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1.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 142, 2022 Feb 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706234

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thrombotic microangiopathy has been invoked as one of the most important mechanisms of damage in COVID-19 patients. Protease ADAMTS13 is a marker of microangiopathy responsible for controlling von Willebrand multimers size. Von Willebrand factor/ADAMTS13 ratio has been found impaired in COVID-19 patients outside pregnancy. METHODS: We prospectively investigated 90 pregnant women admitted to two tertiary academic hospitals in Italy with a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Demographic, clinical information and routine laboratory data were collected at the hospital admission and until discharge. We investigated whether vonWillebrand /ADAMTS13 axis imbalance is a predictor of adverse outcomes. Logistic regression analysis, which controlled for potential confounders, was performed to evaluate the association between laboratory parameters and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: Most women (55.6%) were parae, with median gestational age at admission of 39 weeks. At hospital admission, 63.3% were asymptomatic for COVID-19 and 24.4% showed more than one sign or symptom of infection. Nulliparae with group O showed Willebrand / ADA MTS-13 ratios significantly lower than non-O, whereas in multiparae this difference was not observed. Logistic regression showed that ratio von Willebrand to ADAMTS13 was significantly and independently associated with preterm delivery (OR 1.9, 95%CI 1.1-3.5). CONCLUSION: This study shows an imbalance of vonWillebrand /ADAMTS13 axis in pregnant women with COVID-19, leading to a significantly higher and independent risk of preterm delivery. Monitoring these biomarkers might support decision making process to manage and follow-up pregnancies in this setting.


Subject(s)
ADAMTS13 Protein/blood , COVID-19/blood , Pregnancy Complications/blood , Premature Birth/blood , von Willebrand Factor/metabolism , Academic Medical Centers , Adolescent , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/etiology , Young Adult
2.
Shock ; 57(1): 95-105, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574295

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Endotheliopathy is a key element in COVID-19 pathophysiology, contributing to both morbidity and mortality. Biomarkers distinguishing different COVID-19 phenotypes from sepsis syndrome remain poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To characterize circulating biomarkers of endothelial damage in different COVID-19 clinical disease stages compared with sepsis syndrome and normal volunteers. METHODS: Patients with COVID-19 pneumonia (n = 49) were classified into moderate, severe, or critical (life-threatening) disease. Plasma samples were collected within 48 to 72 h of hospitalization to analyze endothelial activation markers, including soluble Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), von Willebrand Factor (VWF), A disintegrin-like and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type 1 motif no. 13 (ADAMTS-13) activity, thrombomodulin (TM), and soluble TNF receptor I (sTNFRI); heparan sulfate (HS) for endothelial glycocalyx degradation; C5b9 deposits on endothelial cells in culture and soluble C5b9 for complement activation; circulating dsDNA for neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) presence, and α2-antiplasmin and PAI-1 as parameters of fibrinolysis. We compared the level of each biomarker in all three COVID-19 groups and healthy donors as controls (n = 45). Results in critically ill COVID-19 patients were compared with other intensive care unit (ICU) patients with septic shock (SS, n = 14), sepsis (S, n = 7), and noninfectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome (NI-SIRS, n = 7). RESULTS: All analyzed biomarkers were increased in COVID-19 patients versus controls (P < 0.001), except for ADAMTS-13 activity that was normal in both groups. The increased expression of sVCAM-1, VWF, sTNFRI, and HS was related to COVID-19 disease severity (P < 0.05). Several differences in these parameters were found between ICU groups: SS patients showed significantly higher levels of VWF, TM, sTNFRI, and NETS compared with critical COVID-19 patients and ADAMTS-13 activity was significantly lover in SS, S, and NI-SIRS versus critical COVID-19 (P < 0.001). Furthermore, α2-antiplasmin activity was higher in critical COVID-19 versus NI-SIRS (P < 0.01) and SS (P < 0.001), whereas PAI-1 levels were significantly lower in COVID-19 patients compared with NI-SIRS, S, and SS patients (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients present with increased circulating endothelial stress products, complement activation, and fibrinolytic dysregulation, associated with disease severity. COVID-19 endotheliopathy differs from SS, in which endothelial damage is also a critical feature of pathobiology. These biomarkers could help to stratify the severity of COVID-19 disease and may also provide information to guide specific therapeutic strategies to mitigate endotheliopathy progression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , ADAMTS13 Protein/blood , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Complement Membrane Attack Complex/analysis , DNA/blood , Female , Heparitin Sulfate/blood , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1/blood , Prospective Studies , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I/blood , Sepsis/blood , Thrombomodulin/blood , Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1/blood , alpha-2-Antiplasmin/analysis , von Willebrand Factor/analysis
3.
Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis ; 32(7): 458-467, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470186

