF-α, EGFR and IL-6R shedding, and the activation of TF on the surface of infected endothelial cells. In this review, we address the underlying mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of inflammation and coagulation abnormalities. Moreover, we introduce key biochemical and pathophysiological concepts that support the possible participation of PtdSer exposure on the outer side of the SARS-CoV-2 infected cells membrane, in the pathophysiology of COVID-19. Video Abstract.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Inflammation/genetics , Phosphatidylserines/genetics , Thrombosis/genetics , ADAM17 Protein/genetics , ADAMTS13 Protein/genetics , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Endothelial Cells/virology , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/virology , Phosphatidylserines/metabolism , Receptors, Interleukin-6/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Thrombosis/pathology , Thrombosis/virology , von Willebrand Factor/genetics
12.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(5): e13463, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-949358

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease are associated with COVID-19 risk and severity. Because epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) expresses ACE2, we wanted to identify the main factors associated with ACE2 levels and its cleavage enzyme, ADAM17, in epicardial fat. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Epicardial and subcutaneous fat biopsies were obtained from 43 patients who underwent open-heart surgery. From 36 patients, biopsies were used for RNA expression analysis by real-time PCR of ACE1, ACE2 and ADAM17. From 8 patients, stromal vascular cells were submitted to adipogenesis or used for studying the treatment effects on gene expression levels. Soluble ACE2 was determined in supernatants by ELISA. RESULTS: Epicardial fat biopsies expressed higher levels of ACE2 (1.53 [1.49-1.61] vs 1.51 [1.47-1.56] a.u., P < .05) and lower ADAM17 than subcutaneous fat (1.67 [1.65-1.70] vs 1.70 [1.66-1.74] a.u., P < .001). Both genes were increased in epicardial fat from patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (1.62 [1.50-2.28] vs 1.52 [1.49-1.55] a.u., P = .05 for ACE2 and 1.68 [1.66-1.78] vs 1.66 [1.63-1.69] a.u., P < .05 for ADAM17). Logistic regression analysis determined that T2DM was the main associated factor with epicardial ACE2 levels (P < .01). The highest ACE2 levels were found on patients with diabetes and obesity. ACE1 and ACE2 levels were not upregulated by antidiabetic treatment (metformin, insulin or thiazolidinedione). Its cellular levels, which were higher in epicardial than in subcutaneous stromal cells (1.61 [1.55-1.63] vs 1 [1-1.34]), were not correlated with the soluble ACE2. CONCLUSION: Epicardial fat cells expressed higher levels of ACE2 in comparison with subcutaneous fat cells, which is enhanced by diabetes and obesity presence in patients with cardiovascular disease. Both might be risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
ADAM17 Protein/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Obesity/genetics , Pericardium/metabolism , Stromal Cells/metabolism , Subcutaneous Fat/metabolism , Adipogenesis/genetics , Adipose Tissue/cytology , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Coronary Artery Bypass , Female , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , Logistic Models , Male , Metformin/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Pericardium/cytology , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Receptors, Coronavirus/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Subcutaneous Fat/cytology , Thiazolidinediones/therapeutic use
13.
Pharmacogenomics ; 21(18): 1311-1329, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-948025

ABSTRACT

There is considerable variation in disease course among individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2. Many of them do not exhibit any symptoms, while some others proceed to develop COVID-19; however, severity of COVID-19 symptoms greatly differs among individuals. Focusing on the early events related to SARS-CoV-2 entry to cells through the ACE2 pathway, we describe how variability in (epi)genetic factors can conceivably explain variability in disease course. We specifically focus on variations in ACE2, TMPRSS2 and FURIN genes, as central components for SARS-CoV-2 infection, and on other molecules that modulate their expression such as CALM, ADAM-17, AR and ESRs. We propose a genetic classifier for predicting SARS-CoV-2 infectivity potential as a preliminary tool for identifying the at-risk-population. This tool can serve as a dynamic scaffold being updated and adapted to validated (epi)genetic data. Overall, the proposed approach holds potential for better personalization of COVID-19 handling.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Furin/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , ADAM17 Protein/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Epigenesis, Genetic/genetics , Humans , Monomeric Clathrin Assembly Proteins/genetics , Prognosis , Receptors, Androgen/genetics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
14.
Mol Cells ; 43(11): 953-963, 2020 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-926549

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is an infectious disease with multiple severe symptoms, such as fever over 37.5°C, cough, dyspnea, and pneumonia. In our research, microRNAs (miRNAs) binding to the genome sequences of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and SARS-CoV-2 were identified by bioinformatic tools. Five miRNAs (hsa-miR-15a-5p, hsa-miR-15b-5p, hsa-miR-195-5p, hsa-miR-16-5p, and hsa-miR-196a-1-3p) were found to commonly bind to SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2. We also identified miRNAs that bind to receptor proteins, such as ACE2, ADAM17, and TMPRSS2, which are important for understanding the infection mechanism of SARS-CoV-2. The expression patterns of those miRNAs were examined in hamster lung samples infected by SARS-CoV-2. Five miRNAs (hsa-miR-15b-5p, hsa-miR-195-5p, hsa-miR-221-3p, hsa-miR-140-3p, and hsa-miR-422a) showed differential expression patterns in lung tissues before and after infection. Especially, hsa-miR-15b-5p and hsa-miR-195-5p showed a large difference in expression, indicating that they may potentially be diagnostic biomarkers for SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Lung/virology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/physiology , SARS Virus/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , ADAM17 Protein/genetics , ADAM17 Protein/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Cells, Cultured , Computational Biology , Cricetinae , Gene Expression Regulation , Genetic Markers/genetics , Humans , Lung/physiology , MicroRNAs/genetics , Pandemics , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism
15.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 165: 108267, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-912128

ABSTRACT

Despite a large population and limited health infrastructure, the incidence and mortality of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been lower in South Asia than many regions. The underlying reasons and mechanisms for this relative protection are not established. However both genetic and environmental factors might play a role. Polymorphisms in ACE2 gene, ACE gene and in genes for some of the host cell proteases could affect the viral entry and replication. There is some evidence that HLA polymorphisms and several pathways involved in immune and inflammatory response could contribute to ethnic variation. Cross immunity because of past exposure to viral infections as well as malaria is likely to protect from the severe manifestations of disease. Role of BCG vaccination in trained innate immunity is recognised and could be a protective factor against COVID-19. There is limited evidence of the possibility of a less virulent viral strain circulating in South Asia. There is evidence from different parts of the world that temperature and humidity can influence viral survival as well as the host immune response. Finally implementation of early containment measures by some South Asian countries has also contributed to a less disease burden.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , ADAM17 Protein/genetics , Alleles , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Asia/epidemiology , BCG Vaccine , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Bangladesh/ethnology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Global Health , Humans , Immune System , Immunity, Innate , Incidence , India/epidemiology , India/ethnology , Inflammation , Mutation , Nepal/epidemiology , Nepal/ethnology , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pakistan/ethnology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Sri Lanka/epidemiology , Sri Lanka/ethnology
16.
Trends Genet ; 36(11): 813-815, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-704022

ABSTRACT

Based on a broad public database compilation, we support the hypothesis that germinal polymorphisms may regulate the expression of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) cellular target itself and proteases controlling the process of its shedding or, conversely, its internalization. Consequently, a genetic influence on individual susceptibility to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection is strongly suspected.


Subject(s)
ADAM17 Protein/genetics , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , ADAM17 Protein/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Susceptibility , Humans , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Virus Shedding
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