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1.
Cell Calcium ; 101: 102524, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914206

ABSTRACT

A recent publication proposes that T cell receptor activation elicits formation of the Ca2+ releasing messenger NAADP from NAADPH, catalysed by the NADPH oxidase DUOX. This is in contrast to the hitherto prevailing view that CD38 is critical for NAADP formation. Is it time to reassess the role of CD38?


Subject(s)
Calcium , Membrane Glycoproteins , ADP-ribosyl Cyclase 1/metabolism , Calcium/metabolism , Calcium Signaling , Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , NADP/metabolism , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell
2.
Biochem J ; 478(23): 4071-4092, 2021 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556088

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic reminds us that in spite of the scientific progress in the past century, there is a lack of general antiviral strategies. In analogy to broad-spectrum antibiotics as antibacterial agents, developing broad spectrum antiviral agents would buy us time for the development of vaccines and treatments for future viral infections. In addition to targeting viral factors, a possible strategy is to understand host immune defense mechanisms and develop methods to boost the antiviral immune response. Here we summarize the role of NAD+-consuming enzymes in the immune defense against viral infections, with the hope that a better understanding of this process could help to develop better antiviral therapeutics targeting these enzymes. These NAD+-consuming enzymes include PARPs, sirtuins, CD38, and SARM1. Among these, the antiviral function of PARPs is particularly important and will be a focus of this review. Interestingly, NAD+ biosynthetic enzymes are also implicated in immune responses. In addition, many viruses, including SARS-CoV-2 contain a macrodomain-containing protein (NSP3 in SARS-CoV-2), which serves to counteract the antiviral function of host PARPs. Therefore, NAD+ and NAD+-consuming enzymes play crucial roles in immune responses against viral infections and detailed mechanistic understandings in the future will likely facilitate the development of general antiviral strategies.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Immunity, Innate , NAD/metabolism , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , ADP-ribosyl Cyclase 1/metabolism , Armadillo Domain Proteins/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Cytoskeletal Proteins/metabolism , Humans , NAD/immunology , Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1/metabolism , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2 , Sirtuins/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Virus Diseases/immunology
3.
Physiol Rev ; 101(4): 1457-1486, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443666

ABSTRACT

This medical review addresses the hypothesis that CD38/NADase is at the center of a functional axis (i.e., intracellular Ca2+ mobilization/IFNγ response/reactive oxygen species burst) driven by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, as already verified in respiratory syncytial virus pathology and CD38 activity in other cellular settings. Key features of the hypothesis are that 1) the substrates of CD38 (e.g., NAD+ and NADP+) are depleted by viral-induced metabolic changes; 2) the products of the enzymatic activity of CD38 [e.g., cyclic adenosine diphosphate-ribose (ADPR)/ADPR/nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate] and related enzymes [e.g., poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase, Sirtuins, and ADP-ribosyl hydrolase] are involved in the anti-viral and proinflammatory response that favors the onset of lung immunopathology (e.g., cytokine storm and organ fibrosis); and 3) the pathological changes induced by this kinetic mechanism may be reduced by distinct modulators of the CD38/NAD+ axis (e.g., CD38 blockers, NAD+ suppliers, among others). This view is supported by arrays of associative basic and applied research data that are herein discussed and integrated with conclusions reported by others in the field of inflammatory, immune, tumor, and viral diseases.


Subject(s)
ADP-ribosyl Cyclase 1/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , ADP-ribosyl Cyclase 1/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , Humans , Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics
4.
Physiol Rev ; 102(1): 339-341, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398740

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, efforts have been made worldwide to develop effective therapies to address the devastating immune-mediated effects of SARS-CoV-2. With the exception of monoclonal antibody-mediated therapeutics and preventive approaches such as mass immunization, most experimental or repurposed drugs have failed in large randomized clinical trials (https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/therapeutics-and-covid-19-living-guideline). The worldwide spread of SARS-CoV-2 virus revealed specific susceptibilities to the virus among the elderly and individuals with age-related syndromes. These populations were more likely to experience a hyperimmune response characterized by a treatment-resistant acute lung pathology accompanied by multiple organ failure. These observations underscore the interplay between the virus, the biology of aging, and outcomes observed in the most severe cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The ectoenzyme CD38 has been implicated in the process of "inflammaging" in aged tissues. In a current publication, Horenstein et al. present evidence to support the hypothesis that CD38 plays a central role in altered immunometabolism resulting from COVID-19 infection. The authors discuss a critical but underappreciated trifecta of CD38-mediated NAD+ metabolism, aging, and COVID-19 immune response and speculate that the CD38/NAD+ axis is a promising therapeutic target for this disease.