ABSTRACT

Early descriptions of COVID-19 associated coagulopathy identified it as a disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). However, recent studies have highlighted the potential role of endothelial cell injury in its pathogenesis, and other possible underlying mechanisms are being explored. This study aimed to analyse the coagulation parameters of critically and noncritically ill patients with COVID-19 bilateral pneumonia, determine if coagulation factors consumption occurs and explore other potential mechanisms of COVID-19 coagulopathy. Critically and noncritically ill patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19 bilateral pneumonia were recruited. For each patient, we performed basic coagulation tests, quantification of coagulation factors and physiological inhibitor proteins, an evaluation of the fibrinolytic system and determination of von Willebrand Factor (vWF) and ADAMTS13. Laboratory data were compared with clinical data and outcomes. The study involved 62 patients (31 ICU, 31 non-ICU). The coagulation parameters assessment demonstrated normal median prothrombin time (PT), international normalized ratio (INR) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) in our cohort and all coagulation factors were within normal range. PAI-1 median levels were elevated (median 52.6 ng/ml; IQR 37.2-85.7), as well as vWF activity (median 216%; IQR 196-439) and antigen (median 174%; IQR 153.5-174.1). A mild reduction of ADAMTS13 was observed in critically ill patients and nonsurvivors. We demonstrated an inverse correlation between ADAMTS13 levels and inflammatory markers, D-dimer and SOFA score in our cohort. Elevated vWF and PAI-1 levels, and a mild reduction of ADAMTS13 in the most severe patients, suggest that COVID-19 coagulopathy is an endotheliopathy that has shared features with thrombotic microangiopathy.


Subject(s)
ADAMTS13 Protein/deficiency , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/blood , ADAMTS13 Protein/blood , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
5.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5515-5522, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363690

ABSTRACT

Complement system hyperactivation has been proposed as a potential driver of adverse outcomes in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infected patients, given prior research of complement deposits found in tissue and blood samples, as well as evidence of clinical improvement with anticomplement therapy. Its role in augmenting thrombotic microangiopathy mediated organ damage has also been implicated in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed to examine associations between complement parameters and progression to severe COVID-19 illness, as well as correlations with other systems. Blood samples of COVID-19 patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) were analyzed for a wide panel of complement and inflammatory biomarkers. The primary outcome was COVID-19 severity at index ED visit, while the secondary outcome was peak disease severity over the course of illness. Fifty-two COVID-19 patients were enrolled. C3a (p = 0.018), C3a/C3 ratio (p = 0.002), and sC5b-9/C3 ratio (p = 0.021) were significantly elevated in with severe disease at ED presentation. Over the course of illness, C3a (p = 0.028) and C3a/C3 ratio (p = 0.003) were highest in the moderate severity group. In multivariate regression controlled for confounders, complement hyperactivation failed to predict progression to severe disease. C3a, C3a/C3 ratio, and sC5b-9/C3 ratio were correlated positively with numerous inflammatory biomarkers, fibrinogen, and VWF:Ag, and negatively with plasminogen and ADAMTS13 activity. We found evidence of complement hyperactivation in COVID-19, associated with hyperinflammation and thrombotic microangiopathy. Complement inhibition should be further investigated for potential benefit in patients displaying a hyperinflammatory and microangiopathic phenotype.


Subject(s)
ADAMTS13 Protein/blood , COVID-19/blood , Complement C3/analysis , Complement Membrane Attack Complex/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Ohio , Patient Admission , Severity of Illness Index
6.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5515-5522, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1235670

ABSTRACT

Complement system hyperactivation has been proposed as a potential driver of adverse outcomes in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infected patients, given prior research of complement deposits found in tissue and blood samples, as well as evidence of clinical improvement with anticomplement therapy. Its role in augmenting thrombotic microangiopathy mediated organ damage has also been implicated in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed to examine associations between complement parameters and progression to severe COVID-19 illness, as well as correlations with other systems. Blood samples of COVID-19 patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) were analyzed for a wide panel of complement and inflammatory biomarkers. The primary outcome was COVID-19 severity at index ED visit, while the secondary outcome was peak disease severity over the course of illness. Fifty-two COVID-19 patients were enrolled. C3a (p = 0.018), C3a/C3 ratio (p = 0.002), and sC5b-9/C3 ratio (p = 0.021) were significantly elevated in with severe disease at ED presentation. Over the course of illness, C3a (p = 0.028) and C3a/C3 ratio (p = 0.003) were highest in the moderate severity group. In multivariate regression controlled for confounders, complement hyperactivation failed to predict progression to severe disease. C3a, C3a/C3 ratio, and sC5b-9/C3 ratio were correlated positively with numerous inflammatory biomarkers, fibrinogen, and VWF:Ag, and negatively with plasminogen and ADAMTS13 activity. We found evidence of complement hyperactivation in COVID-19, associated with hyperinflammation and thrombotic microangiopathy. Complement inhibition should be further investigated for potential benefit in patients displaying a hyperinflammatory and microangiopathic phenotype.


Subject(s)
ADAMTS13 Protein/blood , COVID-19/blood , Complement C3/analysis , Complement Membrane Attack Complex/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Ohio , Patient Admission , Severity of Illness Index
7.
Am J Hematol ; 96(8): 1049-1055, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227715

ABSTRACT

The metalloproteinase ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13), also known as VWF (von Willebrand factor) protease, may be assessed in a vast array of clinical conditions. Notably, a severe deficiency of ADAMTS13 characterizes TTP (thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura), a rare but potentially fatal disorder associated with thrombosis due to accumulation of prothrombotic ultra-large VWF multimers. Although prompt identification/exclusion of TTP can be facilitated by rapid ADAMTS13 testing, the most commonly utilized assays are based on ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay) and require long turnaround time and have relatively limited throughput. Nevertheless, several rapid ADAMTS13 assays are now available, at least in select geographies. The current mini-review discusses these issues, as well as the potential utility of ADAMTS13 testing in a range of other conditions, including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).


Subject(s)
ADAMTS13 Protein/blood , COVID-19/complications , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , ADAMTS13 Protein/deficiency , ADAMTS13 Protein/immunology , Autoantibodies/blood , Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer , Humans , Luminescent Measurements , Male , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pre-Eclampsia/diagnosis , Pre-Eclampsia/enzymology , Predictive Value of Tests , Pregnancy , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/blood , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/enzymology , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/etiology , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Sensitivity and Specificity , von Willebrand Diseases/diagnosis , von Willebrand Diseases/enzymology , von Willebrand Factor/metabolism
8.
Angiogenesis ; 24(3): 407-411, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222775

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Microthrombosis is a hallmark of COVID-19. We previously described von willebrand factor (VWF) and their high molecular weight multimers (HMWMs) as potential trigger of microthrombosis. OBJECTIVES: Investigate VWF activity with collagen-binding assay and ADAMTS13 in COVID-19. METHODS AND RESULTS: Our study enrolled 77 hospitalized COVID-19 patients including 37 suffering from a non-critical form and 40 with critical form. Plasma levels of VWF collagen-binding ability (VWF:CB) and ADAMTS13 activity (ADAMTS13:Act) were measured in the first 48 hours following admission. VWF:CB was increased in critical (631% IQR [460-704]) patients compared to non-critical patients (259% [235-330], p < 0.005). VWF:CB was significantly associated (r = 0.564, p < 0.001) with HMWMs. Moreover, median ADAMTS13:Act was lower in critical (64.8 IU/dL IQR 50.0-77.7) than non-critical patients (85.0 IU/dL IQR 75.8-94.7, p < 0.001), even if no patients displayed majors deficits. VWF:Ag-to-ADAMTS13:Act ratio was highly associated with VWF:CB (r = 0.916, p < 0.001). Moreover, VWF:CB level was highly predictive of COVID-19 in-hospital mortality as shown by the ROC curve analysis (AUC = 0.92, p < 0.0001) in which we identified a VWF:CB cut-off of 446% as providing the best predictor sensitivity-specificity balance. We confirmed this cut-off thanks to a Kaplan-Meier estimator analysis (log-rank p < 0.001) and a Cox-proportional Hazard model (HR = 49.1, 95% CI 1.81-1328.2, p = 0.021) adjusted on, BMI, C-reactive protein, and D-dimer levels. CONCLUSION: VWF:CB levels could summarize both VWF increased levels and hyper-reactivity subsequent to ADAMTS13 overflow and, therefore, be a valuable and easy to perform clinical biomarker of microthrombosis and COVID-19 severity.