Subject(s)
ADP-ribosyl Cyclase 1/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , ADP-ribosyl Cyclase 1/genetics , Aging , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , Humans , Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics , NAD/metabolism
5.
Int Rev Cell Mol Biol ; 363: 203-269, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1212320

ABSTRACT

An increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) regulates a plethora of functions in the cardiovascular (CV) system, including contraction in cardiomyocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), and angiogenesis in vascular endothelial cells and endothelial colony forming cells. The sarco/endoplasmic reticulum (SR/ER) represents the largest endogenous Ca2+ store, which releases Ca2+ through ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and/or inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (InsP3Rs) upon extracellular stimulation. The acidic vesicles of the endolysosomal (EL) compartment represent an additional endogenous Ca2+ store, which is targeted by several second messengers, including nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) and phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate [PI(3,5)P2], and may release intraluminal Ca2+ through multiple Ca2+ permeable channels, including two-pore channels 1 and 2 (TPC1-2) and Transient Receptor Potential Mucolipin 1 (TRPML1). Herein, we discuss the emerging, pathophysiological role of EL Ca2+ signaling in the CV system. We describe the role of cardiac TPCs in ß-adrenoceptor stimulation, arrhythmia, hypertrophy, and ischemia-reperfusion injury. We then illustrate the role of EL Ca2+ signaling in VSMCs, where TPCs promote vasoconstriction and contribute to pulmonary artery hypertension and atherosclerosis, whereas TRPML1 sustains vasodilation and is also involved in atherosclerosis. Subsequently, we describe the mechanisms whereby endothelial TPCs promote vasodilation, contribute to neurovascular coupling in the brain and stimulate angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. Finally, we discuss about the possibility to target TPCs, which are likely to mediate CV cell infection by the Severe Acute Respiratory Disease-Coronavirus-2, with Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs to alleviate the detrimental effects of Coronavirus Disease-19 on the CV system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Calcium Signaling/physiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Cardiovascular System/metabolism , Lysosomes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , ADP-ribosyl Cyclase 1/metabolism , Animals , Brain/blood supply , Brain/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Calcium Channels/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Endoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Models, Cardiovascular , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , NADP/analogs & derivatives , NADP/metabolism , Receptors, Adrenergic, beta/metabolism , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Transient Receptor Potential Channels/metabolism
6.
Physiol Rev ; 101(4): 1457-1486, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159738

ABSTRACT

This medical review addresses the hypothesis that CD38/NADase is at the center of a functional axis (i.e., intracellular Ca2+ mobilization/IFNγ response/reactive oxygen species burst) driven by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, as already verified in respiratory syncytial virus pathology and CD38 activity in other cellular settings. Key features of the hypothesis are that 1) the substrates of CD38 (e.g., NAD+ and NADP+) are depleted by viral-induced metabolic changes; 2) the products of the enzymatic activity of CD38 [e.g., cyclic adenosine diphosphate-ribose (ADPR)/ADPR/nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate] and related enzymes [e.g., poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase, Sirtuins, and ADP-ribosyl hydrolase] are involved in the anti-viral and proinflammatory response that favors the onset of lung immunopathology (e.g., cytokine storm and organ fibrosis); and 3) the pathological changes induced by this kinetic mechanism may be reduced by distinct modulators of the CD38/NAD+ axis (e.g., CD38 blockers, NAD+ suppliers, among others). This view is supported by arrays of associative basic and applied research data that are herein discussed and integrated with conclusions reported by others in the field of inflammatory, immune, tumor, and viral diseases.


Subject(s)
ADP-ribosyl Cyclase 1/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , ADP-ribosyl Cyclase 1/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , Humans , Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics
7.
Front Immunol ; 11: 596553, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-979020

ABSTRACT

The severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection has been related to uncontrolled inflammatory innate responses and impaired adaptive immune responses mostly due to exhausted T lymphocytes and lymphopenia. In this work we have characterized the nature of the lymphopenia and demonstrate a set of factors that hinder the effective control of virus infection and the activation and arming of effector cytotoxic T CD8 cells and showing signatures defining a high-risk population. We performed immune profiling of the T helper (Th) CD4+ and T CD8+ cell compartments in peripheral blood of 144 COVID-19 patients using multiparametric flow cytometry analysis. On the one hand, there was a consistent lymphopenia with an overrepresentation of non-functional T cells, with an increased percentage of naive Th cells (CD45RA+, CXCR3-, CCR4-, CCR6-, CCR10-) and persistently low frequency of markers associated with Th1, Th17, and Th1/Th17 memory-effector T cells compared to healthy donors. On the other hand, the most profound alteration affected the Th1 subset, which may explain the poor T cells responses and the persistent blood virus load. Finally, the decrease in Th1 cells may also explain the low frequency of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells that express the HLA-DR and CD38 activation markers observed in numerous patients who showed minimal or no lymphocyte activation response. We also identified the percentage of HLA-DR+CD4+ T cells, PD-1+CD+4/CD8+ T cells in blood, and the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio as useful factors for predicting critical illness and fatal outcome in patients with confirmed COVID-19.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , Th1 Cells/immunology , ADP-ribosyl Cyclase 1/immunology , ADP-ribosyl Cyclase 1/metabolism , Aged , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cell Differentiation/immunology , Female , HLA-DR Antigens/immunology , HLA-DR Antigens/metabolism , Humans , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/metabolism , Th1 Cells/metabolism , Th17 Cells/immunology , Th17 Cells/metabolism
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