Subject(s)
ADAMTS13 Protein/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , von Willebrand Factor/metabolism , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Collagen/metabolism , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Paris/epidemiology , Proportional Hazards Models , Protein Binding , Severity of Illness Index
9.
Semin Thromb Hemost ; 47(4): 400-418, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203469

ABSTRACT

von Willebrand factor (VWF) is a large adhesive multimeric protein involved in hemostasis. The larger the size (or number of VWF multimers), the greater the functionality of the protein. A deficiency or defect of VWF can lead to von Willebrand disease (VWD) and cause bleeding. Conversely, an increase in VWF may create an environment that promotes thrombosis. ADAMS-13 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13), sometimes called VWF-cleaving protease, is primarily responsible for controlling the size of VWF. The most severe deficiency (<10% of normal levels) of ADAMTS-13 arises in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, a condition characterized by the presence of ultralarge VWF and clinically resulting in enhanced risk of thrombosis. However, ADAMTS-13 deficiency may result from other pathological processes. Of relevance is the recent finding that COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) is associated with both increased levels and activity of VWF as well as generally decreased (or occasionally normal) activity levels of ADAMTS-13. Thus, in COVID-19 there is an alteration in the VWF/ADAMTS-13 axis, most often described by increased VWF/ADAMTS-13 ratio (or reduced ADAMTS-13/VWF ratio). COVID-19 is also associated with high prothrombotic risk. Thus, the imbalance of VWF and ADAMTS-13 in COVID-19 may be providing a milieu that promotes (micro)thrombosis, in a clinical picture resembling a secondary thrombotic microangiopathy in some patients. This review therefore assesses the literature on VWF, ADAMTS-13, and COVID-19. Whenever reported in COVID-19, VWF has always been identified as raised (compared with normal reference ranges or control populations). Reports have included VWF level (i.e., VWF antigen) and in some cases one or more VWF "activity" (e.g., collagen binding; platelet glycoprotein Ib [GPIb] binding, using ristocetin cofactor or more modern versions including VWF:GPIbR [recombinant] and VWF:GPIbM [mutant]). Whenever reported, ADAMTS-13 has been reported as "normal" or reduced; however, it should be recognized that "normal" levels may still identify a relative reduction in individual cases. Some reports also discuss the raised VWF/ADAMTS-13 (or reduced ADAMTS-13/VWF) ratio, but very few provide actual numerical data.


Subject(s)
ADAMTS13 Protein/blood , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Thrombosis , von Willebrand Factor/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/mortality
10.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 52(2): 504-507, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202813

ABSTRACT

Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) which can cause significant mortality is a thrombotic microangiopathy due to deficiency of VWF cleaving protease ADAMTS13 and as per medical literature there are examples that TTP can be caused by COVID 19 infection. A 35 years old female after admission with right sided weakness and slurring of speech was found to be COVID positive and diagnosed as a case of TTP. Patient had absent ADAMTS13 level on day 1. Treatment was started with therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) later injection Vincristine and Rituximab was given after 4th TPE as it was suspected as refractory case. Finally patient received 16 TPE procedures with cryo poor plasma as exchange fluid and gradually her platelet count started to maintain normal and she was discharged. Specific management and such association of this type of cases need to be studied more judiciously.


Subject(s)
ADAMTS13 Protein , COVID-19 , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic , Rituximab/administration & dosage , Vincristine/administration & dosage , ADAMTS13 Protein/blood , ADAMTS13 Protein/deficiency , Adult , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Plasma Exchange/methods , Platelet Count/methods , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/blood , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/diagnosis , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/etiology , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Treatment Outcome
11.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 52(2): 497-503, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188149

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) increases thrombotic risk. The mechanisms that lead to this prothrombotic state are not well established. The main aim was to evaluate the von Willebrand factor (VWF) antigen and plasma ADAMTS13 activity as endothelial injury markers in COVID-19. We present a prospective study in COVID-19 patients recruited in our institution. VWF antigen, ADAMTS13 activity, D-dimer, and fibrinogen were measured during the first week once COVID-19 was diagnosed. Fifty COVID-19 inpatients [44% in the intensive care unit (ICU)] and 102 COVID-19 outpatients were enrolled. Thirty age and gender matched non-COVID-19 ward inpatients and 30 non-COVID-19 healthy individuals were recruited. The COVID-19 inpatients had higher D-dimer, fibrinogen, and VWF antigen levels and a lower ADAMTS13 activity compared with the COVID-19 outpatients (p < 0.05). ICU patients had higher D-dimer and VWF antigen levels compared with the ward patients and the lowest ADAMTS13 activity (p < 0.05). An imbalance in VWF antigen/ADAMTS13 ratio was observed in COVID-19, reaching the highest in ICU patients. In contrast to other ward non-COVID-19 inpatients, a significative reduction in ADAMTS13 activity was observed in all COVID-19 patients. There is an increase in VWF antigen and an ADAMTS13 activity reduction in COVID-19 related to disease severity and could predict poor clinical outcomes. The ADAMTS13 activity reduction could be a marker associated with COVID-19 compared to other non-critical medical conditions.


Subject(s)
ADAMTS13 Protein/blood , COVID-19 , Endothelium, Vascular , Risk Assessment , Thrombophilia , von Willebrand Factor/analysis , Aged , Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , Biomarkers/analysis , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Correlation of Data , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Fibrinogen/analysis , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment/methods , Risk Assessment/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Spain/epidemiology , Thrombophilia/blood , Thrombophilia/diagnosis , Thrombophilia/virology
12.
Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis ; 32(4): 290-293, 2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066463

ABSTRACT

Respiratory failure in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients is one of the most frequent causes for referral to the ICU. A significant percentage of these patients does not survive the infection due to thromboembolic complications. Furthermore, the vascular system seems also to be involved in the pathogenesis. To investigate the role of hemostasis and endothelium on the outcome of COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU. Blood was drawn from 16 ICU COVID-19 patients for hemostatic analysis. Patients were followed-up till discharge (n = 11) or death (n = 5). Parameters related to both coagulation and fibrinolysis, though disturbed, were not associated with mortality. Contrarily, activated Von Willebrand factor was increased and ADAMTS13 levels were decreased by two-fold in nonsurvivors compared with survivors. Our data established the involvement of the Von Willebrand factor-ADAMTS13 axis in the COVID-19 pathogenesis, thereby demonstrating that these plasma proteins seem to be strong predictors for ICU mortality.


Subject(s)
ADAMTS13 Protein/blood , COVID-19/blood , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , von Willebrand Factor/analysis , ADAMTS13 Protein/deficiency , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers , Blood Proteins/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Cross-Sectional Studies , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Extracorporeal Circulation , Female , Fibrinolysin/biosynthesis , Fibrinolysis , Hemostasis , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thrombin/biosynthesis
13.
Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis ; 32(4): 285-289, 2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066462

ABSTRACT

Patients with novel coronavirus pneumonia show increased thrombotic risk. Although hemostatic alterations have been described in novel coronavirus pneumonia patients, case-control studies of von Willebrand factor (VWF), factor VIII (FVIII), and a disintegrin-like and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type I motif, member 13 (ADAMTS13) are lacking. VWF, ADAMTS13, FVIII, d-dimer, C-reactive protein, and routine blood cells and chemistry were measured in 10 novel coronavirus pneumonia patients and 10 non-novel coronavirus pneumonia controls. Hemostatic factors were measured less than 48 h of hospital admission in patients without invasive ventilation. d-Dimer, C-reactive protein, and fibrinogen concentrations, high in both groups, did not differ significantly in novel coronavirus pneumonia vs. non-novel coronavirus pneumonia patients. Median VWF-antigen (324 vs. 153 IU/dl, P < 0.0001), VWF-Rco (342 vs. 133 IU/dl, P < 0.001), and FVIII-activity levels (203 vs. 123 IU/dl, P < 0.0001) were significantly higher in novel coronavirus pneumonia cases vs. controls ADAMTS13-activity was normal in both groups. Coronavirus pneumonia cases vs. non-novel coronavirus pneumonia controls showed marked VWF/FVIII elevation, suggesting specific virus-induced endothelial activation causing VWF/FVIII hypersecretion, which may represent a therapeutic target in novel coronavirus pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Factor VIII/analysis , Pneumonia/blood , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thrombophilia/etiology , von Willebrand Factor/analysis , ADAMTS13 Protein/blood , Aged , Biomarkers , Blood Cell Count , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/complications , Case-Control Studies , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Fibrinogen/analysis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/virology , Thrombophilia/blood
14.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 93: 107397, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065226

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Thrombotic microangiopathies are a group of disorders that are mainly related to endothelial dysfunction. This category of endothelial dysfunction results of several imbalances between platelets, endothelium and immune system, also cytokine production. AIM OF THIS STUDY: To report cases with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and COVID-19 and review COVID-19 endothelial dysfunction literature. METHODS: Primary laboratory data, peripheral blood smear, ADAMTS13 antigen activity level, and antibody ordered for each of these four patients. Treatments for COVID-19 administered for all patients. Traditional treatments for TTP also were administered. RESULTS: There were numerous schistocytes (more than 5%) in peripheral blood smears for each patient. ADAMTS13 antigen activity level was below 10%, and ADAMTS13 antibody was elevated for each patient. COVID-19 PCR was positive for all patients, and CT-Scans were indicative of the involvement of COVID-19. CONCLUSION: In this case series, we reported four COVID-19 patients who presented with signs and symptoms of anemia and thrombocytopenia, resulting in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/virology , ADAMTS13 Protein/blood , Adult , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/blood , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/epidemiology , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
16.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 43 Suppl 1: 129-136, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-998961

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Severe COVID-19 is often compounded by a prothrombotic state that is associated with poor outcomes. In this investigation, we aimed to evaluate ADAMTS13 activity, von Willebrand factor level (VWF:Ag), and the corresponding ADAMTS13 activity/VWF:Ag ratio, in patients with COVID-19 and for associations with disease progression and acute kidney injury (AKI). METHODS: Patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with COVID-19 were enrolled in this prospective, observational study. ADAMTS13 activity and VWF:Ag were measured at index ED visit. The primary endpoint was severe AKI defined by KDIGO stage 2 + 3 criteria, while the secondary endpoint was peak 30-day COVID-19 severity. RESULTS: A total of 52 adult COVID-19 patients were enrolled. Overall, we observed that 23.1% of the cohort had a relative deficiency in ADAMTS13 activity, while 80.8% had elevated VWF:Ag. The ADAMTS13 activity/VWF:Ag ratio was significantly lower in patients with severe AKI (P = .002) and those who developed the severe form of COVID-19 (P = .020). The ADAMTS13 activity/VWF:Ag ratio was negatively correlated with age (P < .001) and LDH (P < .001), while positively correlated with hemoglobin (P = .041). After controlling for confounders, a one-unit increase in ADAMTS13/VWF:Ag ratio was associated with 20% decreased odds of severe AKI. CONCLUSION: A low ADAMTS13 activity:VWF:Ag ratio at ED presentation is associated with progression to severe COVID-19 disease and severe AKI, with a pattern suggestive of a secondary microangiopathy. Further interventional studies should be conducted to assess the restoration of ADAMTS13:VWF:Ag ratio in hospitalized patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
ADAMTS13 Protein/blood , Acute Kidney Injury/blood , COVID-19/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/etiology , von Willebrand Factor/analysis , ADAMTS13 Protein/deficiency , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombophilia/etiology
17.
J Thromb Haemost ; 19(2): 513-521, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-991626

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by an increased risk of thromboembolic events, with evidence of microthrombosis in the lungs of deceased patients. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the mechanism of microthrombosis in COVID-19 progression. PATIENTS/METHODS: We assessed von Willebrand factor (VWF) antigen (VWF:Ag), VWF ristocetin-cofactor (VWF:RCo), VWF multimers, VWF propeptide (VWFpp), and ADAMTS13 activity in a cross-sectional study of 50 patients stratified according to their admission to three different intensity of care units: low (requiring high-flow nasal cannula oxygenation, n = 14), intermediate (requiring continuous positive airway pressure devices, n = 17), and high (requiring mechanical ventilation, n = 19). RESULTS: Median VWF:Ag, VWF:RCo, and VWFpp levels were markedly elevated in COVID-19 patients and increased with intensity of care, with VWF:Ag being 268, 386, and 476 IU/dL; VWF:RCo 216, 334, and 388 IU/dL; and VWFpp 156, 172, and 192 IU/dL in patients at low, intermediate, and high intensity of care, respectively. Conversely, the high-to-low molecular-weight VWF multimers ratios progressively decreased with increasing intensity of care, as well as median ADAMTS13 activity levels, which ranged from 82 IU/dL for patients at low intensity of care to 62 and 55 IU/dL for those at intermediate and high intensity of care. CONCLUSIONS: We found a significant alteration of the VWF-ADAMTS13 axis in COVID-19 patients, with an elevated VWF:Ag to ADAMTS13 activity ratio that was strongly associated with disease severity. Such an imbalance enhances the hypercoagulable state of COVID-19 patients and their risk of microthrombosis.


Subject(s)
ADAMTS13 Protein/blood , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/blood , Thrombosis/blood , von Willebrand Factor/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Thrombosis/etiology
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